Hess Corporation (formerly Amerada Hess Corporation) is an American global independent energy company engaged in the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas. Hess, headquartered in New York City, placed #394 in the 2016 list of Fortune 500 corporations. In 2014, Hess completed a multi-year transformation to an exploration and production company by exiting all downstream operations, generating approximately $13 billion from assets sales beginning in 2013. Hess sold its gas station network to Marathon Petroleum (which operates under the retail brand Speedway); sold its wholesale and retail oil, natural gas and electricity marketing business to Direct Energy; closed its refineries in Port Reading NJ and St. Croix USVI (Hovensa JV with PDVSA); sold its bulk storage and terminalling business mostly to Buckeye Partners; and sold its 50% interests in two New Jersey power plants to their respective JV partners (Bayonne Energy Center: ArcLight Capital and Newark Energy Center: Ares EIF). Hess also sold its 50% interest in its JV commodities trading arm HETCO (Hess Energy Trading Company) to Oaktree Capital. HETCO is now known as Hartree Partners.
|Traded as||NYSE: HES|
S&P 500 Component
|Industry||Oil and gas|
|Fate||Retail unit sold to Speedway LLC|
|Headquarters||Corporate headquarters: |
1185 Avenue of the Americas
New York City, New York
Exploration and production: 1501 McKinney Street
Marketing and refining: Woodbridge, New Jersey
|John B. Hess (CEO)|
|Revenue||US$5.466 billion (2017)|
|US$-5.392 billion (2017)|
|US$-4.074 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$23.112 billion (2017)|
|Total equity||US$11.051 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
The company has exploration and production operations both on-shore: United States and Libya and off-shore: Canada, South America (Guyana & Suriname), Europe (Norway & Denmark), Africa (Ghana & Equatorial Guinea), Southeast Asia (Malaysia and the Joint Development Area of Malaysia and Thailand), and Australia.
In 1919, British oil entrepreneur Lord Cowdray formed Amerada Corporation to explore for oil in North America. The firm was incorporated February 7, 1920, in Delaware as a holding company for its principal subsidiary, the Amerada Petroleum Corporation. The oil producer experienced growth during most of the 1920s, hitting a peak in 1926 with a net income of US$4.9 million. However, in the years leading to the Great Depression, weakness in the oil markets contributed to sluggish profits. The aftermath of the market crash aggravated the unsteady oil industry. In the first quarter of 1930, the company experienced a minor loss. The early years of the Depression was a struggle against wavering demand and overproduction in some regions. Later into the 1930s, the financial forecast became more sanguine for Amerada.
In December 1941, the company reorganized by merging the holding company with the principal operating subsidiary, Amerada Petroleum Corporation, into a simplified operating company. The new entity also adopted the former subsidiary's name.
Robust postwar growth rocketed the company past US$100 million in sales in 1955.
Hess Oil and Chemical, an oil refiner and marketer founded by Leon Hess, acquired 10% of the company for US$100 million in 1966 after the British government sold a stake it had amassed during World War II. Albert Levinson became the senior vice president and designed the Hess logo. Hess and Amerada would announce plans for a merger in December 1968. Some Amerada stockholders led by Morton Adler criticized the arrangement as being too favorable for Hess. Adler argued Amerada's oil reserves would contribute the lion's share of assets for the proposed company, so Amerada stockholders should retain more control of the new company. Before the stockholder vote on the matter, Phillips Petroleum, an integrated oil firm, approached Amerada with its own merger proposal, but the offer was declined in March. Still interested, Phillips nonetheless stated it would not carry out a proxy fight against the proposed Hess deal. Hess, fearing such a strategy, made a cash tender offer of US$140 million for an additional 1.1 million shares of Amerada, which would double its holding in the company. The new shares would be employed in a May stockholder vote deciding the merger's fate. The vote took place amidst shareholder rancor that in addition to echoing Adler's arguments, objected to Amerada's financing of the recently completed tender offer. Hess planned to cancel the shares and the cost of the acquisition would be absorbed by the newly formed company. One shareholder at the meeting quipped, "It looks to me as if Hess is buying Amerada with Amerada's money." Proponents of the deal won, and the US$2.4 billion merger combining a purely production company with a refinery and marketer operation was completed. However controversy was not yet extinguished by the stockholder confirmation. A class action federal lawsuit in 1972 claiming the proxy vote information was misleading. In 1976, a court agreed that the company falsely claimed to have considered each company's assets as a reason for the merger.
In February 2000, Hess acquired the 51% shares of the Meadville Corporation it didn't already own, and rebranded all 178 Merit gas stations as Hess. The Merit gas station chain were primarily in the Boston, New York, and Philadelphia markets.
In 2001, Amerada Hess purchased Triton Energy Limited in a cash tender deal valued at approximately US$3.2 billion. Triton, one of the largest independent oil and natural gas exploration and production companies in the U.S., had earned a reputation as a maverick oil company due to its highly successful yet potentially risky overseas exploration. According to Amerada Hess press releases at the time, Triton's major oil and gas assets in West Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia would strengthen its exploration and production business and give it access to long life international reserves. Hess also stated that the purchase was expected to immediately increase the company's per-day barrel output by more than 25 percent.
Also in 2001, Amerada Hess entered into a joint venture with A.T. Williams Oil Co. of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The company and its gas stations were called WilcoHess. Eventually, there were 1200 WilcoHess stations.
Following on the heels of the Triton purchase, energy prices fell and global economies weakened. Amerada Hess struggled through the following years, posting a US$218 million loss in 2002 due primarily to a US$530 million charge relating to its write-down of the Ceiba oil field, but then posting steadily increasing profits from 2003 through 2006, when the company posted US$1.920 billion in net income.
In May 2006, Amerada Hess Corp. changed its name to Hess Corp.
Hess will permanently close its Port Reading, New Jersey petroleum refinery by the end of February 2013: Gas prices rose to their highest levels since October and Hess said it will lay off 170 of 217 employees, exit the refinery business and seek a buyer for its 19 storage terminals. It will focus on exploration and production. A Hess press release announces the company's plans for "Fully exiting the Company's downstream businesses, including retail, energy marketing, and energy trading." there is no link between the rise in gas prices after the announcement of the closing of the Woodbridge (Port Reading) NJ facility. The output of that facility was more geared to the aviation and specialty fuels markets and not automotive grade products
On March 4, 2013 Hess announced that it would sell its domestic refineries and retail operations. The New York Times also reported that Hess retail and refinery operations contributed about 4 percent of the company's revenue. It also noted that Hess will sell its holdings in Indonesia and Thailand. The company will focus exclusively on oil production, following a recent trend in the oil industry for companies to spin off their downstream assets and focus on their more profitable upstream business; ConocoPhillips and Marathon Oil have also made similar spinoffs in recent years with Phillips 66 and Marathon Petroleum, respectively.
In April 2013, Hess Corp announced it would be selling its Russian unit to Lukoil for $2.05 billion. In July 2013, Hess Corp said it would sell its energy marketing unit to UK firm Centrica for around $1.03 billion.
Hess Corp announced in October 2013 that it was planning on selling its East Coast and St.Lucia storage terminal network to Buckeye Partners LP for $850 million.
Hess Corp announced in December 2013 that it is selling its Indonesian assets to an Indonesian petroleum consortium.
On January 8, 2014, Hess filed for a tax-free spin-off of its gas station network. The newly formed company was to be known as Hess Retail and will include over 1,200 stores throughout the Eastern United States. Before completing the spin-off, Marathon Petroleum subsidiary Speedway LLC announced on May 22, 2014 that it would acquire the retail unit of Hess Corp for $2.87 billion. Following the closure of the acquisition in late 2014, all Hess gas stations will be rebranded as Speedway gas stations by the end of 2017. The transaction completed the transformation of Hess into an energy company focused solely on exploration and production, effectively reversing the Amerada merger almost 50 years prior.
The New York Times reported on October 28, 1990, that a barge with a load of 31,000 barrels (4,900 m3) of kerosene struck a reef in the Hudson River, spilling 163,000 US gallons (620 m3) of fuel. Immediately, Hess assumed responsibility for the cleanup; the Coast Guard worked alongside the Red Star company to clean and to contain the spill to one area. Coast Guard official Mr. Holmes said "The weather and wind conditions are almost as close to perfect as they could get," and this contributed to a quicker and surer cleanup than could otherwise be. According to The New York Times, Mr. Holmes also said that 70 percent of the spill would be gone in three days due to the natural evaporation rate of kerosene. Even though most kerosene evaporates, toxic chemicals such as benzene stay in the water and harm certain fish. Hess claims that their corporate policy has "long stressed" their "fundamental commitment to comply with applicable environment, health and safety laws and regulations," and they claim to clean every spill made.
In accordance with a New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) agreement the Hess Corporation will pay $1.1 million in fines and also "bring 65 gasoline stations and oil storage facilities into compliance with state requirements." The agreement addresses more than 100 violations at 65 gas stations and Hess's Brooklyn major oil storage facility. The agreement is aimed at resolving Hess's violations in the DEC's New York City and lower Hudson Valley regions.
In a recent water contamination case against several major US oil companies, the Hess Corporation will pay part of a $422 million settlement. The case was filed by 153 public water providers in 17 states against the oil companies "over drinking water contamination caused by the gasoline additive Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)." The settlement also stipulates that the settling parties pay their share of treatment costs of the plaintiff's wells that may become contaminated or require treatment for the next 30 years.
In regard to greenhouse gas emissions, Hess outlined in their 2006 Corporate Sustainability Report a "four element" strategy to reduce and control emissions. The strategy's steps include monitoring, measuring, managing, and mitigating. Through reporting results, energy efficiency and recovery, and carbon capture and trading the company intends to improve its environmental impact.
Prior to the March 4, 2013 announcement of its withdrawal from refining and retail sales of petroleum products, Hess operated gas stations in Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Indonesia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
In May 2014, Speedway LLC, a subsidiary of Marathon Petroleum Company, announced they would purchase Hess Corporation's retail business for $2.6 billion. Hess had 1,342 locations along the Eastern United States. The conversion from Hess branding to Speedway branding took place over the course of 2015. Hess locations still remain in select states as of 2018, including Connecticut.
The Hess toy trucks, helicopters, police cars, airplanes, space shuttles, and rescue vehicles have been popular Christmas gift traditions for over 50 years in the US. It is one of the longest running toy brands on the US market.
Since 1964, Hess gas stations have sold toy trucks each year around Christmas time. Each year, the model changes to a new design. Older models are considered collectibles and typically sell for a few hundred or even thousands of dollars. For example, the 1964 truck sells for about $1,400–2,000, depending on condition. Hess periodically has a rare truck such as the 1995 chrome truck with helicopter and the 2002 chrome Mini, which were given away at a stockholder meeting and, more recently, the 2006 truck given to New York Stock Exchange employees to commemorate its name change from Amerada Hess Corporation to Hess Corporation.
In Christmas of 2011, The Hess Corporation donated 900 of its 2011 Hess Toy Trucks and Race Cars to the Salvation Army for the underprivileged children in North Dakota. There was also a Hess Toy Truck Float in the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York that participated from 2003 up to 2014 when the Hess Corporation's retail unit was sold.
The 2014 model was the final Hess Truck to be sold at their gas stations before transitioning to Speedway. The toy truck business continued after the sale of Hess' retail unit to Speedway. Since 2015, the Hess Toy Trucks have been made available for sale through their online website.
- 1966 Tanker Ship, based on the Hess Voyager
- 1993 Patrol Car
- 2001 Helicopter with Motorcycle and Cruiser
- 2004 SUV with Motorcycles: Note: This marks the 40th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck
- 2009 Race Car with Racer
- 2012 Helicopter and Rescue
Annual holiday releasesEdit
These models have been annually released for nearly every holiday season since 1964. These are the following:
- 1964–1965 Tanker Trailer
- 1966 Tanker Ship
- 1967 Tanker Truck
- 1968–1969 Tanker Truck
- 1970–1971 Fire Truck
- 1972 Tanker Truck Note: This was a slightly restyled 1968–69 model.
- 1973 No truck produced due to gas shortages.
- 1974 Tanker Truck Note: This marks the 10th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck. This is the same model as the 1972 release.
- 1975–1976 Box Trailer Note: The 1975 model had solid green barrels. The 1976 model had the HESS logo on the barrels.
- 1977 Fuel Oil Tanker
- 1978 Fuel Oil Tanker
- 1979 No truck produced due to gas shortages
- 1980 Training Van
- 1981 No truck produced due to gas shortages
- 1982–1983 First Hess Truck
- 1984 Fuel Oil Tanker with Bank Note: This marks the 20th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck
- 1985 First Hess Truck Bank
- 1986 Red Fire Truck
- 1987 Truck with Barrels
- 1988 Truck with Racer
- 1989 White Fire Truck Bank Note: Similar to the 1986 Hess Fire Truck. Final model to include a built-in coin bank.
- 1990 Tanker Truck Note: To date, the last annual holiday tanker truck to be released. Any tanker truck releases after 1990 have either been miniatures or commemorative edition models.
- 1991 Truck with Racer
- 1992 18 wheeler & Racer
- 1993 Patrol Car Note: This is the first toy car made by Hess
- 1994 Rescue Truck Note: This marks the 30th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck
- 1995 Truck with Helicopter
- 1996 Emergency Truck
- 1997 Truck with Racers
- 1998 RV with Motorcycle and Sand Buggy
- 1999 Truck & Space Shuttle
- 2000 Fire Truck
- 2001 Helicopter with Motorcycle and Cruiser
- 2002 Truck with Airplane
- 2003 Truck with Race Cars
- 2004 SUV with Motorcycles Note: This marks the 40th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck
- 2005 Emergency Truck with Rescue Vehicle
- 2006 Truck & Helicopter
- 2007 Monster Truck with Motorcycles
- 2008 Truck with Front End Loader
- 2009 Race Car and Racer
- 2010 Truck & Jet
- 2011 Truck with Race Car
- 2012 Helicopter and Rescue
- 2013 Truck with Tractor
- 2014 Truck with Space Cruiser & Scout Note: This marks the 50th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck. This was also the final year the Hess truck was sold at their gas stations.
- 2015 Fire Truck & Ladder Rescue Note: This was sold online and at select mall kiosks in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
- 2016 Truck with Dragster Note: This and any future releases will only be sold online through their website.
- 2017 Dump Truck & Loader
- 2018 RV with ATV and Motorbike
From 1998 to 2014 and returning in 2017, Hess has produced a mini truck from those years as well as the regular toy trucks. These models have been usually sold in the late springtime. These are the following:
- 1998 Tanker Truck related with the 1990 model
- 1999 Red Fire Truck related with the 1986 model
- 2000 First Hess Truck related with 1982 and 1985 models
- 2001 Truck with Racer related with the 1991 model
- 2002 Tanker Ship related with the 1966 model
- 2003 Patrol Car related with the 1993 model
- 2004 Tanker Truck related with the 1964 model Note: This marks the 40th anniversary of the Hess Toy Truck along with the 2004 SUV with Motorcycles
- 2005 Helicopter from the 1995 model
- 2006 Truck with Racer related with the 1992 model
- 2007 Rescue Truck related with the 1994 model
- 2008 Recreational Van with Motorcycle and Cruiser related with the 1998 model Note: This marks the 10th anniversary of the Hess Miniature Truck fleet
- 2009 Space Shuttle Transport related with the 1999 model
- 2010 Fire Truck related with the 2000 model
- 2011 Helicopter related with the 2001 model
- 2012 Truck with Airplane related with the 2002 model
- 2013 Truck with Racers related with the 2003 model
- 2014 Sport Utility Vehicle related with the 2004 model
- 2017 A boxed set of 3 vehicles were produced: the Emergency Truck related with the 2005 model, the Toy Truck and Helicopter related with the 2006 model, and the Monster Truck related with the 2007 model Note: This and any future releases will be sold only online through their website.
- 2018 A boxed set of 3 vehicles were produced: the fire truck related with the 1970 model, the Tanker Truck related with the 1977 model, and the Truck with Race Car related to the 1988 model.
Limited edition commemorative and special production releasesEdit
Ever since the Hess Toy Trucks were released, Hess has privately and publicly released additional models in limited production as gifts or to commemorate anniversaries and major changes within the company.
- 1969 Amerada Hess Tanker Truck - Not a public release. It was released to commemorate the merger between Hess and The Amerada Petroleum Corporation. It has the name "Amerada Hess" on the tanker rather than the "Hess" name. This was given out to employees and executives.
- 1993 Hess Premium Diesel Tanker - Not a public release. It was released to commemorate the introduction of 93 Hess Premium Diesel with Super Detergent. It was a re-release of the 1990 tanker that included the decal "New Premium Diesel With Super Detergency" on the tanker body. It was only distributed to bulk buyers as a thank you gift.
- 1995 Truck with Helicopter Chromed - Not a public release. It is the same as the 1995 holiday release but in chrome instead of white. It was released as a gift given to employees that worked on a special project for Leon Hess.
- 2006 Hess Truck with Racers - Only released to those on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. It commemorates the name change and stock ticker symbol change from Amerada Hess Corporation to the Hess Corporation. It was a re-release of the 1997 Hess Truck. The trailer box bears the name "Hess Corporation". The two cars included have the stock ticker letters on them instead of the traditional Hess name. One car is green and bears the letters "AHC". The other car is white and bears the letters "HES". Was only given out to those on the stock trading floor on May 9, 2006.
- 2014 Tanker Truck & Miniature 1964 Hess Truck Tanker Replica - Sold to the public. It was released to commemorate 50 years of the Hess Toy Trucks. It featured more lights than any other Hess Truck. It was also the first model to be sold on the Hess Toy Truck website. It is a uniquely designed tanker truck that contains a miniature scale model of the original 1964 Hess Tanker that is stored within the truck's tank.
- 2018 First Hess Truck - Sold to the public. It was released to commemorate 85 years of the Hess brand. It is mostly based off the 1982–1983 & 1985 models with some restyling and includes lights & sounds. It sold out a day after its release.
- "Hess Corporation 2017 Annual Report (Form 10-K)". sec.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 2018.
- "Hess Corporation - A Leading Energy Company". www.hess.com. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Fortune 500 Companies 2017: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
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- Hartree. "About - Hartree Partners, LP". www.hartreepartners.com. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Hess Corporation - Hess Operations Map". www.hess.com. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Hoover's Handbook of American Business 2008, Volume 1. Hoover's. 2007. pp. 422–424. ISBN 978-1-57311-120-1.
- Benedict, Roger W. (May 16, 1969). "Merger of Amerada Petroleum, Hess Oil, Valued at $2.4 Billion, Voted by Holders". The Wall Street Journal, pg 4.
- "Court Rules Amerada's Holders Were Misled In Merger With Hess" (August 2, 1976). The Wall Street Journal, p. 4.
- "Metro Business; Amerada Hess to Expand". Bloomberg News. 15 February 2000 – via The New York Times.
- Mote, Dave. "Triton Energy Corporation". Answers.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- "Amerada Hess To Acquire Triton Energy For $45 Per Share In Cash" (Press release). Amerada Hess. 2001-07-10. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Craver, Richard (September 28, 2015). "Speedway conversion of Triad WilcoHess stores under way". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- "Hess Corporation: Investor Relations Annual Reports". Phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Amerada Hess Changes Name to Hess Corporation and Announces Three-for-one Stock Split; Company's Stock to Commence Trading Under Symbol HES on May 9, 2006
- "Closure of Hess' Port Reading refinery means layoffs for 170 employees". NJ.com.
- Hess Announces Culmination of Transformation Into Pure Play E&P Company http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=101801&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1791659&highlight=
- Announced Closure of Hess Corp.'s Port Reading Refinery Not Seen Having Major Impact On Gasoline Markets "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. Retrieved 2013-03-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- De La Merced, Michael J. New York Times. "Hess to Sell Gas Stations as Part of a Shift in Strategy." March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Michael Erman and Vladimir Soldatkin (1 April 2013). "Hess Corp to sell Russian unit to Lukoil for $2.05 billion". Reuters.
- Swetha Gopinath and Sarah Young (30 July 2013). "Hess to sell Energy Marketing unit to UK's Centrica for $1.03 billion". Reuters.
- Michael Erman and Matthew Robinson (9 October 2013). "Hess to sell storage terminal network to Buckeye for $850 million". Reuters.
- "Hess Corp selling Indonesia assets for 13 billion". Motley Fool. 2 December 2013.
- "Hess Files for Tax-Free Spin-off of Gas-Station Network". Bloomberg. 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-05-01.
- "Hess stations to fly 'Speedway' banner after sale to Marathon Petroleum for $2.87 billion". Associated Press. 22 May 2014.
- "Hess Announces Sale of Retail Business to Marathon Petroleum Corporation for $2.6 Billion". Hess Corp. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Yes on Proposition 89 (2006-09-22). "Big Oil Throws Down Against Proposition 89". Proposition89.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Hess Corporation: 2006 Archived July 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- NYSDEC – New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2008-03-04). "Hess fined $1.1m for Hudson River estuary pollution". Environmental-Expert. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- "Dallas law firm Baron & Budd wins $422 million water contamination lawsuit". Pegasus News. 2008-05-11. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- "2006 Corporate Sustainability Report" Accessed May 12, 2008 Archived July 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Hess (Southington, Connecticut)". Flickr. 2018-04-08. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
- Hess moves may put brake on toy truck Retrieved 2013-11-28
- Stung By Collectors' Demand, Hess Floods Market With Trucks Retrieved 2013-11-28
- "Hess Toy Truck". Hess Toy Truck. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- Company News: Line at Hess Station was for toy cars, The New York Times, 1993 Retrieved 2013-11-28
- Hess trucks – 18-wheelers fueled by nostalgia Retrieved 2013-11-28
- Hess to Continue "Hess Toy Truck" Tradition Hess Corporation Press Release, May 22, 2014
- HESS Toy Trucks Guide Archived 2013-12-04 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2013-11-28
-  Retrieved 2016-11-1
- "1969 Amerada Hess Tanker Truck". Rays Hess Trucks. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "1993 Hess Premium Diesel Tanker". Ray's Hess Toy Trucks. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "1995 Hess Chrome Helicopter". Ray's Hess Toy Trucks. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- "2006 Hess Corporation NYSE Truck & Racers". Ray's Hess Toy Trucks. Retrieved 6 October 2018.