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Help:Citation merging

UsageEdit

Sometimes the article is more readable if multiple citations are bundled into a single footnote. For example, when there are multiple sources for a given sentence, and each source applies to the entire sentence, the sources can be placed at the end of the sentence, like this.[4][5][6][7] Or they can be bundled into one footnote at the end of the sentence or paragraph, like this.[4]

Bundling is also useful if the sources each support a different portion of the preceding text, or if the sources all support the same text. Bundling has several advantages:

  • It helps readers and other editors see at a glance which source supports which point, maintaining text–source integrity;
  • It avoids the visual clutter of multiple clickable footnotes inside a sentence or paragraph;
  • It avoids the confusion of having multiple sources listed separately after sentences, with no indication of which source to check for each part of the text, such as this.[1][2][3][4]
  • It makes it less likely that inline citations will be moved inadvertently when text is re-arranged, because the footnote states clearly which source supports which point.

When formatting multiple citations in a footnote, there are several layouts available, as illustrated below. Within a given article, only a single layout should be used.

SyntaxEdit

There are 3 main layouts for merging/bundling multiple citations:


  • Bullet format

(Note: after the first citation, each bullet citation must be written on a new line.)

Markup Renders as
The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.<ref>For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. ''The Sun''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
* For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46.
* For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. ''The Sun's Heat''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
* {{Cite news|url=https://www.space.com/14725-moon-temperature-lunar-days-night.html|title=What's the Temperature on the Moon?|work=Space.com|access-date=2018-08-09}} 
</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1]

References
  1. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    • For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    • For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
    • "What's the Temperature on the Moon?" Space.com. Retrieved 2018-08-09.


  • Line breaks format
Markup Renders as
The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.<ref>For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. ''The Sun''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.<br>For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46.<br>For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. ''The Sun's Heat''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.
</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1]

References
  1. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1.
    For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46.
    For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

This, however, breaches Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Accessibility #Bulleted vertical lists: "Do not separate list items with line breaks (<br>). Use {{plainlist}} / {{unbulleted list}} ...".

  • Paragraph format
Markup Renders as
The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.<ref>For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. ''The Sun''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," ''Scientific American'', 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. ''The Sun's Heat''. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.</ref>

==References==
{{Reflist}}

The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1]

References
  1. ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon," Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.