Pressurized heavy-water reactor
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A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling, much as in a pressurized water reactor. While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it creates greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel-enrichment facilities (offsetting the additional expense of the heavy water) and enhancing the ability of the reactor to make use of alternate fuel cycles. At the beginning of 2001, 31 heavy water cooled and moderated nuclear power plants were in operation, having a total capacity of 16.5 GW(e), representing roughly 7.76% by number and 4.7% by generating capacity of all current operating reactors.
Purpose of using heavy waterEdit
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The key to maintaining a nuclear reaction within a nuclear reactor is to use the neutrons released during fission to stimulate fission in other nuclei. With careful control over the geometry and reaction rates, this can lead to a self-sustaining chain reaction, a state known as "criticality".
Natural uranium consists of a mixture of various isotopes, primarily 238U and a much smaller amount (about 0.72% by weight) of 235U. 238U can only be fissioned by neutrons that are relatively energetic, about 1 MeV or above. No amount of 238U can be made "critical" since it will tend to parasitically absorb more neutrons than it releases by the fission process. 235U, on the other hand, can support a self-sustained chain reaction, but due to the low natural abundance of 235U, natural uranium cannot achieve criticality by itself.
The "trick" to making a working reactor fuelled by natural or low enriched uranium is to slow enough of the neutrons to the point where their probability of causing nuclear fission in 235U increases to a level that permits a sustained chain reaction in the uranium as a whole. This requires the use of a neutron moderator, which absorbs some of the neutrons' kinetic energy, slowing them down to an energy comparable to the thermal energy of the moderator nuclei themselves (leading to the terminology of "thermal neutrons" and "thermal reactors"). During this slowing-down process it is beneficial to physically separate the neutrons from the uranium, since 238U nuclei have an enormous parasitic affinity for neutrons in this intermediate energy range (a reaction known as "resonance" absorption). This is a fundamental reason for designing reactors with discrete solid fuel separated by moderator, rather than employing a more homogeneous mixture of the two materials.
Water makes an excellent moderator; the hydrogen atoms in the water molecules are very close in mass to a single neutron, and the collisions thus have a very efficient momentum transfer, similar conceptually to the collision of two billiard balls. However, despite being a good moderator, water is relatively effective at absorbing neutrons. Using water as a moderator will absorb so many neutrons that there will be too few left to react with the small amount of 235U in the fuel, thus precluding criticality in natural uranium. Instead, in order to fuel a light-water reactor, first the amount of 235U in the uranium must be increased, producing enriched uranium, which generally contains between 3% and 5% 235U by weight (the waste from this process is known as depleted uranium, consisting primarily of 238U). In this enriched form there is enough 235U to react with the water-moderated neutrons to maintain criticality.
One complication of this approach is the need for uranium enrichment facilities, which are generally expensive to build and operate. They also present a nuclear proliferation concern; the same systems used to enrich the 235U can also be used to produce much more "pure" weapons-grade material (90% or more 235U), suitable for producing a nuclear weapon. This is not a trivial exercise by any means, but feasible enough that enrichment facilities present a significant nuclear proliferation risk.
An alternative solution to the problem is to use a moderator that does not absorb neutrons as readily as water. In this case potentially all of the neutrons being released can be moderated and used in reactions with the 235U, in which case there is enough 235U in natural uranium to sustain criticality. One such moderator is heavy water, or deuterium-oxide. Although it reacts dynamically with the neutrons in a fashion similar to light water (albeit with less energy transfer on average, given that heavy hydrogen, or deuterium, is about twice the mass of hydrogen), it already has the extra neutron that light water would normally tend to absorb.
Advantages and disadvantagesEdit
The use of heavy water as the moderator is the key to the PHWR (pressurized heavy water reactor) system, enabling the use of natural uranium as the fuel (in the form of ceramic UO2), which means that it can be operated without expensive uranium enrichment facilities. The mechanical arrangement of the PHWR, which places most of the moderator at lower temperatures, is particularly efficient because the resulting thermal neutrons are "more thermal" than in traditional designs, where the moderator normally is much hotter. These features mean that a PHWR can use natural uranium and other fuels, and does so more efficiently than light water reactors (LWRs).
Pressurised heavy-water reactors do have some drawbacks. Heavy water generally costs hundreds of dollars per kilogram, though this is a trade-off against reduced fuel costs. The reduced energy content of natural uranium as compared to enriched uranium necessitates more frequent replacement of fuel; this is normally accomplished by use of an on-power refuelling system. The increased rate of fuel movement through the reactor also results in higher volumes of spent fuel than in LWRs employing enriched uranium. However, since unenriched uranium fuel accumulates a lower density of fission products than enriched uranium fuel, it generates less heat, allowing more compact storage.
Heavy-water reactors may pose a greater risk of nuclear proliferation versus comparable light-water reactors due the low neutron absorption properties of heavy water, discovered in 1937 by Hans von Halban and Otto Frisch. Occasionally, when an atom of 238U is exposed to neutron radiation, its nucleus will capture a neutron, changing it to 239U. The 239U then rapidly undergoes two β− decays — the first one emitting an electron and transmuting the 239U into 239Np, and the second one emitting an antineutrino and transmuting the 239Np into 239Pu. Although this process takes place with other moderators such as ultra-pure graphite or beryllium, heavy water is by far the best.
239Pu is a fissile material suitable for use in nuclear weapons. As a result, if the fuel of a heavy-water reactor is changed frequently, significant amounts of weapons-grade plutonium can be chemically extracted from the irradiated natural uranium fuel by nuclear reprocessing.
In addition, the use of heavy water as a moderator results in the production of small amounts of tritium when the deuterium nuclei in the heavy water absorb neutrons, a very inefficient reaction. Tritium is essential for the production of boosted fission weapons, which in turn enable the easier production of thermonuclear weapons, including neutron bombs. It is unclear whether it is possible to use this method to produce tritium on a practical scale.
The proliferation risk of heavy-water reactors was demonstrated when India produced the plutonium for Operation Smiling Buddha, its first nuclear weapon test, by extraction from the spent fuel of a heavy-water research reactor known as the CIRUS reactor.
- Marion Brünglinghaus. "Natural uranium". euronuclear.org. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- "An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility - Exploring a Russian Site as a Prototype: Proceedings of an International Workshop". nap.edu. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Waltham, Chris (June 2002). "An Early History of Heavy Water" (PDF). Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia: 28 – via https://arxiv.org.
- "India's Nuclear Weapons Program: Smiling Buddha: 1974". Retrieved 23 June 2017.