Higher School Certificate (New South Wales)
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The Higher School Certificate (HSC) is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete senior high school level studies (Years 11 and 12 or equivalent) in New South Wales, Australia. It was first introduced in 1967, with the last major revision coming into effect in 2001. It is currently developed and managed by the NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA).
Patterns of studyEdit
The majority of students undertake HSC-related courses over the final two years of high school, though it is possible to undertake different study patterns over different time periods or through different teaching organisations.
There are a great number of possible courses students can study, totalling over 100 (including languages), in a wide range of subject areas. However, most schools offer students a smaller selection from which they must choose. The only compulsory subject area is English, with one of English Advanced, English Standard, English as a Second Language or English Life Skills required for the award of the HSC. (English Extension 1 and English Extension 2 are also available for English Advanced students). Individual schools may require their students to undertake certain courses, as is the case with Studies of Religion in many religious schools or Agriculture in agricultural schools. However, these are internal school requirements separate from HSC requirements.
Most courses offered comprise a preliminary (Year 11) component and an HSC (Year 12) component. As a general rule the preliminary component must be completed prior to the HSC component. Furthermore, each subject is designated as either one or two "units". Each unit involves approximately two hours of formal tuition per week, and contributes a maximum mark of 50. The majority of courses are two unit courses, and thus students receive marks out of 100 in these courses. 10 units is the minimum number of units required, however students can attempt more should they choose. If they do, their final ATAR mark is calculated using their best 2 units of English and 8 best other units. Extension courses, each with a value of one unit, may be included in the study program, meaning that a certain subject area may have up to four units, e.g. English (Advanced) (two units) plus English Extension 1 and English Extension 2 (each worth one unit).
To be eligible for the award of the HSC a student must have satisfied the requirements in at least twelve preliminary level units, and at least ten HSC level units, with the additional requirements that:
- at least two must be English units;
- at least six units must be Board-developed courses;
- at least three courses are of two unit or greater value.
- at least four subjects have been completed.
- no more than six units of science are studied.
Further restrictions may apply in certain subject areas.
Note that these requirements are for the award of the HSC. Further requirements regarding study patterns apply if the student wishes to apply for a separate Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) based on their HSC performance.
There are two main types of courses available in the HSC: Board Developed Courses and Board Endorsed Courses. Board Developed Courses have a syllabus and final exam set by the Board of Studies, and generally may be included in the calculation of the ATAR. Board Endorsed Courses are developed by the school, and may vary from school to school in regards to content and assessment.
Being the only mandatory course for HSC, for English, students must choose between one of the English courses available to study.
- English (Standard)
- English (Advanced)
- English (Extension 1) (only available to students studying English (Advanced))
- English (Extension 2) (only available to students studying English (Advanced) and English (Extension 1))
- English as a Second Language (only available to eligible students)
- English Studies (As of 2018, English Studies will contribute to an ATAR)
The following is a list of elective Board Developed Courses currently available to students.
HSIE (Human Society and Its Environment):
- Aboriginal Studies
- Ancient History
- Business Studies
- History Extension (only available to students studying Ancient History and/or Modern History)
- Legal Studies
- Modern History
- Society and Culture
- Studies of Religion I
- Studies of Religion II
- Mathematics Standard 1 (formerly Mathematics General 1, which does not count towards the ATAR calculation)
- Mathematics Standard 2 (formerly Mathematics General 2)
- Mathematics Advanced (formerly Mathematics)
- Mathematics (Extension 1) (only available to students studying Mathematics Advanced)
- Mathematics (Extension 2) (only available to students studying Mathematics Advanced and Mathematics (Extension 1); only available in Year 12)
- Earth and Environmental Science
- Investigating Science (formerly Senior Science)
- Design and Technology
- Engineering Studies
- Food Technology
- Industrial Technology
- Information Processes and Technology
- Software Design and Development
- Textiles and Design
- Music 1
- Music 2
- Music Extension (only available to students studying Music 2)
- Visual Arts
PDHPE (Personal Development, Health and Physical Education):
- Community and Family Studies
Board Endorsed Courses:
- Computing Applications
- Exploring Early Childhood
- Marine Studies
- Photography, Video and Digital Imaging
- Sport, Lifestyle and Recreation Activities
- Visual Design
- Work Studies
Languages are also offered as Beginners, Continuers, Extension, Background Speakers and recently, Heritage courses. Only one course of any one language may be taken, with the exception of Extension, available only to students taking the Continuers course. Due to the large number of language courses, they have been listed separately. The letters B (beginners), C (continuers), E (extension), BS (background speakers), H (heritage) indicate which courses are available for study.
- Arabic B, C, E
- Armenian C
- Chinese B, C, E, BS, H
- Classical Greek C, E
- Classical Hebrew C, E
- Croatian C
- Dutch C
- Filipino C
- French B, C, E
- German B, C, E
- Hindi C
- Hungarian C
- Indonesian B, C, E, BS, H
- Italian B, C, E
- Japanese B, C, E, BS, H
- Khmer C
- Korean C, BS, H
- Latin C, E
- Macedonian C
- Malay BS
- Maltese C
- Modern Greek B, C, E
- Modern Hebrew C
- Persian BS
- Polish C
- Portuguese C
- Russian BS
- Serbian C
- Spanish B, C, E
- Swedish C
- Tamil C
- Turkish C
- Ukrainian C
- Vietnamese C
In addition, some VET (Vocational Education and Training) courses are offered. In addition to HSC credit, completion of these courses may earn an industry Certificate II. Ten of these are Board Developed Courses (BDC)
- Accounting (BDC)
- Animal Studies
- Business Services (BDC)
- Child Care
- Construction (BDC)
- Entertainment Industry (BDC)
- Hospitality (BDC)
- Information and Digital Technology (BDC)
- Metal and Engineering (BDC)
- Primary Industries (BDC)
- Sport, Fitness and Recreation
- Retail Services (BDC)
- Tourism (BDC)
A student's final mark in each subject is determined by a combination of in-school assessments conducted throughout the HSC component of a course, and externally administered final exam(s) typically held in October or November of that year. In addition to comprising half of a student's final assessment result in a subject, external exam results are also used to statistically moderate in-school assessment results between different schools.
These exams are administered by NESA, which is responsible for the overall oversight of the HSC.
Upon successful completion of a satisfactory pattern of study students are awarded the Higher School Certificate by way of a testamur.
Whenever a student has completed a course they also receive feedback regarding their results in that course, which typically includes exam results, school assessment results and the performance band in which their performance lies.
Students who achieve excellent results of over 90 in 10 units of study in the HSC are awarded the Premier's Award by the New South Wales government. The most outstanding of these students may also be awarded the Australian Student Prize by the Commonwealth government. The T G Room award of the Mathematical Association of New South Wales is given to the student with the best score in the highest-level HSC mathematics examination.
HSC results may also be used to calculate the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR). Similar ranking processes used previously were called the UAI (Universities Admission Index) and the TER (Tertiary Entrance Rank). The ATAR is a separate ranking calculated by another body, the Universities Admissions Centre (UAC), and is used for determining university entrance. Since 1998 the university entrance rank has been issued separately from the HSC results in order to distinguish the two.
The vocational equivalent to Year 12 will change from certificate II in 2015 to certificate III in 2020 by the Council of Australian Governments, mainly because Year 12 qualification has minimal hours greater than those of a level II qualification, where they correspond more closely to the hours of level III qualification. Although the completion of high school would lead to better labour market results, it is also established that an scholarly pathway is not always suited for all and that some are unaccustomed to the institutionalised nature of schools. This has led to an understanding that there should be alternatives to Year 12 completion. As such, the idea of a vocational equivalent to Year 12 is a response to this. The construct of a vocational equivalent to completing a senior school certificate (denoted by the completion of Year 12) has been an attribute of government policy since the late 1990s, with a declaration stating:
- "Changing places". Sydney: Sydney Morning Herald. 2004-05-12. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- The T G Room Award Archived 2012-08-04 at Archive.today, Mathematical Association of New South Wales, retrieved 2010-06-01.
- Executive summary - The vocational equivalent to Year 12 This article contains quotations from this source, which is available under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Australia license.
- Assessing the value of additional years of schooling for the non academically inclined by Alfred Dockery, Curtin University of Technology
- Ministerial Council on Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs 1999, Goal 3.6