^ abcdefg[c]~[k] (Turkish/Azeri) / [k]~[q] (Turkmen), [ɟ]~[ɡ] (Turkish) / [ɡ]~[ʁ] (Turkmen)[contradictory], [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, g/ʁ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
^In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
^ abIn Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/ and /y/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
^ abcIn Turkish, the letter ğ (yumuşak g, "soft g") gives the [j] sound between front vowels and the [ɰ] sound between back vowels.
Syllable-finally, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
^In Turkish and Azeri, /ŋ/ appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants /g/, /k/, /ɟ/ and /c/.
^[w] is the allophone of the /v/ sound after or between vowels in Turkish and Azeri.
^In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
^Şapka (Turkish for "hat") [^] is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter k should read as /c/ and the letter l should read as [l] before the dark vowels /ɑ/ and /u/.
Yet the şapka is primarily used for indicating palatalization instead of length. For example, the word katil means "murder" when pronounced as /kɑtil/, yet it means "killer" when pronounced as /kɑːtil/. The letter a is left unmarked even if it is long, because the sound /k/ doesn't become /c/ in this case. î is an exception, for it only indicates the vowel length.