Herbert Brenon (born Alexander Herbert Reginald St. John Brenon; 13 January 1880 – 21 June 1958) was an Irish film director, actor and screenwriter during the era of silent movies through the 1930s.
Alexander Herbert Reginald St. John Brenon
13 January 1880
|Died||21 June 1958 (aged 78)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Alma mater||King's College London|
|Relatives||Aileen Brenon (niece)|
Juliet Brenon (niece)
Brenon was among the early filmmakers who, before the rise of corporate film production, was a genuine “auteur”, controlling virtually all creative and technical components in crafting his pictures. The quality of Brenon's artistic output rivaled that of film pioneers D. W. Griffith.
Brenon was among the first directors to achieve celebrity status among moviegoers for his often spectacular cinematic inventions. Among his most notable films are Neptune's Daughter (1914), Peter Pan (1925), A Kiss for Cinderella (1925), and the original film version of Beau Geste (1926).
In 1882, the family moved to London, where Herbert was educated at St Paul's School and at King's College London. In 1896, at age 16, Brenon emigrated to the United States and became a naturalized US citizen in 1918.
In his late teens, Brenon served as an office boy for the theatrical agent Joseph Vivian and as a call boy at Daly's Theatre on Broadway. While still in his twenties, and before becoming a film director, he performed in vaudeville and operated a small-town nickelodeon establishment.
Brenon married Helen Violette Oberg in 1904 while they were both working vaudeville circuits. Their son, Cyril, was born in 1906.
Independent Moving Pictures Company (IMP): 1909-1914Edit
At the age of 29, Brenon advanced to screenwriting and film editing for the Independent Moving Pictures Company (IMP), later to become Universal Studios. In 1911 he directed his first film, the one-reeler, All For Her (1912), starring George Ober. Brenon acted in many of the films he directed for IMP, including the studio's first three-reel production Leah the Forsaken (1909), starring Leah Baird.
Sojourn in Europe: 1913-1914Edit
Brenon took his IMP production unit to Europe in 1913, and made a number of films in England, France and Germany. The most “spectacular” of these was his adaptation of Sir Walter Scott’s novel Ivanhoe, starring celebrity aviator Claude Graham-White as Ivanhoe and filmed at Chepstow Castle. The journal Illustrated Films Monthly bestowed fulsome praise on the production, declaring that “Ivanhoe, as a film, will prove epoch-making in the history of cinematography in [Great Britain] and over the whole world.’”  Brenon proceeded to continental Europe to film Absinthe (1914) in France and several films in Germany, starring William E. Shay.
Neptune’s Daughter (1914): Brenon’s final and most spectacular film for IMP studios was his 1914 Neptune’s Daughter. This Annette Kellerman vehicle, at seven-reels in length and filmed in Bermuda, established both director and actress among the earliest silent film celebrities.  Brenon left IMP In 1914 to create his own short-lived production company, Tiffany Film Corporation.
Fox Film Corporation: 1915-1916Edit
The following year, Brenon and Annette Kellerman contracted with William Fox’s production company. There, Brenon directed actress Theda Bara in The Two Orphans (1915) and The Kreutzer Sonata (1915). Both Brenon and Bara would have a major impact in elevating the stature of the Fox Company.
A Daughter of the Gods (1915): In the summer of 1915, Brenon and leading lady from their IMP collaborations, Annette Kellerman, travelled to Jamaica to make the “elaborate” and “spectacular” A Daughter of the Gods (1916). Brenon's extravagant expenditures filming the picture led to immense cost overruns, outraging producer William Fox. That, and Brenon's emerging celebrity status among movie critics led Fox to seize the footage and edit it himself, excising Brenon from the screen credits. Film historian Richard Koszarski describes the clash between producer and director.:
“Tales of Brenon’s extravagance began to reach the ears of William Fox, and he was stunned by what he heard. A complete concrete and steel city was built on the disused island fortress of Castillo de San Marcos, Jamaica; a ‘White Fortress’ was erected at the cost of symbol for British pound £,50,000 [and] 20,000 people were said to be engaged on the picture at one time and over 223,000 feet of film were shot. The cost of the entire production was claimed to be in the neighborhood of £,200,000. Fox was furious. He ordered Brenon’s name from the credits of the film, and had the film re-edited by Hettie Gray Baker. Brenon left the Fox organization after unsuccessfully contesting in court that Fox had no right to tamper with his picture.” 
Paramount Pictures: 1923-1926Edit
Brenon reached the apogee of his creative powers while at Paramount during the late silent period, emerging as “a craftsman of the highest order” and for his renowned cinematic style.”
Two films most characteristic of “the Brenon style” were his adaption of two J. M. Barrie fantasies, the highly theatrical renditions of Peter Pan (1924), starring Betty Bronson and A Kiss for Cinderella (1925). Brenon enlisted the talents of James Wong Howe and J. Roy Hunt to achieve outstanding cinematography and lighting effects. Biographer Charles Higham provides these critiques of the films:
“Peter Pan’s encouragement of kidnapping, vengeance and murder deserves a whole psychological study in itself, and Brenon’s direction brings out its viciousness in the scenes when the children slowly prod a pirate to death at sword’s point, force Captain Hook to walk a plank, or giggle at his doom in the maw of a crocodile.”
“A Kiss for Cinderella celebrated materialistic acquisition with [a degree of] repulsiveness, and Brenon adds many vulgar touches to Barrie’s scenes when the little London skivvy dreams of a socially successful marriage to Prince Charming, the epitome of bourgeois money-grubbing fantasy.”
Film historian Richard Koszarski offers this appraisal of A Kiss for Cinderella:
“As a followup to Peter Pan (1925), Brenon filmed as adaption of Sir James M. Barrie’s A Kiss for Cinderella (1926), a sophisticated fantasy that historian William K. Everson has compared to Jean Cocteau’s La Belle et la Bete (1946)...Despite extraordinary special effects, Barrie’s deconstruction of the Cinderella myth - with an unhappy ending - was indeed quite unpopular with audiences...”
Perhaps Brenon's most highly successful commercial effort at Paramount was Beau Geste (1926), with actor Ronald Colman. Richard Koszarski observes approvingly that Beau Geste is “notable for its intelligence and controlled sentiment...especially strong in the richness of the performances.”
“Brenon’s best-made film was Beau Geste, a production into which Paramount put much effort, sending the entire unit and cast into the Mojave Desert for weeks to insure realistic results. The P. C. Wren story about courage, brotherly love, and self-sacrifice and the supposed theft of the priceless Blue Water sapphire from Lady Brandon is a constant annoyance, but Brenon’s handling, replete with all the sadistic relish of his 1925 Peter Pan, is more cinematically interesting then usual.”
“Brenon was at least as inflexible as the director D. W. Griffith. An Irish curmudgeon, he was prone to giving interviews denouncing studio interference and upholding the status of artists like himself. But unlike Griffith, he knew how to play the studio game…” - Film historian Richard Koszarski in Hollywood on the Hudson (2008)
Directing style and personalityEdit
Brenon's reputation as a director who reliably extracted fine performances from “temperamental” actors was widely acknowledged. Indeed, Brenon praised the virtues of “temperament” in an article from Motion Picture Magazine (February 1926) entitled “Must They Have Temperament?”:
“I wouldn’t give a hang for an actor without temperament...the amount and quality of temperament distinguishes a good actor from a bad one...During my years as a director, it has my pleasure, my pleasure to work with some of the most temperamental stars of the screen: Alla Nazimova, Norma Talmadge, Percy Marmont, Ernest Torrence, Betty Compson, Richard Dix and many others. I find that the more temperamental an actor is, the easier it is for them to grasp the subtleties of the role (accented) and imbue it with life, instead of merely playing a part.”
Richard Koszarski adds that “Pola Negri, Lon Chaney, Nazimova and Norma Talmadge had some of their finest moments in Brenon’s films, (while carrying on uncontrollably elsewhere)...his directorial success with the widest range of silent stars remains unparalleled.”
Brenon, described once as an “Irish curmudgeon” while on the set, was typical of the old-school “auteur” directors of the early film era, but this behavior became anachronistic when corporate studio executives were ascendant in the 1920s.
In a 1978 interview, Louise Brooks recalls Brenon's able direction in her first film appearance The Street of Forgotten Men (1925). She noted, however, a demonstration of the hostility to the domineering director when a sandbag dropped from the rafters by technicians, nearly hit Brenon. Screenwriter and director Edward Bernds had no fond memories of Brenon. In the 1997 book The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution 1926–1930, he issued these comments on his colleague:
“So many of the silent film directors were phonies. I didn't think highly of Herbert Brenon, for instance. He was the old, imperious type of director. Lordly, demanding. There was a scene in Lummox (1930), where Winifred Westover was supposed to be betrayed by Ben Lyon, who had gotten her pregnant. He throws some money down and she takes the money and tears it up with her teeth. Well, Brenon demanded real money! And several takes. The poor propman was going around borrowing money from the crew. It was the Imperial syndrome of silent film directors."
Final years and deathEdit
Brenon's film career in the United States faded with the transition to sound films. Biographer Charles Higham observed that “the talkie revolution firmly closed an era for many figures...Herbert Brenon and James Cruze never made another interesting picture.” Brenon's career revived when he moved back to England in the mid-1930s and made a number of pictures at various studios. He completed his last film, The Flying Squad in 1940.
Before his death, Brenon was working on his autobiography. When he collaborated with Mary Brian, who played Wendy in Peter Pan, and asked her to paint her idea of what Never-Neverland looked like and the painting was to be included in the photos of the book. He died before it was completed.
- All of Her (1912)
- Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1913)
- Ivanhoe (1913)
- Absinthe (1914)
- Neptune's Daughter (1914)
- The Kreutzer Sonata (1915)
- The Heart of Maryland (1915)
- The Clemenceau Case (1915)
- The Two Orphans (1915)
- Sin (1915)
- The Soul of Broadway (1915)
- A Daughter of the Gods (1916)
- War Brides (1916)
- Whom the Gods Destroy (1916)
- The Fall of the Romanoffs (1917)
- The Lone Wolf (1917)
- Empty Pockets (1918)
- Victory and Peace (1918)
- The Passing of the Third Floor Back (1918)
- 12.10 (1919)
- Beatrice (1919)
- The Mysterious Princess (1920)
- The Passion Flower (1921)
- The Stronger Passion (1921)
- Little Sister (1921)
- The Wonderful Thing (1921)
- Moonshine Valley (1922)
- Shackles of Gold (1922)
- A Stage Romance (1922)
- The Custard Cup (1923)
- The Spanish Dancer (1923)
- The Breaking Point (1924)
- Shadows of Paris (1924)
- The Alaskan (1924)
- Peter Pan (1924)
- The Side Show of Life (1924)
- The Street of Forgotten Men (1925)
- The Little French Girl (1925)
- A Kiss for Cinderella (1925)
- The Song and Dance Man (1926)
- God Gave Me Twenty Cents (1926)
- Dancing Mothers (1926)
- The Great Gatsby (1926)
- Beau Geste (1926)
- The Telephone Girl (1927)
- Sorrell and Son (1927)
- Laugh, Clown, Laugh (1928)
- The Rescue (1929)
- The Case of Sergeant Grischa (1930)
- Lummox (1930)
- Transgression (1931)
- Girl of the Rio (1932)
- Wine, Women and Song (1933)
- Honours Easy (1935)
- Royal Cavalcade (1935)
- Someone at the Door (1936)
- Living Dangerously (1936)
- The Live Wire (1937)
- The Dominant Sex (1937)
- Spring Handicap (1937)
- Housemaster (1938)
- Yellow Sands (1938)
- Black Eyes (1939)
- The Flying Squad (1940)
- Koszarski, 2008 p. 35-36: Koszarski includes the roles of casting director, story and script writer, cameraman, film editor and “general studio operations.”
- Higham, 1973 p. 45: Among those many directors who at once rivaled Griffith and emulated aspects of his style were Herbert Brenon and James Cruze.”
- Oberg, 2014: Though “not as well known to you as D.W. Griffith or Cecil B. DeMille, his movies probably are...”
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “Brenon was one of the first great names behind the camera to gain a wide personal following [as a director]...”
- "General Registrar's Office". IrishGenealogy.ie. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Oberg, 2014: “He was born Herbert Alexander Charles Reginald St. John Brenon in Dublin, Ireland.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 90: THE USA became his “adopted” country.
- Oberg, 2014: “Brenon became a naturalized citizen in New York in 1918.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 90: “Brenon’s first job was as an office boy for Joseph Vivian, the theatrical agent. Following this Brenon became a call boy at Daly’s Theatre.”
- Koszarski 1976 p. 123
Oberg, 2014: “...a call boy for Augustin Daly’s Theater Company in New York in 1896.”
- Oberg, 2014
- Slide, 1970 p. 90: “In 1909 he became a writer cum editor with the IMP. company. It was three years before he directed his first film, All For Her (1912), a one-reel story of the love and sacrifice of two old musicians for a small girl, featuring George Ober.”
Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “His film career proper began in 1909 with Carl Laemmle's IMP company (later Universal Pictures)...”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: “Brenon both acted and directed many IMP productions, including the Company’s first three-reeler...with Leah Baird.”
- Oberg, 2014: “His foray into the moving picture business began when he got a job as a scenario writer for The Old Imperial Company...Carl Laemmle gave him his first directing opportunity in 1909 with a film called, All For Her.
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: “In May 1913, Brenon and his leading man King Baggot, came to England, and here they filmed two productions, Across the Atlantic (1914) and Ivanhoe (1913). The former featured a famous aviator of his day Claude Graham White. Ivanhoe was a very spectacular production, filmed at Monmouth, and based, rather loosely, on the novel by Sir Walter Scott. King Baggot portrayed the title role, Leah Baird was Rebecca and Herbert Brenon himself played Isaac of York.”
Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “He directed a noteworthy Ivanhoe (1913) in Great Britain.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: In 1913-1914 “Brenon continued on his filmmaking tour of Europe, and in Paris filmed Absinthe (1914), again with King Baggot, and then moved to Germany to make three films with William E. Shay.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: “Brenon's most famous film for the IMP company was Neptune’s Daughter (1914), which was to make a star of Annette Kellerman. Seven reels in length, Neptune’s Daughter was shot over a period of three months in Bermuda at the cost of $50,000.”
Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “He directed...the spectacular Neptune’s Daughter (1914) with Annette Kellerman.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: In December of 1914 Brenon parted with IMP. and formed his own producing company, Tiffany”
- Slide, 1970 p. 90“...like Theda Bara, Brenon was to have a very important influence on the success of the Fox Company.” And: p. 92: “[In 1915] Brenon joined the William Fox organization, for whom he first directed two Theda Bara vehicles[The Two Orphans and The Kreutzer Sonata [both 1915].”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92: “It was not until August 1915 that Brenon embarked on his most ambitious production yet...Brenon sailed for Jamaica to direct A Daughter of the Gods (1916) [starring Annette Kellerman, Stuart Holmes and William Shay]. Nine months were taken for the shooting of the picture.”
Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “Brenon and Kellerman quickly jumped to Fox Company and produced on location in the West Indies one of the most elaborate or early photoplays A Daughter of the Gods (1916).”
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “Quarrels over production excesses and, surprisingly, Brenon’s personal publicity, resulted in Fox editing the film himself and removing Brenon’s name from the credits, a move prefigured the studio suppression of directors - Erich von Stroheim for example - a decade later.”
- Slide, 1970 p. 92-95
- Slide, 1970 p. 95: “Herbert Brenon went on to work for other companies, and directed, amongst others, War Brides (1916) with Alla Nazimova, The Passing of the Third Floor Back (1918) with Sir Johnston Forbes-Robinson...”
Koszarski, 1976 p. 123: “By the 1920s Brenon had established himself at Paramount as a craftsman of the highest order”
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 123
- Slide, 1970 p. 95: “the delicate and sentimental style of directing, ‘the Brenon style’ And: “...two fantasies with Betty Bronson: Peter Pan and A Kiss for Cinderella.”
Higham, 1973 p. 45-46: Brenon’s “critically successful record” [includes] J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan (1925) and A Kiss for Cinderella (1926)...essentially theatrical and uninventive.”
Robinson, 1970 p. 101: “Brenon’s inclination was always towards subjects of more retiring charm, and particularly adaptations of sentimental stage plays…” And: “characteristic” works
- Koszarski, 2008 p. 55: “Brenon paid special attention to the quality of his cinematography. James Wong Howe shot many of his most important early films…”
Robinson, 1970 p. 10: “...skillfully made, beautifully lit by James Wong Howe and J. Roy Hunt respectively...”
- Higham, 1973 p. 46:
- Koszarski, 2008 p. 56:
- Robinson, 1970 p. 101: “...big commercial picture…”
Koszarski, 2008 p. 55-57: “...highly successful…”
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 123:
Robinson, 1970 p. 101: “Characteristic of his later big commercial films were The Garden of Allah (1921), The Spanish Dancer (1923) and Beau Geste](1926).”
- "The 1st Academy Awards (1929) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- Higham, 1973 p. 46
- Koszarski, 2008 p. 55:
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 124: Quoting from Brenon’s article
- Koszarski, 1976 p. 123;
- Koszarski, 2008 p 35-36: See here for comments Alan Dwan related to Brenon. And p. 55: “Irish curmudgeon”
- Koszarski, 2008 p. 55: “Brooks suspected that [Brenon’s] relations with the [technical] crew may not be quite as good [as his reputation for directing actors]. Brooks interview with Richard and Diane Koszarski., June 3, 1979. See footnote #88, p. 502
- Eyman, Scott. The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution 1926–1930. Simon and Schuster, New York: 1997.
- Higham, 1973 p. 93:
- Slide, 1970 p. 95: “Brenon returned to Britain in the mid-Thirties to direct a number of significant productions.”
- Robinson, 1970 p. 101: “...Brenon continued to direct films in Britain until as late as 1940.”
- Ankerich, Michael G. The Sound of Silence: Conversations with 16 Film and Stage Personalities. McFarland and Company Inc., Publishers: Jefferson, NC, 1998. p. 45.
- Slide, 1970 p. 95: “Brenon died in Los Angeles on June 21, 1958.”
- Forgotten New York
- Higham, Charles. 1973. The Art of the American Film: 1900-1971. Doubleday & Company, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-385-06935-9
- Koszarski, Richard. 1976. Hollywood Directors: 1914-1940. Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 76-9262.
- Koszarski, Richard. 2008. Hollywood on the Hudson: Film and Television in New York from Griffith to Sarnoff. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4293-5
- Oberg, Helen. 2014. Herbert Brenon. Silent Film Fans. https://silentfilmfans.wordpress.com/tag/helen-oberg/ Retrieved 23 July 2021.
- Robinson, David. 1968. Hollywood in the Twenties. Paperback Library, New York. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 68-24002
- Slide, Anthony. 1970. Early American Cinema. The International Film Guide Series. A. S. Barnes & Co. New York. ISBN 0-498-07717-9
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