Heat (1995 film)
Heat is a 1995 American neo-noir crime film written, produced, and directed by Michael Mann, starring Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, and Val Kilmer. De Niro plays Neil McCauley, a seasoned professional at robberies, and Pacino plays Lt. Vincent Hanna, an LAPD robbery-homicide detective tracking down Neil's crew after a botched heist leaves three security guards dead. The story is based on the former Chicago police officer Chuck Adamson's pursuit during the 1960s of a criminal named McCauley, after whom De Niro's character is named. Heat is a remake by Mann of an unproduced television series he had worked on, the pilot of which was released as the TV movie L.A. Takedown in 1989.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Michael Mann|
|Written by||Michael Mann|
|Music by||Elliot Goldenthal|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros.|
|Box office||$187.4 million|
Heat was a critical and commercial success, grossing $67 million in the United States and a total $187 million worldwide against a $60 million budget.
Professional thief Neil McCauley lives by a personal code: have nothing in your life you cannot leave behind if you need to escape the police. He and his crew – Chris Shiherlis, Michael Cheritto and Trejo – hire Waingro to help rob $1.6 million in bearer bonds from an armored car. During the heist, Waingro impulsively kills a guard. Another guard reaches for his concealed pistol, forcing the crew to kill him as well. McCauley gives the order to kill the third guard so as not to leave an eyewitness, but is incensed with Waingro for the needless escalation. McCauley's crew prepares to kill Waingro, but are distracted by a passing police cruiser, and he escapes.
McCauley begins a relationship with Eady. His fence, Nate, suggests he sell the stolen bonds back to their original owner, money launderer Roger Van Zant, who could profit by claiming the insurance on the bonds. Van Zant agrees, but instructs his men to ambush McCauley at the meeting. McCauley survives the ambush, killing both of Van Zant's men, and vows revenge against Van Zant, threatening him by telephone.
LAPD Major Crimes Unit Lieutenant Vincent Hanna investigates the robbery with Sergeant Drucker and Detectives Casals, Bosko, and Schwartz. An informant connects Cheritto to the robbery, and Hanna's team surveils him. Hanna's team stakes out the crew's next target, a precious metals depository; when a careless officer makes a noise, McCauley makes the crew walk off the job. Hanna lets them go so he can continue gathering evidence, rather than arrest them on a minor breaking and entering charge.
Despite the increased police surveillance, McCauley's crew agrees to one last bank robbery worth $12.2 million. Hanna pulls over McCauley on the 105 Freeway and invites him to coffee. They talk about their commitment to their fields and limitations of their personal lives. Hanna says that his third marriage, to Justine, is near failure, and McCauley confides that he is similarly isolated. They both acknowledge that they will kill the other if necessary. When Hanna returns to his office, he learns that McCauley's crew have slipped their surveillance.
Waingro, having made a deal with Van Zant to help eliminate McCauley's crew, tortures Trejo for information. Acting on a tip from Van Zant's bodyguard Hugh Benny, the LAPD intercept the crew as they are leaving the bank, resulting in a massive shootout in Downtown Los Angeles. Bosko is killed and many police officers are also killed or wounded, while McCauley loses Cheritto and his alternate driver Donald Breeden, and Shiherlis is wounded. McCauley arrives at Trejo's house to find Trejo's wife murdered. A dying Trejo reveals Waingro's involvement, prompting McCauley to kill Van Zant. Eady realizes that McCauley is a criminal but ultimately agrees to flee the country with him. Shiherlis attempts to reconnect with his wife Charlene, who is helping the LAPD in a sting operation to capture him. She changes her mind and helps him escape, albeit without a way to keep their son Dominic in his life.
Hanna finds his stepdaughter Lauren unresponsive in the bathtub after a suicide attempt and rushes her to the hospital. He and Justine comfort each other after learning that she has survived. Meanwhile, McCauley drives to the airport with Eady to flee to New Zealand, but learns of Waingro's location and abandons his usual caution to seek revenge. The LAPD learns of McCauley's arrival at Waingro's hotel. McCauley kills Waingro, but before he can return to Eady and escape, he is spotted by Hanna and flees alone on foot. Hanna pursues McCauley onto the tarmac at LAX and mortally wounds him. Hanna takes his hand as McCauley succumbs to his injuries.
- Al Pacino as Vincent Hanna
- Robert De Niro as Neil McCauley
- Val Kilmer as Chris Shiherlis
- Jon Voight as Nate
- Tom Sizemore as Michael Cheritto
- Diane Venora as Justine
- Amy Brenneman as Eady
- Ashley Judd as Charlene
- Mykelti Williamson as Drucker
- Wes Studi as Casals
- Ted Levine as Bosko
- Dennis Haysbert as Breedan
- William Fichtner as Van Zant
- Natalie Portman as Lauren
- Tom Noonan as Kelso
- Kevin Gage as Waingro
- Hank Azaria as Marciano
- Susan Traylor as Elaine Cheritto
- Kim Staunton as Lillian
- Danny Trejo as Trejo
De Niro was the first cast member to get the film script, showing it to Pacino who also wanted to be a part of the film. De Niro believed Heat was a "very good story, had a particular feel to it, a reality and authenticity." Xander Berkeley had played Waingro in L.A. Takedown, an earlier rendition of Mann's script for Heat. He was cast in a minor role in Heat. In 2016, Pacino revealed that his character was under the influence of cocaine throughout the whole film.
In order to prepare the actors for the roles of McCauley's crew, Mann took Kilmer, Sizemore and De Niro to Folsom State Prison to interview actual career criminals. While researching her role, Ashley Judd met several former prostitutes who became housewives.
Heat is based on the true story of Neil McCauley, a calculating criminal and ex-Alcatraz inmate who was tracked down by Detective Chuck Adamson in 1964. In 1961, McCauley was transferred from Alcatraz to McNeil, as mentioned in the film. When he was released, in 1962, he immediately began planning new heists. With Michael Parille and William Pinkerton, they used bolt cutters and drills to burgle a manufacturing company of diamond drill bits, a scene which is recreated in the film. Detective Chuck Adamson, upon whom Al Pacino's character is largely based, began keeping tabs on McCauley's crew around this time, knowing that he had become active again. The two even met for coffee once, just as portrayed in the film. Their dialogue in the script was based on the conversation that McCauley and Adamson had. The next time the two met, guns were drawn, just as the movie portrays.
On March 25, 1964, McCauley and members of his regular crew followed an armored car that delivered money to a National Tea grocery store at 4720 S. Cicero Avenue, Chicago. Once the drop was made, three of the robbers entered the store. They threatened the clerks and stole money bags worth $13,137 (equivalent to $106,000 in 2018) before they sped off in a rainstorm amid a hail of police gunfire.
McCauley's crew was unaware that Adamson and eight other detectives had blocked off all potential exits, and when the getaway car turned down an alley and the bandits saw the blockade, they realized they were trapped. All four exited the vehicle and began firing. Two of his crew, Russell Bredon (Breaden) and Parille, were slain in an alley while a third man, Miklos Polesti (on whom Chris Shiherlis is very loosely based), shot his way out and escaped. McCauley was shot to death on the lawn of a nearby home. He was 50 years old and the prime suspect in several burglaries. Polesti was caught days later and sent to prison. As of 2011 Polesti was still alive.
Adamson went on to a successful career as a television and film producer, and died in 2008 at age 71. Michael Mann's 2009 film Public Enemies stated in its end credits "In memory of Chuck Adamson". As an additional inspiration for Hanna, in a 1995 interview Mann cited an unnamed man working internationally against drug cartels. Additionally, the character of Nate, played by Jon Voight, is based on real-life former career criminal and fence turned writer Edward Bunker, who served as a consultant to Mann on the film.
Canceled TV series
In 1979, Mann wrote a 180-page draft of Heat. He re-wrote it after making Thief in 1981 hoping to find a director to make it and mentioning it publicly in a promotional interview for his 1983 film The Keep. In the late 1980s, he offered the film to his friend, film director Walter Hill, who turned him down. Following the success of Miami Vice and Crime Story, Mann was to produce a new crime television show for NBC. He turned the script that would become Heat into a 90-minute pilot for a television series featuring the Los Angeles Police Department Robbery–Homicide division, featuring Scott Plank in the role of Hanna and Alex McArthur playing the character of Neil McCauley, renamed to Patrick McLaren. The pilot was shot in only nineteen days, atypical for Mann. The script was abridged down to almost a third of its original length, omitting many subplots that made it into Heat. The network was unhappy with Plank as the lead actor, and asked Mann to recast Hanna's role. Mann declined and the show was canceled and the pilot aired on August 27, 1989 as a television film entitled L.A. Takedown. which was later released on VHS and DVD in Europe.
In April 1994, Mann was reported to have abandoned his earlier plan to shoot a biopic of James Dean in favor of directing Heat, producing it with Art Linson. The film was marketed as the first on-screen appearance of Al Pacino and Robert De Niro together in the same scene – both actors had previously starred in The Godfather Part II, but owing to the nature of their roles, they were never seen in the same scene. Pacino and De Niro were Mann's first choices for the roles of Hanna and McCauley, respectively, and they both immediately agreed to act.
Mann assigned Janice Polley, a former collaborator on The Last of the Mohicans, as the film's location manager. Scouting locations lasted from August to December 1994. Mann requested locations which did not appear on film before, in which Polley was successful – fewer than 10 of the 85 filming locations were previously used. The most challenging shooting location proved to be Los Angeles International Airport, with the film crew almost missing out due to a threat to the airport by the Unabomber.
To make the long shootout more realistic they hired British ex-Special Air Service special forces sergeant Andy McNab as a technical weapons trainer and adviser. He designed a weapons training curriculum to train the actors for three months using live ammunition before shooting with blanks for the actual take and worked with training them for the bank robbery.
Heat was released on December 15, 1995, and opened #3 in the box office with $8.4 million from 1,325 theaters, finishing third behind Jumanji and Toy Story. It went on to have a total gross of $67.4 million in United States box offices, and $120 million in foreign box offices. Heat was ranked the #25 highest-grossing film of 1995.
Heat was released on VHS in June 1996. Due to its running time, the film had to be released on two cassettes. A DVD release followed in 1999. A two-disc special-edition DVD was released in 2005, featuring an audio commentary by Michael Mann, deleted scenes, and numerous documentaries detailing the film's production. This edition contains the original theatrical cut.
The initial Blu-ray Disc was released on November 10, 2009, featuring a high-definition film transfer, supervised by Mann. Among the disc extras were Mann's audio commentary, a one-hour documentary about the making of the film and ten minutes worth of scenes cut from the film. As well as approving the look of the transfer, Mann also recut two scenes slightly differently, referring to them as "new content changes".
A Director's Definitive Edition Blu-Ray was released on May 9, 2017 by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, who acquired the distribution rights to the film through their part-ownership of Regency back in 2015. Sourced from a 4K remaster of the film supervised by Mann, the two disc set contains all the extras from the 2009 Blu-ray, along with two filmmakers panels from 2015 and 2016, one of which was moderated by Christopher Nolan.
On Rotten Tomatoes the film holds an approval rating of 86% based on 79 reviews, with an average rating of 7.81/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Heat is an engrossing crime drama that draws compelling performances from its stars." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 76 out of 100, based on 22 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A−" on an A+ to F scale.
Roger Ebert gave the film 3 1⁄2 stars out of 4. He described Mann's script as "uncommonly literate", with a psychological insight into the symbiotic relationship between police and criminals, and the fractured intimacy between the male and female characters: "It's not just an action picture. Above all, the dialogue is complex enough to allow the characters to say what they're thinking: They are eloquent, insightful, fanciful, poetic when necessary. They're not trapped with cliches. Of the many imprisonments possible in our world, one of the worst must be to be inarticulate — to be unable to tell another person what you really feel." Simon Cote of The Austin Chronicle called the film "one of the most intelligent crime-thrillers to come along in years", and said Pacino and De Niro's scenes together were "poignant and gripping."
Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called the film a "sleek, accomplished piece of work, meticulously controlled and completely involving. The dark end of the street doesn't get much more inviting than this." Todd McCarthy of Variety wrote, "Stunningly made and incisively acted by a large and terrific cast, Michael Mann's ambitious study of the relativity of good and evil stands apart from other films of its type by virtue of its extraordinarily rich characterizations and its thoughtful, deeply melancholy take on modern life." Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave it a B− rating, saying that "Mann's action scenes ... have an existential, you-are-there jitteriness," but called the heist-planning and Hanna's investigation scenes "dry, talky."
Several of the film's scenes were cited by the news media as resembling later robberies. This included armored car robberies in South Africa, Colombia, Denmark, and Norway and most famously the 1997 North Hollywood shootout, in which Larry Phillips, Jr. and Emil Mătăsăreanu robbed the North Hollywood branch of the Bank of America and, similarly to the film, were confronted by the LAPD as they left the bank. Phillips had a copy of the movie where he lived. This shootout is considered one of the longest and bloodiest events of its type in American police history. Both robbers were killed, and eleven police officers and seven civilians were injured during the shootout. Heat was widely referenced during the coverage of the shootout.
For his film The Dark Knight, director Christopher Nolan drew inspiration in his portrayal of Gotham City from Heat in order "to tell a very large, city story or the story of a city". In 2016, a year after its 20th anniversary, Nolan moderated a Q&A session with Michael Mann and cast and crew at the Academy.
Heat was one of the inspirations behind the highly influential 2001 video game Grand Theft Auto III as well as its 2013 sequel Grand Theft Auto V, notably the mission "Blitz Play" where the crew blocks and then knocks over an armored car in order to rob it.
|Heat: Music from the Motion Picture|
|Soundtrack album by |
|Released||December 19, 1995|
|Genre||Classical, Avant-garde, Modernist, Jazz fusion, Electronica, Alternative rock|
|Elliot Goldenthal chronology|
On December 19, 1995, Warner Bros. Records released a soundtrack album on cassette and CD to accompany the film, entitled Heat: Music from the Motion Picture. The album was produced by Matthias Gohl. It contains a 29-minute selection of the film score composed by Elliot Goldenthal, as well as songs by other artists such as U2 and Brian Eno (collaborating as Passengers), Terje Rypdal, Moby, and Lisa Gerrard. Heat used an abridged instrumental rendition of the Joy Division song "New Dawn Fades" by Moby, which also features in the same form on the soundtrack album. Mann reused the Einstürzende Neubauten track "Armenia" in his 1999 film The Insider. The film ends with Moby's "God Moving Over the Face of the Waters", a different version of which was included at the end of the soundtrack album.
Mann and Goldenthal decided on an atmospheric situation for the film soundtrack. Goldenthal used a setup consisting of multiple guitars, which he termed "guitar orchestra", and thought it brought the film score closer to a European style. The soundtrack was noted for lack of a central theme. Christian Clemmensen of Filmtracks.com criticized the omission from the album of much music heard in the film due to the film's length, but praised the album as a decent listening experience, and Goldenthal's score as "psychologically engaging and intellectually challenging", believing it to be one of Goldenthal's best. AllMusic called it a "soundtrack for the mind ... full of twists and turns". Musicfromthemovies.com thought of the album as uncharacteristic for Goldenthal's style, calling the atmosphere "absolutely electrifying".
|1.||"Heat"||Elliot Goldenthal||Kronos Quartet||7:41|
|2.||"Always Forever Now" (from Original Soundtracks 1, 1995)||U2; Brian Eno||Passengers||6:54|
|3.||"Condensers"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||2:35|
|4.||"Refinery Surveillance"||Elliot Goldenthal||Kronos Quartet||1:45|
|5.||"Last Nite" (from Blue, 1987)||Terje Rypdal||Terje Rypdal & The Chasers||3:29|
|6.||"Ultramarine" (from Cobalt Blue, 1992)||Michael Brook||Michael Brook||4:35|
|7.||"Armenia" (from Zeichnungen des Patienten O. T., 1983)||Blixa Bargeld; F.M. Einheit||Einstürzende Neubauten||4:58|
|8.||"Of Helplessness"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||2:39|
|9.||"Steel Cello Lament"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||1:43|
|10.||"Mystery Man" (from The Singles Collection, 1989)||Terje Rypdal||Terje Rypdal & The Chasers||4:39|
|11.||"New Dawn Fades" (from I Like to Score, 1997)||Ian Curtis; Peter Hook; Stephen Morris; Bernard Sumner||Moby||2:51|
|12.||"Entrada & Shootout"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||1:49|
|13.||"Force Marker"||Brian Eno||Brian Eno||3:36|
|14.||"Coffee Shop"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||1:38|
|15.||"Fate Scrapes"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||1:34|
|16.||"La Bas: Song of the Drowned [Edited Version]" (from The Mirror Pool, 1995)||Lisa Gerrard||Lisa Gerrard||3:10|
|17.||"Gloradin" (from The Mirror Pool, 1995)||Lisa Gerrard||Lisa Gerrard||3:56|
|18.||"Run Uphill"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||2:51|
|19.||"Predator Diorama"||Elliot Goldenthal||Kronos Quartet||2:40|
|20.||"Of Separation"||Elliot Goldenthal||Elliot Goldenthal||2:21|
|21.||"God Moving Over the Face of the Waters" (from Everything Is Wrong, 1995)||Richard Hall||Moby||6:58|
A video game based on the film was announced at E3 2006, under development by Gearbox Software for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. During E3 2009, it was revealed that Gearbox did not have the license of the film to make the game, as this was being optioned to be sold. Michael Mann, director of the film, was reported to be involved with the game. In a 2009 interview Randy Pitchford, President, CEO, and co-founder of Gearbox Software, said that development of the game had been halted and the IP could potentially be available to another developer saying:
In a nutshell, we're nowhere. We have passionate game makers that would love to do it. We've got filmmakers that think it's a great idea that would love to see it done. We have publishing partners that would love to publish it. But we have no time. That's the limiting factor. Because of the situation, we're not keeping the IP locked down anymore. So if somebody else were in a spot where they could do it, and everybody was comfortable with that, then conceivably that could happen.
- "Heat (1995)". JP's Box-Office (in French). Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Heat (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
- Silver, Alain; Ward, Elizabeth; Ursini, James; Porfirio, Robert (2010). Film Noir: The Encyclopaedia. Overlook Duckworth (New York). ISBN 978-1-59020-144-2.
- McCarthy, Todd (December 5, 1995). "Review: Heat". Variety. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- George M. Thomas (February 27, 2005). "He's a Goofy Goober; 'Heat'". Akron Beacon Journal.
- Lafrance, J.D. (November 19, 2010). "Heat". Radiator Heaven. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Mann, Michael (director, writer) (August 27, 1989). L.A. Takedown (Television film). NBC.
- Stolworthy, Jacob (September 8, 2016). "Christopher Nolan interviewed Robert De Niro and Al Pacino about Heat". The Independent. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- Wael Khairy. "Crime in the emptiness of Los Angeles". rogerebert.com.
- Rybin, Steven (2007). The Cinema of Michael Mann. Lexington Books.
- DVD Extra Interview with Michael Mann; The Making of Heat
- "Heroes Commended by Wilson; Warns Gangs: Flee or be Killed". Chicago Tribune. March 27, 1965. p. 2. Retrieved November 25, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
- "We've got them all!!!". scrappygraphics.com.
- "Adamson, Chuck". Las Vegas Review-Journal. March 2, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- Tatara, Paul. "Heat (1995)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Edward Bunker". Telegraph.co.uk. July 26, 2005.
- Mann, Michael (director, writer) (March 19, 2008). L.A. Takedown (DVD). Concorde Video.
- Fleming, Michael (April 5, 1994). "Mann prepping De Niro-Pacino pic". Variety. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
- Mann, Michael (Director) (February 22, 2005). The Making of 'Heat' (DVD, part of Heat – Two-Disc Special Edition). Warner Home Video.
- Klimek, Chris (January 15, 2015). "The long warm-up to Heat". The Dissolve. Archived from the original on July 27, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Heat Shootout Behind the Scenes Feature. YouTube. October 8, 2009.
- "Weekend Box Office Results for December 15-17, 1995". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "Heat (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- Tuckman, Jeff (June 21, 1996). "Pacino and De Niro shoot up the screen in explosive 'Heat' On video". Daily Herald. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- Nichols, Peter M. (April 19, 1996). "Home Video". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2010.
- Mann, Michael (director) (November 1, 1999). Heat (DVD). Warner Home Video.
- "'Heat' Rewind DVD comparison".
- "Heat Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. November 10, 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Kenneth, Brown (November 4, 2009). "Heat Blu-ray Review". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "'Heat' Home Theater Forum Blu-ray review".
- "Heat Director's Definitive Blu-ray Edition Detailed". blu-ray.com. Retrieved July 25, 2017.
- "Heat (1995)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 15, 2018.
- "Heat (1995): Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- "cinemascore.com". CinemaScore.
- "Heat :: Reviews". RogerEbert.com. December 15, 1995. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- "Heat". The Austin Chronicle. September 22, 1997. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Critic Reviews for Heat". Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Gleiberman, Owen (December 22, 1995). "Heat Review". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- "Just Blame The Heat". Free.financialmail.co.za. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- McDermott, Jeremy (August 5, 2003). "Life imitates art in Colombia robbery". BBC News. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- "The big coup". Translate.google.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Rogers, Kenneth (2013). "Capital Implications: the Function of Labor in the Video Art of Juan Devis and Yoshua Okon". Digital Media, Cultural Production and Speculative Capitalism. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 9781317982319.
- James, Nick (2002). Heat. Macmillan Publishers. pp. 74–76. ISBN 9780851709383.
- Stax (December 6, 2007). "IGN interviews Christopher Nolan". IGN Movies. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
- Tapley, Kristopher (September 7, 2016). "Christopher Nolan Talks Michael Mann's 'Heat' With Cast and Crew at the Academy". Variety. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- Kushner, David (April 3, 2012). Jacked: The Outlaw Story of Grand Theft Auto. Turner Publishing Company. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-4709-3637-5.
- Petit, Carolyn (October 8, 2013). "Taking Scores: Heat and Grand Theft Auto V". GameSpot. Retrieved October 13, 2016.
- Fleming, Jr, Mike (March 16, 2016). "Michael Mann Launches Book Imprint; 'Heat' Prequel Novel A Priority". Deadline Hollywood.
- Clemmensen, Christian (August 11, 2003). "Heat". Filmtracks.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Heat". Musicfromthemovies.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- McDonald, Steven. "Heat: Music from the Motion Picture - Original Soundtrack". AllMusic. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Lisa Gerrard – The Insider". AllMusic. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Goldwasser, Dan (January 2000). "The Sweet Revenge of Elliot Goldenthal". Soundtrack.Net. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Dunham, Jeremy (May 12, 2006). "E3 2006: Regency Brings the Heat". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- "E3 2009: Borderlands Stage Demo". GameSpot. June 8, 2009. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- Thorsen, Tor (August 2, 2009). "Gearbox keeping Heat on ice". GameSpot. Retrieved September 22, 2012.