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Henry Lee Lucas (August 23, 1936 – March 12, 2001) was an American serial killer. Lucas was arrested in Texas and on the basis of his confessions to Texas Rangers, hundreds of unsolved murders were attributed to him and officially classified as cleared up. Lucas was convicted of murdering 11 people and condemned to death for a single case with an unidentified victim. A newspaper exposed the improbable logistics of the confessions made by Lucas, when they were taken as a whole, and a study by the Attorney General of Texas concluded he had falsely confessed. Lucas's death sentence was commuted to life in prison in 1998. In some cases, law enforcement thought that Lucas had demonstrated knowledge of facts that only a perpetrator could have known.

Henry Lee Lucas
Henry Lee Lucas.jpg
Police mug shot of Lucas in 1983
Born(1936-08-23)August 23, 1936
Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
DiedMarch 12, 2001(2001-03-12) (aged 64)
Huntsville, Texas, United States
Cause of deathHeart failure
Other namesThe Confession Killer
The Highway Stalker
Criminal penaltyDeath, commuted to life imprisonment
Victims11 convictions, hundreds more claimed
Span of crimes
CountryUnited States
possibly Florida
Date apprehended
June 11, 1983


Early lifeEdit

He was born on August 23, 1936, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Lucas lost an eye at age 10 after it became infected due to a fight.[1] A friend later described him as a child who would often get attention by frighteningly strange behavior.[2] Aside from this, Lucas' mother was a prostitute who would force him to watch her have sex with clients and cross dress in public.[1][3]

In December 1949, Lucas' father, Anderson, whose legs had been severed in a railroad accident, died of hypothermia after going home drunk and collapsing outside during a blizzard. Shortly thereafter, while in the sixth grade, Lucas dropped out of school and ran away from home, drifting around Virginia. Lucas claimed to have committed his first murder in 1951, when he strangled 17-year-old Laura Burnsley, who had refused his sexual advances. As with most of his confessions, he later retracted this claim. On June 10, 1954, Lucas was convicted on over a dozen counts of burglary in and around Richmond, Virginia, and was sentenced to four years in prison. He escaped in 1957, was recaptured three days later, and was subsequently released on September 2, 1959.[4][5]

In late 1959, Lucas traveled to Tecumseh, Michigan to live with his half-sister, Opal. Around that time, Lucas was engaged to marry a pen pal with whom he had corresponded while incarcerated. When his mother visited him for Christmas, she disapproved of her son's fiancée and insisted he move back to Blacksburg. He refused, after which they argued repeatedly during the visit about his upcoming nuptials.


On January 11, 1960, in Tecumseh, Michigan, Lucas killed his mother during an argument regarding whether or not he should return home to her house to care for her as she grew older. He claimed she struck him over the head with a broom, at which point he stabbed her in the neck. Lucas then fled the scene. He subsequently said,

All I remember was slapping her alongside the neck, but after I did that I saw her fall and decided to grab her. But she fell to the floor and when I went back to pick her up, I realized she was dead. Then I noticed that I had my knife in my hand and she had been cut.[This quote needs a citation]

She was not in fact dead, and when Lucas's half-sister Opal (with whom he was staying) returned later, she discovered their mother alive in a pool of blood. She called an ambulance, but it turned out to be too late to save Viola Lucas' life. The official police report stated she died of a heart attack precipitated by the assault. Lucas returned to Virginia, then says he decided to drive back to Michigan, but was arrested in Ohio on the outstanding Michigan warrant.

Lucas claimed to have killed his mother in self-defense, but his claim was rejected, and he was sentenced to between 20 and 40 years' imprisonment in Michigan for second-degree murder. After serving 10 years in prison, he was released in June 1970 due to prison overcrowding.


Lucas and Ottis Toole.[6]

In 1971, Lucas was convicted of attempting to kidnap three schoolgirls. While serving a five-year sentence, he established a relationship with a family friend and single mother who had written to him. They married on his release in 1975, but he left two years later after his stepdaughter accused him of sexually abusing her. Lucas began moving between various relatives and one got him a job in West Virginia, where he established a relationship that ended when his girlfriend's family confronted him about abuse.

Lucas befriended Ottis Toole, and settled in Jacksonville, Florida, where he lived with Toole's parents and became close to his adolescent niece Frieda 'Becky' Powell, who had a mild intellectual impairment. A period of stability followed, with Lucas working as a roofer, fixing neighbors' cars and scavenging scrap.[7][8][9]


Powell was put in a state shelter by the authorities after her mother and grandmother died in 1982. Lucas convinced her to abscond and they lived on the road, eventually traveling to California, where an employer's wife asked them to work for her infirm mother, 82-year-old Kate Rich, of Ringgold, Texas. Rich's family turned Lucas and Powell out, accusing them of failing to do their jobs and writing checks on her account. While hitchhiking they were picked up by the minister of a Stoneburg, Texas religious commune called "The House of Prayer". Believing Lucas and the 15-year-old Powell were a married couple, he found Lucas a job as a roofer while allowing the couple to stay in a small apartment on the commune. Powell had become argumentative and homesick for Florida, and Lucas said she left at a truck stop in Bowie, Texas. According to some of his later accounts Lucas murdered Powell and then Rich.[10] In addition to confessing, Lucas led the police to remains said to be Powell and Rich, although forensic evidence alone was inconclusive and the coroner stopped short of positively identifying either set of remains. As with most of his alleged crimes, Lucas later denied involvement, but the consensus is he did murder Powell and Rich.[11]

Arrest, confession to murders of Powell and RichEdit

Lucas was a prime suspect in the killing of Rich. A few months later, in June 1983, he was arrested on charges of unlawful possession of a firearm by Texas Ranger Phil Ryan. Lucas reported that he was roughly treated by bullying inmates in prison and attempted suicide. Lucas claimed that police stripped him naked, denied him cigarettes and bedding, held him in a cold cell, and did not allow him to contact an attorney. After four days, Lucas confessed to the murder of Rich, which confession investigators had good reason to believe was genuine; in addition, he confessed to killing Powell. When he started confessing to numerous unsolved cases, he was initially credible; police knew that he had truthfully admitted committing two killings. Some investigators, including Ryan, thought many of Lucas's confessions were made up to get out of his cell and improve his living conditions.[12] They did, however, treat dozens as potentially genuine.[13]

False confession spreeEdit

In November 1983, Lucas was transferred to a jail in Williamson County, Texas. In interviews with Texas Rangers and other law enforcement personnel, Lucas continued to confess to numerous additional unsolved killings. It was thought that there was positive corroboration with Lucas's confessions in 28 unsolved murders, and so the Lucas Task Force was established.[12] Eventually, because of Lucas's confessions, the task force officially "cleared" 213 previously unsolved murders. Lucas reportedly received preferential treatment rarely offered to convicts, being frequently taken to restaurants and cafés. Some of his alleged treatment was odd for someone whom the police supposedly believed to be a cunning mass murderer: he was rarely handcuffed, often allowed to wander police stations and jails at will, and even knew codes for security doors.[14][15]

Later attempts at discovering whether Lucas had actually killed anyone apart from Powell and Rich were complicated by Lucas's ability to make an accurate deduction that seemed to substantiate a confession. In one instance, he explained how he had correctly identified a victim in a group photograph through her wearing spectacles; a pair of glasses were on a table in a crime scene photo shown to him earlier. There were also suggestions that the interview tapes showed that, despite Lucas' supposedly low IQ, he had adroitly read the reactions of those interviewing him and altered what he was saying, thereby making his confessions more consistent with facts known to law enforcement. The most serious allegation against investigators, that they had let Lucas read case files on unsolved crimes and thus enabled him to come up with convincingly detailed confessions, made it virtually impossible to determine if, as some continue to suspect, he had been telling the truth to the Lucas Task Force about a relatively large number of the murders.[16]

In 1983, Lucas claimed to have killed an unidentified young woman, later identified as Michelle Busha, along Interstate 90 in Minnesota. When questioned by police, he gave inconsistent details on the way he murdered the victim and was eliminated as a suspect.[17]

In 1984, Lucas confessed to the murder of an unidentified girl who was discovered shot to death in a field at Caledonia, New York on November 10, 1979. The unidentified girl was referred to at the time as "Caledonia Jane Doe". Investigators, however, found insufficient evidence to support the confession.[18] In early 2015, over 35 years later, "Caledonia Jane Doe" was identified through a DNA match as Tammy Alexander.

Lucas also is believed to have falsely confessed to the 1980 slaying of Carol Cole in Louisiana. Cole was unidentified until 2015.[19]


Journalist Hugh Aynesworth and others investigated the veracity of Lucas's claims for articles that appeared in The Dallas Times Herald. They calculated that Lucas would have had to use his 13-year-old Ford station wagon to cover 11,000 miles (17,700 kilometres) in one month to have committed the crimes police attributed to him.[3] After the story appeared in April 1985 and revealed the flawed methods of the Lucas Task Force, law enforcement opinion began to turn against the claims that crimes had been solved.[20][21] The bulk of the Lucas Report was devoted to a detailed timeline of Lucas's claimed murders. The report compared Lucas's claims to reliable, verifiable sources for his whereabouts; the results often contradicted his confessions, and thus cast doubt on most of the crimes in which he was implicated. Attorney General Jim Mattox wrote that "when Lucas was confessing to hundreds of murders, those with custody of Lucas did nothing to bring an end to this hoax" and "We have found information that would lead us to believe that some officials 'cleared cases' just to get them off the books".[15]

Commutation of death sentenceEdit

Reconstruction of "Orange Socks", which estimates how she may have looked when she was alive.

Lucas remained convicted of 11 homicides. He had been sentenced to death for one, a then-unidentified woman dubbed as "Orange Socks," whose body was found in Williamson County, Texas, on Halloween 1979, even though the court heard that on that date a timesheet had recorded his presence at work in Jacksonville, Florida.[22][23][24][25][26][27] Lucas was granted a stay on his death sentence after telling a hearing that the details in his confession came from the case file, which he had been given to read. The sentence was commuted to life in prison in 1998 by Governor George W. Bush.[28] In 2019 "Orange Socks" was officially identified as Debra Jackson.[29]


On March 12, 2001, at 11:00 pm, Lucas was found dead in prison from heart failure at age 64. He is buried at Captain Joe Byrd Cemetery in Huntsville, Texas. As of 2012, Lucas' grave is unmarked due to vandalism and theft.[30]

Differing opinionsEdit

Lucas' credibility was damaged by his lack of precision: he initially admitted to having killed 60 people, a number he raised to over 100 victims, which police accepted, and then to a figure of 3,000 that led to him not being taken seriously. He remained, however, publicised as America's most prolific murderer, despite denials such as flatly stating "I am not a serial killer" in a letter to author Shellady.[10][31][32] Some continue to believe he was responsible for a huge number of killings nonetheless. Eric W. Hickey cites an unnamed "investigator" who interviewed Lucas several times and who concluded that Lucas had probably killed about 40 people.[33] Such assertions were given little credence, with lawmen involved with Lucas seen refusing to admit that they had been fooled by him.[34][35]

Unresolved suspicionsEdit

One highly experienced Texas Ranger who Ryan's team allowed access to Lucas said that although it was obvious to him that Lucas often lied, there was an instance where he demonstrated guilty knowledge. "I remember him trying to cop to one he didn't do, but there was another murder case where I'll ... if he didn't lead us right to the deer stand where the murder took place. Ain't no way he could've guessed that, and I damn sure didn't tell him. I think he did that one."[35] Other Rangers had similar experiences with Lucas.[36]


There have been several books on the case. Four narrative films have been made based on Lucas' confessions: 1985's Confessions of a Serial Killer, 1986's Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer, played by Michael Rooker, 1996's Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer, Part II, and the 2009 film Drifter: Henry Lee Lucas. Two documentary films were released in 1995: The Serial Killers and the television documentary, Henry Lee Lucas: The Confession Killer.

An A&E Biography episode about Lucas aired in 2005 that featured future horror film director Dylan Greenberg as young Lucas in re-enactments, at the age of eight.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Karlin, Adam. "Henry Lee Lucas: The Confession Killer". The Lineup. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  2. ^ Scott, Shirley Lynn. "What Makes Serial Killers Tick?". Archived from the original on 2010-07-28. Retrieved 2013-01-10. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b Texas Monthly Jun 1985, the Henry Lee Lucas Show
  4. ^ "Henry Lee Lucas by Bonnie Bobit". Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  5. ^ "Henry Lee Lucas Dies in Prison — ABC News". Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  6. ^ Ramsland, Katherine. "Henry Lee Lucas, prolific serial killer or prolific liar?". Crime Library. Archived from the original on 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2008-12-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "The Twisted Life of Serial Killer Ottis Elwood Toole". Fox News. December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17. Toole met Lucas in 1978,"
  8. ^ Biography channel HENRY LEE LUCAS BIOGRAPHY,, accessed 6/8/2014
  9. ^ Henry Lee Lucas ; The Confession Killer (Documentary)
  10. ^ a b Shellady, 2002.
  11. ^ see Shellady, 2002
  12. ^ a b The Times-News - Oct 18, 1983, AP, Texas Ranger Unwilling Confidant Of Henry Lee Lucas
  13. ^ Ivey, Darren L. (2010-04-23). The Texas Rangers: A Registry and History. McFarland. pp. 195–. ISBN 9780786448135. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  14. ^ Gudjonsson, Gisli H. (2003-05-27). The Psychology of Interrogations and Confessions: A Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. p. 556. ISBN 9780470857946. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  15. ^ a b quoted in Shellady, 2002
  16. ^ D Magazine, Oct 1985 THE TWO FACES OF HENRY LEE LUCAS
  17. ^ Erickson, David. “Runaway Jane.” Who Killed Jane Doe?, season 1, episode 6, Investigation Discovery, 4 Apr. 2017.
  18. ^ "Case File: 1UFNY". The Doe Network. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  19. ^ Catalanello, Rebecca (9 February 2015). "Detectives turn to New Bethany Home for Girls in search of leads in woman's 1981 death". The Times-Picayune. NOLA. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  20. ^
  21. ^ Henry Lee Lucas able to confuse authorities and then beat death Archived February 26, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Gudjonsson, Gisli H. (2003-05-27). The Psychology of Interrogations and Confessions: A Handbook. John Wiley & Sons. p. 557. ISBN 9780470857946. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  23. ^ Lubbock Avalanche Journal, May 28, 2006 Drifter's confession to Williamson murder failed to hold up
  24. ^ Lunsford, Lance (28 May 2006). "Drifter's confession to Williamson murder failed to hold up". Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  25. ^ "USA: The death penalty in Texas: lethal injustice | Amnesty International". 1998-03-01. Archived from the original on November 26, 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  26. ^ "Today's Headlines — Friday, June 25, 1999". 1999-06-25. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  27. ^ Strand, Ginger Gail (2012-04-15). Killer on the Road: Violence and the American Interstate. University of Texas Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 9780292726376. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  28. ^ Knox, Sara L. (2001). The Productive Power of Confessions of Cruelty. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  29. ^ "'It's A Big Deal': Victim In 40-Year-Old 'Orange Socks' Cold Case Identified".
  30. ^ "Eternity's gate slowly closing at Peckerwood Hill." Houston Chronicle. August 3, 2012. Retrieved on March 16, 2014.
  31. ^ Brad Shellady, "Henry: Fabrication of a Serial Killer", included in Everything You Know Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Secrets and Lies, 2002; Russ Kick, editor.
  32. ^ "USA: Fatal flaws: Innocence and the death penalty in the USA | Amnesty International". 1998-11-12. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  33. ^ Hickey, Eric W., Serial Murderers And Their Victims, Wadsworth Pub Co. 2005; ISBN 0-495-05887-4
  34. ^ Lawrence Journal-World October 16, 1983
  35. ^ a b Texas Monthly Feb 1994 The Twilight of the Texas Rangers
  36. ^ Interview With MAX WOMACK Texas Ranger, Retired ©2006, Robert Nieman

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit