HiWish is a program created by NASA so that anyone can suggest a place for the HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to photograph. It was started in January 2010. In the first few months of the program 3000 people signed up to use HiRISE. The first images were released in April 2010. Over 7000 suggestions were made by the public; suggestions were made for targets in each of the 30 quadrangles of Mars. Selected images released were used for three talks at the 16th Annual International Mars Society Convention. Below are some of the over 4,224 images that have been released from the HiWish program as of March 2016.
- 1 Glacial features
- 2 Possible pingos
- 3 Ancient rivers and streams
- 4 Streamlined shapes
- 5 New Crater
- 6 Sand dunes
- 7 Landing site
- 8 Landscape features
- 9 Dark slope streaks
- 10 Recurrent slope lineae
- 11 Layers
- 12 Layers in Ice Cap
- 13 Gullies
- 14 Latitude dependent mantle
- 15 Polygonal patterned ground
- 16 Complex polygonal patterned ground
- 17 Exposed Ice Sheets
- 18 Scalloped topography
- 19 Pedestal Craters
- 20 Ring mold craters
- 21 Halo Craters
- 22 Boulders
- 23 Dust devil tracks
- 24 Yardangs
- 25 Plumes and spiders
- 26 Upper Plains Unit
- 27 Linear Ridge Networks
- 28 Fractured ground
- 29 Mesas
- 30 Mesas formed by ground collapse
- 31 Volcanoes under ice
- 32 Fractures forming blocks
- 33 Lava flows
- 34 Rootless Cones
- 35 Mud volcanoes
- 36 Hellas floor features
- 37 Exhumed craters
- 38 How to suggest image
- 39 See also
- 40 References
- 41 Recommended reading
- 42 External links
Some landscapes look just like glaciers moving out of mountain valleys on Earth. Some have a hollowed-out appearance, looking like a glacier after almost all the ice has disappeared. What is left are the moraines—the dirt and debris carried by the glacier. The center is hollowed out because the ice is mostly gone. These supposed alpine glaciers have been called glacier-like forms (GLF) or glacier-like flows (GLF). Glacier-like forms are a later and maybe more accurate term because we cannot be sure the structure is currently moving.
Glacier on a crater floor, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program The cracks in the glacier may be crevasses. There is also a gully system on the crater wall.
The radial and concentric cracks visible here are common when forces penetrate a brittle layer, such as a rock thrown through a glass window. These particular fractures were probably created by something emerging from below the brittle Martian surface. Ice may have accumulated under the surface in a lens shape; thus making these cracked mounds. Ice being less dense than rock, pushed upwards on the surface and generated these spider web-like patterns. A similar process creates similar sized mounds in arctic tundra on Earth. Such features are called "pingos,", an Inuit word. Pingos would contain pure water ice; thus they could be sources of water for future colonists of Mars. Many features that look like the pingos on the Earth are found in Utopia Planitia (~35-50° N; ~80-115° E).
Ancient rivers and streamsEdit
There is great deal of evidence that water once flowed in river valleys on Mars. Pictures from orbit show winding valleys, branched valleys, and even meanders with oxbow lakes. Some are visible in the pictures below.
Oxbow lake, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program.
Channel showing an old oxbow and a cutoff, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Memnonia quadrangle.
Channel on floor of valley, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Eridania quadrangle.
Close view of channel in Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Hanging valleys in Aram Chaos, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Streamlined shapes represent more evidence of past flowing water on Mars. Water shaped features into streamlined shapes.
Streamlined feature, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Memnonia quadrangle.
Channel, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Streamlined shapes are indicated with arrows. Location is the Phaethontis quadrangle.
Many locations on Mars have sand dunes. The dunes are covered by a seasonal carbon dioxide frost that forms in early autumn and remains until late spring. Many martian dunes strongly resemble terrestrial dunes but images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have shown that martian dunes in the north polar region are subject to modification via grainflow triggered by seasonal CO2 sublimation, a process not seen on Earth. Many dunes are black because they are derived from the dark volcanic rock basalt. Extraterrestrial sand seas such as those found on Mars are referred to as "undae" from the Latin for waves.
Dunes on a crater floor, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Most of these are barchans. Box shows location of next image. Location is the Eridania quadrangle.
Dunes, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Eridania quadrangle.
Wide view of dunes in Moreux Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Dunes in Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Close view of dunes in Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Close, color view of dunes in Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Ripples are visible on dune surface.
Some of the targets suggested became possible sites for a Rover Mission in 2020. The targets were in Firsoff (crater) and Holden Crater. These locations were picked as two of 26 locations considered for a mission that will look for signs of life and gather samples for a later return to Earth.
Portion of a trough (Fossae) in Elysium Planitia, as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. Blue indicates possible seasonal frost.
Landslide in a crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Image from Iapygia quadrangle.
Wide view of Buttes and Mesas, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Elysium quadrangle.
Recurrent slope lineaeEdit
Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Rock can form layers in a variety of ways. Volcanoes, wind, or water can produce layers. Layers can be hardened by the action of groundwater.
Butte in Crommelin Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Oxia Palus quadrangle.
Layers in Crommelin Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Oxia Palus quadrangle.
Light toned butte on floor of crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Arrows show outcrops of light toned material. Light toned material is probably sulfate-rich and similar to material examined by Spirit Rover, and it once probably covered the whole floor. Other images below show enlargements of the butte. Location is Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle.
Layered terrain in Aeolis quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program.
Wide view of layered terrain, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is northeast of Gale Crater in Aeolis quadrangle.
Layers, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Tempe Terra
Layers, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Tempe Terra Note: this is an enlargement of the previous image.
This group of layers that are found in a crater all come from the Arabia quadrangle.
This next group of layered terrain comes from the Louros Valles in the Coprates quadrangle.
Wide view of layers in Louros Valles, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Layers in Ice CapEdit
Layers exposed in northern ice cap, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Martian gullies are small, incised networks of narrow channels and their associated downslope sediment deposits, found on the planet of Mars. They are named for their resemblance to terrestrial gullies. First discovered on images from Mars Global Surveyor, they occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Usually, each gully has a dendritic alcove at its head, a fan-shaped apron at its base, and a single thread of incised channel linking the two, giving the whole gully an hourglass shape. They are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters.
On the basis of their form, aspects, positions, and location amongst and apparent interaction with features thought to be rich in water ice, many researchers believed that the processes carving the gullies involve liquid water. However, this remains a topic of active research.
Close-up of gully aprons showing they are free of craters; hence very young. Location is Phaethontis quadrangle. Picture was taken by HiRISE under HiWish program.
Gullies on wall of crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is the Mare Acidalium quadrangle.
Close-up of gully channels, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. This image shows many streamlined forms and some benches along a channel. These features suggest formation by running water. Benches are usually formed when the water level goes down a bit and stays at that level for a time. Picture was taken with HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is the Mare Acidalium quadrangle. Note this is an enlargement of a previous image.
Gullies in crater in Phaethontis quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Gullies along mesa wall in North Tempe Terra, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
Much of the Martian surface is covered with a thick ice-rich, mantle layer that has fallen from the sky a number of times in the past. In some places a number of layers are visible in the mantle.
Surface showing appearance with and without mantle covering, as seen by HiRISE, under the HiWish program. Location is Terra Sirenum in Phaethontis quadrangle.
Mantle layers, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Eridania quadrangle
Close up view of mantle, as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. Mantle may be composed of ice and dust that fell from the sky during past climatic conditions. Location is Cebrenia quadrangle.
Close view of mantle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Arrows show craters along edge which highlight the thickness of mantle. Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Wide view of surface with spots displaying mantle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is the Arcadia quadrangle.
It fell as snow and ice-coated dust. There is good evidence that this mantle is ice-rich. The shapes of the polygons common on many surfaces suggest ice-rich soil. High levels of hydrogen (probably from water) have been found with Mars Odyssey. Thermal measurements from orbit suggest ice. The Phoenix (spacecraft) discovered water ice with made direct observations since it landed in a field of polygons. In fact, its landing rockets exposed pure ice. Theory had predicted that ice would be found under a few cm of soil. This mantle layer is called "latitude dependent mantle" because its occurrence is related to the latitude. It is this mantle that cracks and then forms polygonal ground. This cracking of ice-rich ground is predicted based on physical processes.
Polygonal, patterned ground is quite common in some regions of Mars. It is commonly believed to be caused by the sublimation of ice from the ground. Sublimation is the direct change of solid ice to a gas. This is similar to what happens to dry ice on the Earth. Places on Mars that display polygonal ground may indicate where future colonists can find water ice. Patterned ground forms in a mantle layer, called latitude dependent mantle, that fell from the sky when the climate was different.
High center polygons, shown with arrows, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Location is Casius quadrangle. Image enlarged with HiView.
Scalloped terrain labeled with both low center polygons and high center polygons, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Casius quadrangle. Image enlarged with HiView.
High and low center polygons, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Casius quadrangle. Image enlarged with HiView.
Close-up of high center polygons seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Troughs between polygons are easily visible in this view. Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Complex polygonal patterned groundEdit
Wide view of polygons, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Parts of this image are enlarged in following images. The location is the Noachis quadrangle
Exposed Ice SheetsEdit
HiRISE images taken under the HiWish program found triangular shaped depressions in Milankovic Crater that researchers found contain vast amounts of ice that are found under only 1–2 meters of soil. These depressions contain water ice in the straight wall that faces the pole, according to the study published in the journal Science. Eight sites were found with Milankovic Crater being the only one in the northern hemisphere. Research was conducted with instruments on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).
The following images are ones referred to in this study of subsurface ice sheets.
Wide view of part of Milankovic Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Many depressions here contain ice in their walls.
These triangular depressions are similar to those in scalloped terrain. However scalloped terrain, displays a gentle equator-facing slope and is rounded. Scarps discussed here have a steep pole-facing side and have been found between 55-59 degrees north and south latitude Scalloped topography is common in the mid-latitudes of Mars, between 45° and 60° north and south.
Scalloped topography is common in the mid-latitudes of Mars, between 45° and 60° north and south. It is particularly prominent in the region of Utopia Planitia in the northern hemisphere and in the region of Peneus and Amphitrites Patera in the southern hemisphere. Such topography consists of shallow, rimless depressions with scalloped edges, commonly referred to as "scalloped depressions" or simply "scallops". Scalloped depressions can be isolated or clustered and sometimes seem to coalesce. A typical scalloped depression displays a gentle equator-facing slope and a steeper pole-facing scarp. This topographic asymmetry is probably due to differences in insolation. Scalloped depressions are believed to form from the removal of subsurface material, possibly interstitial ice, by sublimation. This process may still be happening at present.
On November 22, 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior. The volume of water ice in the region were based on measurements from the ground-penetrating radar instrument on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, called SHARAD. From the data obtained from SHARAD, "dielectric permittivity", or the dielectric constant was determined. The dielectric constant value was consistent with a large concentration of water ice.
Scalloped terrain, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program The location is the Casius quadrangle.
A pedestal crater is a crater with its ejecta sitting above the surrounding terrain and thereby forming a raised platform (like a pedestal). They form when an impact crater ejects material which forms an erosion-resistant layer, thus causing the immediate area to erode more slowly than the rest of the region. Some pedestals have been accurately measured to be hundreds of meters above the surrounding area. This means that hundreds of meters of material were eroded away. The result is that both the crater and its ejecta blanket stand above the surroundings. Pedestal craters were first observed during the Mariner missions.
Pedestal crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Top layer has protected the lower material from being eroded. The location is Casius quadrangle.
Pedestal crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Hellas quadrangle.
Pedestal crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Casius quadrangle.
Pedestal crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Cebrenia quadrangle.
Ring mold craters are believed to be formed from asteroid impacts into ground that has an underlying layer of ice. The impact produces an rebound of the ice layer to form a "ring-mold" shape.
Ring mold craters of various sizes on floor of a crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Pedestal crater with boulders along rim. Such craters are called "halo craters." Picture taken with HiRISE under HiWish program.
Boulders, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Boulder and boulder tracks, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program The arrow shows a boulder that has made a track in the sand as it rolled down dune. Location is Mare Boreum quadrangle.
Boulders and tracks, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program The arrows show a boulders that have produced a track by rolling down dune. Location is Mare Boreum quadrangle.
Boulders and their tracks from rolling down a slope, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Arrows show two boulders at the end of their tracks. Location is Arabia quadrangle.
Dust devil tracks can be very pretty. They are caused by giant dust devils removing bright colored dust from the Martian surface; thereby exposing a dark layer. Dust devils on Mars have been photographed both from the ground and high overhead from orbit. They have even blown dust off the solar panels of two Rovers on Mars, thereby greatly extending their useful lifetime. The pattern of the tracks has been shown to change every few months. A study that combined data from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) found that some large dust devils on Mars have a diameter of 700 metres (2,300 ft) and last at least 26 minutes.
Yardangs are common in some regions on Mars, especially in what's called the "Medusae Fossae Formation." This formation is found in the Amazonis quadrangle and near the equator. They are formed by the action of wind on sand sized particles; hence they often point in the direction that the winds were blowing when they were formed. Because they exhibit very few impact craters they are believed to be relatively young.
Yardangs, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is near Gordii Dorsum in the Amazonis quadrangle. These yardangs are in the upper member of the Medusae Fossae Formation.
Yardangs formed in light-toned material and surrounded by dark, volcanic basalt sand, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Loacation is Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle.
Plumes and spidersEdit
At certain times in the Martian, dark eruptions of gas and dust occur. Wind often blows the material into a fan or a tail-like shape. During the winter, much frost accumulates. It freezes out directly onto the surface of the permanent polar cap, which is made of water ice covered with layers of dust and sand. The deposit begins as a layer of dusty CO2 frost. Over the winter, it recrystallizes and becomes denser. The dust and sand particles caught in the frost slowly sink. By the time temperatures rise in the spring, the frost layer has become a slab of semi-transparent ice about 3 feet thick, lying on a substrate of dark sand and dust. This dark material absorbs light and causes the ice to sublimate (turn directly into a gas). Eventually much gas accumulates and becomes pressurized. When it finds a weak spot, the gas escapes and blows out the dust. Speeds can reach 100 miles per hour. Calculations show that the plumes are 20–80 meters high. Dark channels can sometimes be seen; they are called "spiders." The surface appears covered with dark spots when this process is occurring.
Remnants of a 50-100 meter thick mantling, called the upper plains unit, has been discovered in the mid-latitudes of Mars. First investigated in the Deuteronilus Mensae (Ismenius Lacus quadrangle) region, but it occurs in other places as well. The remnants consist of sets of dipping layers in craters and along mesas. Sets of dipping layers may be of various sizes and shapes—some look like Aztec pyramids from Central America
Layered structure in crater that is probably what is left of a layered unit that once covered a much larger area. Material for this unit fell from the sky as ice-coated dust. The picture was taken by HiRISE, under the HiWish program. Picture is from Hellas quadrangle.
Close view of dipping layers along a mesa wall, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Close view of dipping layers in Ismenius Lacus quadrangle, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
This unit also degrades into brain terrain. Brain terrain is a region of maze-like ridges 3–5 meters high. Some ridges may consist of an ice core, so they may be sources of water for future colonists.
Brain terrain, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.
Some regions of the upper plains unit display large fractures and troughs with raised rims; such regions are called ribbed upper plains. Fractures are believed to have started with small cracks from stresses. Stress is suggested to initiate the fracture process since ribbed upper plains are common when debris aprons come together or near the edge of debris aprons—such sites would generate compressional stresses. Cracks exposed more surfaces, and consequently more ice in the material sublimates into the planet's thin atmosphere. Eventually, small cracks become large canyons or troughs.
Small cracks often contain small pits and chains of pits; these are thought to be from sublimation (phase transition) of ice in the ground. Large areas of the Martian surface are loaded with ice that is protected by a meters thick layer of dust and other material. However, if cracks appear, a fresh surface will expose ice to the thin atmosphere. In a short time, the ice will disappear into the cold, thin atmosphere in a process called sublimation (phase transition). Dry ice behaves in a similar fashion on the Earth. On Mars sublimation has been observed when the Phoenix lander uncovered chunks of ice that disappeared in a few days. In addition, HiRISE has seen fresh craters with ice at the bottom. After a time, HiRISE saw the ice deposit disappear.
The upper plains unit is thought to have fallen from the sky. It drapes various surfaces, as if it fell evenly. As is the case for other mantle deposits, the upper plains unit has layers, is fine-grained, and is ice-rich. It is widespread; it does not seem to have a point source. The surface appearance of some regions of Mars is due to how this unit has degraded. It is a major cause of the surface appearance of lobate debris aprons. The layering of the upper plains mantling unit and other mantling units are believed to be caused by major changes in the planet's climate. Models predict that the obliquity or tilt of the rotational axis has varied from its present 25 degrees to maybe over 80 degrees over geological time. Periods of high tilt will cause the ice in the polar caps to be redistributed and change the amount of dust in the atmosphere.
Linear Ridge NetworksEdit
Linear ridge networks are found in various places on Mars in and around craters. Ridges often appear as mostly straight segments that intersect in a lattice-like manner. They are hundreds of meters long, tens of meters high, and several meters wide. It is thought that impacts created fractures in the surface, these fractures later acted as channels for fluids. Fluids cemented the structures. With the passage of time, surrounding material was eroded away, thereby leaving hard ridges behind. Since the ridges occur in locations with clay, these formations could serve as a marker for clay which requires water for its formation. Water here could have supported life.
Linear ridge networks, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Amazonis quadrangle.
Linear ridge network, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle.
Linear ridge network, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Casius quadrangle.
Wide view of ridge network, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Arcadia quadrangle.
Close view of ridge networks, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Arrow points to small, straight ridge. Location is Arcadia quadrangle.
Some places on Mars break up with large fractures that created a terrain with mesas and valleys. Some of these can be quite pretty.
Mesa with layers, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Mare Acidalium quadrangle.
Mesas formed by ground collapseEdit
Volcanoes under iceEdit
There is evidence that volcanoes sometimes erupt under ice, as they do on Earth at times. What seems to happen it that much ice melts, the water escapes, and then the surface cracks and collapses. These exhibit concentric fractures and large pieces of ground that seemed to have been pulled apart. Sites like this may have recently had held liquid water, hence they may be fruitful places to search for evidence of life.
Fractures forming blocksEdit
In places large fractures break up surfaces. Sometimes straight edges are formed and large cubes are created by the fractures.
So-called "Rootless cones" are caused by explosions of lava with ground ice under the flow. The ice melts and turns into a vapor that expands in an explosion that produces a cone or ring. Featureslike these are found in Iceland, when lavas cover water-saturated substrates.
Wide view of field of rootless cones, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Elysium quadrangle.
Close view of cones, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program These cones probably formed when hot lava flowed over ice-rich ground. The location is the Elysium quadrangle.
Rootless Cones, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. These group of rings or cones are believed to be caused by lava flowing over water ice or ground containing water ice. The ice quickly changes to steam which blows out a ring or cone. Here the kink in the chain may have been caused by the lava changing direction. Some of the forms do not have the shape of rings or cones because maybe the lava moved too quickly; thereby not allowing a complete cone shape to form. The location is the Elysium quadrangle.
Some features look like volcanoes. Some of them may be mud volcanoes where pressurized mud is forced upward forming cones. These features may be places to look for life as they bring to the surface possible life that has been protected from radiation.
Large field of cones that may be mud volcanoes, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Location is Mare Acidalium quadrangle.
Mud volcanoes, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program The location is Mare Acidalium quadrangle. There are many mud volcanoes in Mare Acidalium quadrangle.
Hellas floor featuresEdit
Strange terrain was discovered on parts of the floor of Hellas Planitia. Scientists are not sure of how it formed.
Exhumed craters seem to be in the process of being uncovered. It is believed that they formed, were covered over, and now are being exhumed as material is being eroded. When a crater forms, it will destroy what's under it. In the example below, only part of the crater is visible. if the crater came after the layered feature, it would have removed part of the feature and we would see the entire crater.
How to suggest imageEdit
To suggest a location for HiRISE to image visit the site at http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish
In the sign up process you will need to come up with an ID and a password. When you choose a target to be imaged, you have to pick and exact location on a map and write about why the image should be taken. If your suggestion is accepted, it may take 3 months or more to see your image. You will be sent an email telling you about your images. The emails usually arrive on the first Wednesday of the month in the late afternoon.
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