Henry Tandey VC, DCM, MM (born Tandy, 30 August 1891 – 20 December 1977) was a British recipient of the Victoria Cross,[note 1] the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the most highly decorated British private of the First World War and is most commonly remembered as the soldier who supposedly spared Adolf Hitler's life during the war. Born with the family name of Tandy, he later changed his surname to Tandey after problems with his father,[vague] therefore some military records have a different spelling of his name.
|Birth name||Henry Tandy|
|Born||30 August 1891|
Leamington, Warwickshire, UK
|Died||20 December 1977 (aged 86)|
Coventry, West Midlands, UK
|Years of service||1910–1926|
|Unit||The Yorkshire Regiment (Green Howards) (1910–18)|
West Riding Regiment (Duke of Wellington's Regiment) (1918–26)
Distinguished Conduct Medal
Mentioned in Despatches (5)
Henry James Tandey was born at the Angel Hotel, Regent Street, Leamington, Warwickshire, the son of a former soldier whose wife had died early in their child's life. He attended St. Peters' primary school in Augusta Place, Leamington. He also spent part of his childhood in an orphanage before becoming a boiler attendant at a hotel.
Tandey enlisted into the Green Howards Regiment on 12 August 1910. After basic training he was posted to their 2nd Battalion on 23 January 1911, serving with them in Guernsey and South Africa prior to the outbreak of World War I. He took part in the Battle of Ypres in October 1914, and was wounded on 24 October 1916, at the Battle of the Somme. On discharge from hospital he was posted to the 3rd Battalion on 5 May 1917, before moving to the 9th Battalion on 11 June 1917. He was wounded a second time on 27 November 1917, during the Battle of Passchendaele. After his 2nd period of hospital treatment he returned to the 3rd Battalion, on 23 January 1918, before being posted to the 12th Battalion on 15 March 1918, where he remained until 26 July 1918. On 26 July 1918 Tandey transferred from the Green Howards to The Duke of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment). He was posted to their 5th Battalion on 27 July 1918.
Distinguished Conduct MedalEdit
On 28 August 1918, during the 2nd Battle of Cambrai, the 5th Battalion was in action to the west of the Canal du Nord. Tandey was in charge of one of several bombing parties on the German trenches. As the forward parties were being held up Tandey took two men and dashed across open ground (No man's land) under fire and bombed a trench. He returned with twenty prisoners. This action led to the capture of the German positions and Tandey was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM) on 5 December 1918, the citation read:
34506 Pte. H. Tandey, 5th Bn., W. Rid. R.
He was in charge of a reserve bombing party in action, and finding the advance temporarily held up, he called on two other men of his party, and working across the open in rear of the enemy, he rushed a post, returning with twenty prisoners, having killed several of the enemy. He was an example of daring courage throughout the whole of the operations.
On 12 September the 5th Battalion was involved in an attack at Havrincourt, where Tandey again distinguished himself. Having rescued several wounded men under fire the previous day, Tandey again led a bombing party into the German trenches, returning with more prisoners. For this action Tandey was awarded the Military Medal (MM) on 13 March 1919.
On 28 September 1918, during a counter-attack at the canal, following the capture of Marcoing, France, his platoon was stopped by machine-gun fire. Tandey crawled forward, located the gun position and with a Lewis gun team, silenced it. Reaching the canal crossing, he restored the plank bridge under heavy fire. In the evening, he and eight comrades were surrounded by an overwhelming number of the enemy. Tandey led a bayonet charge, fighting so fiercely that 37 of the enemy were driven into the hands of the remainder of his company. Although twice wounded, Tandey refused to leave until the fight was won, eventually going into hospital for the third time on 4 October 1918.
An eyewitness, Private H Lister, recounted the episode:
On 28th September 1918 during the taking of the crossing over the Canal de St. Quentin at Marcoing, I was No.1 of the Lewis gun team of my platoon. I witnessed the whole of the gallantry of Private Tandey throughout the day. Under intensely heavy fire he crawled forward in the village when we were held up by the enemy MG and found where it was, and then led myself and comrades with the gun into a house from where we were able to bring Lewis gun fire on the MG and knock it out of action. Later when we got to the canal crossings and the bridge was down, Pte Tandey, under the fiercest of aimed MG fire went forward and replaced planks over the bad part of the bridge to enable us all to cross without delay, which would otherwise have ensued. On the same evening when we made another attack we were completely surrounded by Germans, and we thought the position might be lost. Pte Tandey, without hesitation, though he was twice wounded very nastily, took the leading part in our bayonet charge on the enemy, to get clear. Though absolutely faint he refused to leave us until we had completely finished our job, collected our prisoners and restored the line.
His VC was gazetted on 14 December 1918, the citation read:
No. 34506 Pte. Henry Tandey, D.C.M., M.M., 5th Bn., W. Rid. R. (T.F.) (Leamington).
For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during the capture of the village and the crossings at Marcoing, and the subsequent counter-attack on 28 September, 1918. When, during the advance on Marcoing, his platoon was held up by machine-gun fire, he at once crawled forward, located the machine gun, and, with a Lewis gun team, knocked it out. On arrival at the crossings he restored the plank bridge under a hail of bullets, thus enabling the first crossing to be made at this vital spot.
Later in the evening, during an attack, he, with eight comrades, was surrounded by an overwhelming number of Germans, and though the position was apparently hopeless, he led a bayonet charge through them, fighting so fiercely that 37 of the enemy were driven into the hands of the remainder of his company.
Although twice wounded, he refused to leave till the fight was won.
Although disputed, Adolf Hitler and Tandey allegedly encountered each other at the French village of Marcoing. The story is set on 28 September 1918, while Tandey was serving with the 5th Duke of Wellington's Regiment, and relates that a weary German soldier wandered into Tandey's line of fire. The enemy soldier was wounded and did not even attempt to raise his own rifle. Tandey chose not to shoot. The German soldier saw him lower his rifle and nodded his thanks before wandering off. That soldier is purported to have been Adolf Hitler. The author David Johnson, who wrote a book on Henry Tandey, believes this story was an urban legend.
Hitler apparently saw a newspaper report about Tandey being awarded the VC (in October 1918, whilst serving with the 5th Battalion Duke of Wellington's (West Riding) Regiment), recognized him, and clipped the article.
In 1937, Hitler was made aware of a particular Fortunino Matania painting by Dr Otto Schwend, a member of his staff. Schwend had been a medical officer during the First Battle of Ypres in 1914. He had been sent a copy of the painting by a Lieutenant Colonel Earle in 1936. Earle had been treated by Schwend in a medical post at the Menin Crossroads and they remained in touch after the war.
The painting was commissioned by the Green Howards Regiment from the Italian artist in 1923, showing a soldier purported to be Tandey carrying a wounded man at the Kruiseke Crossroads in 1914, northwest of Menin. The painting was made from a sketch, provided to Matania, by the regiment, based on an actual event at that crossroads. A building shown behind Tandey in the painting belonged to the Van Den Broucke family, who were presented with a copy of the painting by the Green Howard's Regiment.
Schwend obtained a large photo of the painting to gift it to Hitler. Captain Weidemann, Hitler's adjutant, wrote the following response:
I beg to acknowledge your friendly gift which has been sent to Berlin through the good offices of Dr. Schwend. The Führer is naturally very interested in things connected with his own war experiences, and he was obviously moved when I showed him the photograph and explained the thought which you had in causing it to be sent to him. He was obviously moved when I showed him the picture. He has directed me to send you his best thanks for your friendly gift which is so rich in memories.
Apparently Hitler identified the soldier carrying the wounded man as Tandey from the photo of him in the newspaper clipping he had obtained in 1918.
That man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again; Providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us.
According to the story, Hitler asked Chamberlain to convey his best wishes and gratitude to Tandey. Chamberlain promised to phone Tandey in person on his return, which apparently he did. The Cadbury Research Centre, which holds copies of Chamberlain's papers and diaries, has no references relating to Tandey from the records of the 1938 meeting. The story further states that the phone was answered by a nine-year-old child called William Whateley. William was related to Tandey's wife Edith. However, Tandey at that time lived at 22 Cope Street, Coventry, and worked for the Triumph Motor Company. According to the company records, they only had three phone lines, none of which was at Tandey's address. British Telecommunications archive records also have no telephones registered to that address in 1938.
Historical research throws serious doubts on whether the incident actually ever occurred. Hitler took his second leave from military service on 10 September 1918 for 18 days. This means that he was in Germany on the presumed date of the facts.
On 13 March 1919 a supplement to the London Gazette announced that Tandey had been awarded the Military Medal (MM). The following day he was discharged from service and only one day later he re-enlisted into the Duke of Wellington's 3rd Battalion on a 'Short Service Engagement'. Three days later (18 March 1919) he was promoted to acting lance corporal. He remained with the 3rd Battalion on 'Home Service' until 4 February 1921, when he transferred to the 2nd Battalion. Four days later on 8 February 1921 he requested to revert to the rank of private.
Tandey served with the 2nd Battalion in Gibraltar from 11 April 1922 to 18 February 1923, in Turkey from 19 February – 23 August 1923 and finally in Egypt from 24 August 1923 until 29 September 1925. He was finally discharged from the army on 5 January 1926.
Tandey returned to Leamington Spa and married. In 1940, during the Coventry Blitz, his home was bombed by the Luftwaffe. A journalist approached him outside his bombed Coventry home, asking him about his alleged encounter with Hitler. "If only I had known what he would turn out to be," Tandey is quoted as saying. "When I saw all the people and women and children he had killed and wounded I was sorry to God I let him go." However, there is no evidence, not even anecdotal, he was either hounded or avoided after the claims.
Tandey became a commissionaire at the Standard Triumph Works, Fletchamstead a position he held for 38 years.
Tandey died in 1977, childless, at the age of 86. At his request, he was cremated and his ashes buried in the Masnieres British Cemetery at Marcoing, France, on 23 May 1978, by his undertaker Pargetter and Son. Due to French laws it was not permissible for his ashes to be scattered, or any form of ceremony or commemoration made to him.
Henry Tandey Court, on Union Road, in Leamington Spa, is named after him. It was originally a workshop and builders yard of Mr. G.F.Smith, who built St. Marks Church and Vicarage.
Tandey donated his medals to the Duke of Wellington's Regiment Museum in Halifax, West Yorkshire. On special occasions and parades he would sign them out to wear. During the last period that he had signed them out, he died. Unaware that the medals should have been returned to the museum, the medals were auctioned at Sotheby's in London by his wife and a private collector subsequently purchased them. They were presented to the Green Howards Regimental Museum (the regiment in which he had earlier served), by Sir Ernest Harrison OBE, at a ceremony in the Tower of London on 11 November 1997, twenty years after Tandey died.
A copy of Tandey's Victoria Cross is now displayed at the Green Howards Regimental Museum in Richmond, North Yorkshire. Along with others, the original VC is kept in a local bank vault.
|Victoria Cross (VC)||14 December 1918|
|Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM)||5 December 1918|
|Military Medal (MM)||13 March 1919|
|1914 Star||With Clasp "5 Aug – 22 Nov 1914"|
|British War Medal|
|Victory Medal||With Mentioned in dispatches Oakleaf|
|Defence Medal||Awarded for his Service as an Air Raid Warden in Coventry during the Blitz.|
|King George VI Coronation Medal||1937 – Given to all living recipients of the Victoria Cross.|
|Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal||1953 – Given to all living recipients of the Victoria Cross and the George Cross.|
|Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal||1977 – Given to all living recipients of the Victoria Cross and the George Cross.|
- "The London Gazette". The London Gazette. 13 December 1918.
- "Victoria Cross recipients of World War 1". The London Gazette. 1914–1918.CS1 maint: date format (link)
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- "Hero soldier permanently remembered in Leamington | Leamington Observer". Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Leamington Courier, 28 Aug 2011 – Birthplace of Leamington hero to be given blue plaque
- "Henry Tandey VC DCM MM". 13 November 2013 – via www.learninghistory.co.uk.
- "First World War.com – Feature Articles – How a Right Can Make a Wrong". www.firstworldwar.com.
- "No. 31052". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1918. p. 14454.
- Brereton, JM; Savory, ACS (1993). "World War 1, 1918". The History of the Duke of Wellingtons (West Riding) 1702–1992. Halifax : The Duke of Wellington's Regiment. p. 254. ISBN 0-9521552-0-6.
- "No. 31227". The London Gazette. 11 March 1919. p. 3430.
- Brereton, JM; Savory, ACS (1993). ""34507 Pte Henry Tandey", appendix IV". The History of the Duke of Wellingtons (West Riding) 1702–1992. Halifax : The Duke of Wellington's Regiment. p. 396. ISBN 0-9521552-0-6.
- "No. 31067". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 December 1918. p. 14778.
- "World War I 1918 British soldier allegedly spares the life of an injured Adolf Hitler". This Day in History. History.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Morpurgo, Michael (3 October 2015). "Michael Morpurgo on the soldier who could have stopped a world war with one shot". The Times Newspaper. Retrieved 3 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Godl, John (22 August 2009). "How a Right Can Make a Wrong". FirstWorldWar.com. Retrieved 3 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Johnson, David (1 October 2013). One Soldier and Hitler, 1918: The Story of Henry Tandey VC DCM MM. Spellmount Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0752466132.
- "Did British soldier spare Hitler's life in WWI?". BBC News. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. pp. 149–150. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- "Nostalgia: Latest Nostalgia pieces from Teesside Live". www.gazettelive.co.uk.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Только правда ли всё это судите сами. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Ian Kershaw's Hitler biography "Hitler 1889–1936 Hubris" at the end of chapter 3 part 3
- Bell, Bethan (4 August 2014). "War hero who did not shoot Hitler" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Standard Triumph Works Directory – Documenting Employees of the Standard and Triumph Works".
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- Johnson, David (2012). One Soldier And Hitler, 1918. Gloucestershire: the History Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7524-6613-2.
- "St Marks Church – Early Leamington". Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Birthplace of Leamington hero to be given blue plaque – News – The Courier". 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011.
- "Henry Tandy". firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 29 June 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Duke of Wellington's Regiment Website, VC Recipients. List of medals awarded – Henry Tandy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- "Medal entitlement of: Sergeant Henry TANDEY 5th Bn, The Yorkshire Regiment" – via www.victoriacross.org.uk.
- Bell, Bethan (4 August 2014). "World War One: The British hero who did not shoot Hitler". BBC News.
- "Private Henry Tandey VC 5DWR". The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment (West Riding) Regimental Association. 11 November 1997.