Helicoverpa armigera

The cotton bollworm, corn earworm, or Old World (African) bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera)[1] (also known as the scarce bordered straw in the UK, where it is a migrant[2]) is a moth, the larvae of which feed on a wide range of plants, including many important cultivated crops. It is a major pest in cotton and one of the most polyphagous and cosmopolitan pest species. It should not be confused with the similarly named, related species Helicoverpa zea.

Cotton bollworm
Helicoverpa armigera.jpg
Helicoverpa armigera 1.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Noctuoidea
Family: Noctuidae
Genus: Helicoverpa
Species:
H. armigera
Binomial name
Helicoverpa armigera
(Hübner, [1808])
Synonyms
  • Chloridea armigera Hübner,
  • Chloridea obsoleta Duncan & Westwood, 1841
  • Helicoverpa commoni Hardwick, 1965
  • Helicoverpa obsoleta Auctorum,
  • Heliothis armigera Hübner, 1805
  • Heliothis conferta Walker, 1857
  • Heliothis fusca Cockerell, 1889
  • Heliothis pulverosa Walker, 1857
  • Heliothis rama Bhattacherjee & Gupta, 1972
  • Heliothis uniformis Wallengren, 1860
  • Noctua armigera Hübner, [1805]
  • Noctua barbara Fabricius, 1794[1]

DistributionEdit

This species comprises two sub-species: Helicoverpa armigera armigera is widespread in central and southern Europe, temperate Asia and Africa; Helicoverpa armigera conferta is found in Australia, and Oceania. The former sub-species has also recently been confirmed to have successfully invaded Brazil[3] and has since spread across much of South America and reached the Caribbean. It is a migrant species, able to reach Scandinavia and other northern territories.[4]

MorphologyEdit

 
Eggs
 
Larva
 
Maize field habitat, Poland

The cotton bollworm is very variable in both size and colour. The body length varies between 12 and 20 millimetres (0.47 and 0.79 in) with a wingspan of 30–40 millimetres (1.2–1.6 in). The fore wings are yellowish to orange in females and greenish-gray in males, with a slightly darker transversal band in the distal third.[5] The external transversal and submarginal lines and the reniform spot are diffused. The hind wings are a pale yellow with a narrow brown band at the external edge and a dark round spot in the middle.[4]

LifecycleEdit

 
Lateral view
 
Mounted, dorsal view
 
Mounted, ventral view

The female cotton bollworm can lay several hundred eggs, distributed on various parts of the plant. Under favourable conditions, the eggs can hatch into larvae within three days and the whole lifecycle can be completed in just over a month.[5]

The eggs are spherical and 0.4 to 0.6 mm in diameter, and have a ribbed surface. They are white, later becoming greenish.[4]

The larvae take 13 to 22 days to develop, reaching up to 40 mm long in the sixth instar. Their colouring is variable, but mostly greenish and yellow to red-brown. The head is yellow with several spots. Three dark stripes extend along the dorsal side and one yellow light stripe is situated under the spiracles on the lateral side. The ventral parts of the larvae are pale.[4] They are rather aggressive, occasionally carnivorous and may even cannibalise each other. If disturbed, they fall from the plant and curl up on the ground.

The pupae develop inside a silken cocoon[5] over 10 to 15 days in soil at a depth of 4–10 centimetres (1.6–3.9 in), or in cotton bolls or maize ears.[4]

Host plantsEdit

The cotton bollworm is a highly polyphagous species.[6] The most important crop hosts are tomato, cotton, pigeon pea, chickpea, rice, sorghum, and cowpea. Other hosts include groundnut, okra, peas, field beans, soybeans, lucerne, Phaseolus spp., other Leguminosae, tobacco, potatoes, maize, flax, Dianthus, Rosa, Pelargonium, Chrysanthemum, Lavandula angustifolia, a number of fruit trees, forest trees, and a range of vegetable crops.[1] In Russia and adjacent countries, the larvae populate more than 120 plant species, favouring Solanum, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Atriplex, and Amaranthus genera.[4]

Economic significanceEdit

The greatest damage is caused to cotton, tomatoes, maize, chick peas, alfalfa, and tobacco. The economic threshold of harmfulness in central Asia is three to five larvae per hundred plants of long-staple cotton and eight to 12 larvae per hundred plants on medium-staple cotton.[4] In cotton crops, blooms that have been attacked may open prematurely and stay fruitless. When the bolls are damaged, some will fall off and others will fail to produce lint or produce lint of an inferior quality. Secondary infections by fungi and bacteria are common and may lead to rotting of fruits. Injury to the growing tips of plants may disturb their development, maturity may be delayed, and the fruits may be dropped.[5] Control measures include the use of NOCTOVI adulticide attract and kill formulation,[7] growing of resistant varieties, weeding, inter-row cultivation, removing crop residues, deep autumn ploughing, winter watering to destroy the pupae, the use of insecticides or biological control through the release of entomophages such as Trichogramma spp. and Habrobracon hebetor. Monitoring is possible by the use of sex pheromone traps.[4][8] Development of Bt cotton (genetically modified to produce Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) improved yields of lint.[9]

Genome analysis

The genomes of Helicoverpa armigera conferta and Helicoverpa zea were published in July 2017.

ManagementEdit

PreventionEdit

The CABI-led programme, Plantwise and their partners suggest planting trap crops and intercropping with crops including cowpea, sunflower, maize, marigold. They also recommend rotating with cereal crops and other non-host crops to prevent the population from building up.[10][11][12][13]

Partners of Plantwise suggest introducing spacing when planting, removing weeds, crop residues and volunteer crops.[14]

Introducing bird perches and providing habitats for natural enemies are methods that can be used to prevent pest populations building up.[11][12][13][14]

MonitoringEdit

The caterpillars feed on buds, flowers, grains, fruits, pods; sometimes leaves and stems. In cotton they are found on the vegetative part and reproductive structures. In corn, millet at sorghum they attack the grain. In tomato and beans caterpillars bore into young fruits and in chickpea they attack foliage and consume developing seeds.[13]

Direct controlEdit

In small plots, Plantwise suggests handpicking and destroying eggs and young caterpillars is possible.[13]

CABI and Plantwise partners recommend introducing light and pheromone traps to trap adult moths.[10][11][13][14]

Plantwise and partners have suggested the release of natural enemies, including the parasitoid Trichogramma brassilences or T. pretiosum as methods of control.[13][14]

SourcesEdit

  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement: PMDG: Cotton bollworm in chickpea - Ethiopia, Atsbha Gebreslasie, Kifle G/zihe, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement: PMDG: Cotton bollworm - Ghana, CABI, Patrick Beseh, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement: PMDG: Bollworm on cotton - Uganda, Robert Amayo Robert and Dennis Gayi, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement: PMDG: Tomato fruit borer - India, Dr. Kamlesh Bali, Sushil Kumar and Arun Khajuria, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA License statement: PMDG Green List: Cotton bollworm, Plantwise, CABI. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Pest Risk Analysis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-17. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
  2. ^ Waring, Paul; Martin Townsend & Richard Lewington (2003). "Field Guide to the Moths of Great Britain and Ireland". British Wildlife Publishing: 374. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Downes, Sharon; Anderson, Craig; Behere, Gajanan T.; Silvie, Pierre; Thomazoni, Danielle; Walsh, Thomas; Soria, Miguel F.; Tay, Wee Tek (November 18, 2013). "A Brave New World for an Old World Pest: Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e80134. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080134. PMC 3832445. PMID 24260345 – via PLoS Journals.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "AgroAtlas - Pests - Helicoverpa armigera Hbn. - Cotton Bollworm". www.agroatlas.ru.
  5. ^ a b c d "Crop Compendium - Bayer - Crop Science". www.cropscience.bayer.com.
  6. ^ Robinson, G. S.; P. R. Ackery; I. J. Kitching; G. W. Beccaloni; L. M. Hernández (2010). "HOSTS – A Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants". London: Natural History Museum.
  7. ^ http://www.isca.com.br/pt/produtos/p/1dc95a44-9a83-4919-9fec-f9d3125bc3b4/noctovi NOCTOVI as an effective semiochemical attract and kill adulticide for the control of Helicoverpa armigera
  8. ^ http://www.iscatech.com/ecommerce/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=57 Helicoverpa armigera monitoring Sex Pheromone Lures
  9. ^ "Bt Cotton". www.bt.ucsd.edu.
  10. ^ a b "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Cotton boll worm in chickpea - Ethiopia". www.plantwise.org. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  11. ^ a b c "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Cotton bollworm - Ghana". www.plantwise.org. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  12. ^ a b "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Bollworm on cotton - Uganda". www.plantwise.org. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Cotton bollworm". www.plantwise.org. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  14. ^ a b c d "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Tomato fruit borer - India". www.plantwise.org. Retrieved 2020-06-03.

External linksEdit