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Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term "herpangina virus" refers to coxsackievirus A)[1] but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses.[2] Most cases of herpangina occur in the summer,[3] affecting mostly children. However, it occasionally occurs in adolescents and adults. It was first characterized in 1920.[4]

Herpangina
Herpangina2016.jpg
An example of herpangina in a child
Specialty infectious disease

Contents

Signs and symptomsEdit

Symptoms include sudden fever with sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, and often neck pain. Within two days of onset an average of four or five (but sometimes up to twenty) 1 to 2 mm diameter grayish lumps form and develop into vesicles with red surrounds, and over 24 hours these become shallow ulcers, rarely larger than 5 mm diameter, that heal in one to seven days. These lesions most often appear on the tonsillar pillars (adjacent to the tonsils), but also on the soft palate, tonsils, uvula, or tongue.[5]

A small number of lesions (usually 2 - 6) form in the back area of the mouth, particularly the soft palate or tonsillar pillars. The lesions progress initially from red macules to vesicles and lastly to ulcerations which can be 2 – 4 mm in size.

CauseEdit

Typically spreads via the fecal-oral route or via respiratory droplets.

PathophysiologyEdit

Histologically, the epithelial cells show signs of intracellular and extracellular edema.[citation needed]

DiagnosisEdit

A diagnosis can be made from clinical signs and symptoms, and treatment consists of minimizing the discomfort of symptoms.[5] It can be differentiated from herpetic gingivostomatitis by the positioning of vesicles - in herpangina, they are typically found on the posterior oropharynx, as compared to gingivostomatitis where they are typically found on the anterior oropharynx and the mouth. [6]

TreatmentEdit

Treatment is usually supportive only,[7] as the disease is self-limiting and usually runs its course in less than a week.

EpidemiologyEdit

  • Most commonly affects infants and young children
  • Typically occurs during the summer

EtymologyEdit

The term is derived from the Greek herp, creeping, snake like, and Latin angina, quinsy, literally "inflammation or swelling of the throat or part of the throat, esp. tonsillitis".[8][9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Herpangina Virus" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ "Herpangina" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  3. ^ Michael I. Greenberg (2005). Greenberg's text-atlas of emergency medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-7817-4586-4. Retrieved 11 April 2010. 
  4. ^ Ralph D. Feigin (2004). Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7216-9329-3. Retrieved 11 April 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Herpangina". Merckmanuals.com. Merck. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  6. ^ Parrot, RH; Wolf, SI; Nudelman, J; Naiden, E; Huebner, RJ; Rice, EC; McCullough, NB (August 1954). "Clinical and laboratory differentiation between herpangina and infectious (herpetic) gingivostomatitis". Pediatrics. 14 (2): 122–9. PMID 13185685. 
  7. ^ "ULCERATIVE LESIONS OF THE ORAL CAVITY". Utmb.edu. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  8. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Oed.com. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Quinsy - Define Quinsy at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 21 December 2014. 

External linksEdit