Heart of Darkness

Heart of Darkness (1899) is a novella by Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad about a narrated voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State in the Heart of Africa.[1] Charles Marlow, the narrator, tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames. This setting provides the frame for Marlow's story of his obsession with the successful ivory trader Kurtz. Conrad offers parallels between London ("the greatest town on earth") and Africa as places of darkness.[2]

Heart of Darkness
Blackwood's Magazine - 1899 cover.jpg
Heart of Darkness was first published as a three-part serial story in Blackwood's Magazine.
AuthorJoseph Conrad
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreNovella
Published1899 serial; 1902 book
PublisherBlackwood's Magazine
Preceded byThe Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897) 
Followed byLord Jim (1900) 
TextHeart of Darkness at Wikisource

Central to Conrad's work is the idea that there is little difference between "civilised people" and "savages." Heart of Darkness implicitly comments on imperialism and racism.[3]

Originally issued as a three-part serial story in Blackwood's Magazine to celebrate the thousandth edition of the magazine,[4] Heart of Darkness has been widely re-published and translated into many languages. It provided the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film Apocalypse Now. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Heart of Darkness 67th on their list of the 100 best novels in English of the twentieth century.[5]

Composition and publicationEdit

 
Joseph Conrad based Heart of Darkness on his own experiences in the Congo.

In 1890, at the age of 32, Conrad was appointed by a Belgian trading company to serve on one of its steamers. While sailing up the Congo River from one station to another, the captain became ill and Conrad assumed command. He guided the ship up the tributary Lualaba River to the trading company's innermost station, Kindu, in Eastern Kongo; Marlow has similar experiences to the author.[6]

When Conrad began to write the novella, eight years after returning from Africa, he drew inspiration from his travel journals.[6] He described Heart of Darkness as "a wild story" of a journalist who becomes manager of a station in the (African) interior and makes himself worshipped by a tribe of savages. The tale was first published as a three-part serial, in February, March and April 1899, in Blackwood's Magazine (February 1899 was the magazine's 1000th issue: special edition). In 1902 Heart of Darkness was included in the book Youth: a Narrative, and Two Other Stories, published on 13 November 1902 by William Blackwood.

The volume consisted of Youth: a Narrative, Heart of Darkness and The End of the Tether in that order. In 1917, for future editions of the book, Conrad wrote an "Author's Note" where he, after denying any "unity of artistic purpose" underlying the collection, discusses each of the three stories and makes light commentary on Marlow, the narrator of the tales within the first two stories. He said Marlow first appeared in Youth.

On 31 May 1902, in a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad remarked,

I call your own kind self to witness ... the last pages of Heart of Darkness where the interview of the man and the girl locks in—as it were—the whole 30000 words of narrative description into one suggestive view of a whole phase of life and makes of that story something quite on another plane than an anecdote of a man who went mad in the Centre of Africa.[7]

There have been many proposed sources for the character of the antagonist, Kurtz. Georges-Antoine Klein, an agent who became ill and died aboard Conrad's steamer, is proposed by literary critics as a basis for Kurtz.[8] The principal figures involved in the disastrous "rear column" of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition have also been identified as likely sources, including column leader Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, slave trader Tippu Tip and the expedition leader, Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley.[9][10] Conrad's biographer Norman Sherry judged that Arthur Hodister (1847–1892), a Belgian solitary but successful trader, who spoke three Congolese languages and was venerated by Congolese to the point of deification, served as the main model, while later scholars have refuted this hypothesis.[11][12][13] Adam Hochschild, in King Leopold's Ghost, believes that the Belgian soldier Léon Rom influenced the character.[14] Peter Firchow mentions the possibility that Kurtz is a composite, modelled on various figures present in the Congo Free State at the time as well as on Conrad's imagining of what they might have had in common.[15]

SynopsisEdit

Aboard the Nellie, anchored in the River Thames near Gravesend, Charles Marlow tells fellow sailors how he became captain of a river steamboat for an ivory trading company. As a child, Marlow was fascinated by "the blank spaces" on maps, particularly Africa. The image of a river on the map particularly fascinated Marlow.

In flashback, Marlow makes his way to Africa, taking passage on a steamer. He departs 30 mi (50 km) up the river where his company's station is. Work on a railway is going on. Marlow explores a narrow ravine, and is horrified to find himself in a place full of diseased Africans who worked on the railroad and are now dying.

Marlow must wait for ten days in the company's Outer Station, which strikes Marlow as a scene of devastation. He meets the company's chief accountant, who tells him of a Mr. Kurtz, who is in charge of a very important trading post, and a widely respected, first-class agent. The accountant predicts that Kurtz will go far.

 
Belgian river station on the Congo River, 1889

Marlow departs with sixty men to travel on foot about 200 miles (320 km) to the Central Station, where the steamboat that he is to captain is based. After fifteen days, he arrives at the station only to learn that his steamboat has been wrecked in an accident. He meets the general manager, who informs him that he could not wait for Marlow to arrive because the up-river stations had to be relieved, and tells him of a rumour that Kurtz is ill. Marlow fishes his boat out of the river and spends months repairing it. At one point Marlow is invited into the room of the station's brickmaker. Hanging on the wall is "a small sketch in oils, on a panel, representing a woman draped and blindfolded carrying a lighted torch". Marlow is fascinated with the sinister effect of the torchlight upon the woman's face, and is informed that Mr. Kurtz made the painting a year earlier. The brickmaker predicts Kurtz will rise in the hierarchy, before telling Marlow that, "The same people who sent him specially also recommended you."

Marlow is frustrated by the time it takes to perform the repairs, delayed by the lack of tools and replacement parts. He learns that Kurtz is resented, not admired by the manager. Once underway, the journey to Kurtz's station takes two months.

 
The Roi des Belges ("King of the Belgians"—French), the Belgian riverboat Conrad commanded on the upper Congo, 1889

The journey pauses for the night about 8 miles (13 km) below the Inner Station. In the morning the boat is enveloped by a thick fog. The steamboat is later attacked by a barrage of arrows, and the helmsman is killed. Marlow sounds the steam whistle repeatedly, frightening the attackers away.

After landing at Kurtz's station, a man boards the steamboat: a Russian wanderer who strayed into Kurtz's camp. Marlow learns that the natives worship Kurtz, and that he has been very ill of late. The Russian tells of how Kurtz opened his mind and seems to admire Kurtz even for his power and his willingness to use it. Marlow suggests that Kurtz has gone mad.

Marlow observes the station and sees a row of posts topped with the severed heads of natives. Around the corner of the house, the manager appears with the pilgrims, bearing a gaunt and ghost-like Kurtz. The area fills with natives ready for battle, but Kurtz shouts something from the stretcher and the natives retreat. The pilgrims carry Kurtz to the steamer and lay him in one of the cabins. The manager tells Marlow that Kurtz has harmed the company's business in the region, that his methods are "unsound". The Russian reveals that Kurtz believes the company wants to kill him, and Marlow confirms that hangings were discussed.

 
Arthur Hodister (1847-1892), who Conrad's biographer Norman Sherry has argued served as one of the sources of inspiration for Kurtz

After midnight, Marlow discovers that Kurtz has returned to shore. He finds Kurtz crawling back to the station house. Marlow threatens to harm Kurtz if he raises an alarm, but Kurtz only laments that he had not accomplished more. The next day they prepare to journey back down the river. The natives assemble on shore and begin shouting unintelligibly. Marlow sounds the steam whistle repeatedly to scatter the crowd of natives.

Kurtz's health worsens during the trip and Marlow becomes increasingly ill. The steamboat breaks down, and while stopped for repairs, Kurtz gives Marlow a packet of papers, including his commissioned report and a photograph, telling him to keep them away from the manager. When Marlow next speaks with him, Kurtz is near death; Marlow hears him weakly whisper, "The horror! The horror!" A short while later, the "manager's boy" announces to the rest of the crew that Kurtz has died. The next day Marlow pays little attention to the pilgrims as they bury "something" in a muddy hole. He falls very ill, himself near death.

Upon his return to Europe, Marlow is embittered and contemptuous of the "civilised" world. Several callers come to retrieve the papers Kurtz entrusted to him, but Marlow withholds them or offers papers he knows they have no interest in. He gives Kurtz's report to a journalist, for publication if he sees fit. Marlow is left with some personal letters and a photograph of Kurtz's fiancée. When Marlow visits her, she is deep in mourning although it has been more than a year since Kurtz's death. She presses Marlow for information, asking him to repeat Kurtz's final words. Marlow tells her that Kurtz's final word was her name.

ReceptionEdit

Literary critic Harold Bloom wrote that Heart of Darkness had been analysed more than any other work of literature that is studied in universities and colleges, which he attributed to Conrad's "unique propensity for ambiguity," but it was not a big success during Conrad's life.[16][17] When it was published as a single volume in 1902 with two novellas, "Youth" and "The End of the Tether", it received the least commentary from critics.[17] F. R. Leavis referred to Heart of Darkness as a "minor work" and criticised its "adjectival insistence upon inexpressible and incomprehensible mystery".[18] Conrad did not consider it to be particularly notable.[17] But by the 1960s, it was a standard assignment in many college and high school English courses.[19]

In King Leopold's Ghost (1998), Adam Hochschild wrote that literary scholars have made too much of the psychological aspects of Heart of Darkness, while paying scant attention to Conrad's accurate recounting of the horror arising from the methods and effects of colonialism in the Congo Free State. "Heart of Darkness is experience ... pushed a little (and only very little) beyond the actual facts of the case".[20] Other critiques include Hugh Curtler's Achebe on Conrad: Racism and Greatness in Heart of Darkness (1997).[21] The French philosopher Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe called Heart of Darkness "one of the greatest texts of Western literature" and used Conrad's tale for a reflection on "The Horror of the West".[22]

 
Chinua Achebe's 1975 lecture on the book sparked decades of debate.

Heart of Darkness is criticised in postcolonial studies, particularly by Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe.[23][24] In his 1975 public lecture "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness", Achebe described Conrad's novella as "an offensive and deplorable book" that de-humanised Africans.[25] Achebe argued that Conrad, "blinkered ... with xenophobia", incorrectly depicted Africa as the antithesis of Europe and civilisation, ignoring the artistic accomplishments of the Fang people who lived in the Congo River basin at the time of the book's publication. He argued that the book promoted and continues to promote a prejudiced image of Africa that "depersonalises a portion of the human race" and concluded that it should not be considered a great work of art.[23][26]

Achebe's critics argue that he fails to distinguish Marlow's view from Conrad's, which results in very clumsy interpretations of the novella.[27] In their view, Conrad portrays Africans sympathetically and their plight tragically, and refers sarcastically to, and condemns outright, the supposedly noble aims of European colonists, thereby demonstrating his skepticism about the moral superiority of white men.[28] Ending a passage that describes the condition of chained, emaciated slaves, Marlow remarks: "After all, I also was a part of the great cause of these high and just proceedings." Some observers assert that Conrad, whose native country had been conquered by imperial powers, empathised by default with other subjugated peoples.[29] Jeffrey Meyers notes that Conrad, like his acquaintance Roger Casement, "was one of the first men to question the Western notion of progress, a dominant idea in Europe from the Renaissance to the Great War, to attack the hypocritical justification of colonialism and to reveal... the savage degradation of the white man in Africa."[30]:100–01 Likewise, E.D. Morel, who led international opposition to King Leopold II's rule in the Congo, saw Conrad's Heart of Darkness as a condemnation of colonial brutality and referred to the novella as "the most powerful thing written on the subject."[31]

Conrad scholar Peter Firchow writes that "nowhere in the novel does Conrad or any of his narrators, personified or otherwise, claim superiority on the part of Europeans on the grounds of alleged genetic or biological difference". If Conrad or his novel is racist, it is only in a weak sense, since Heart of Darkness acknowledges racial distinctions "but does not suggest an essential superiority" of any group.[32][33] Achebe's reading of Heart of Darkness can be (and has been) challenged by a reading of Conrad's other African story, "An Outpost of Progress", which has an omniscient narrator, rather than the embodied narrator, Marlow. Some younger scholars, such as Masood Ashraf Raja, have also suggested that if we read Conrad beyond Heart of Darkness, especially his Malay novels, racism can be further complicated by foregrounding Conrad's positive representation of Muslims.[34]

Zimbabwean scholar Rino Zhuwarara, however, broadly agreed with Achebe, though considered it important to be "sensitised to how peoples of other nations perceive Africa".[35] South African scholar Tshilidzi Marwala considered this book within the context of the destruction or removal of statues of people deemed to be racist in the aftermath of the death of George Floyd and concluded that books such as Heart of Darkness should be regulated when exposed to young people.[36] In 2003, Botswanan scholar Peter Mwikisa concluded the book was "the great lost opportunity to depict dialogue between Africa and Europe".[37] In his 1983 criticism, the British academic Cedric Watts criticizes the insinuation in Achebe's work—the premise that only black people may accurately analyse and assess the novella. Stan Galloway writes, in a comparison of Heart of Darkness with Jungle Tales of Tarzan, "The inhabitants [of both works], whether antagonists or compatriots, were clearly imaginary and meant to represent a particular fictive cipher and not a particular African people".[38]

The novelist Caryl Phillips stated in 2003 that: "Achebe is right; to the African reader the price of Conrad's eloquent denunciation of colonisation is the recycling of racist notions of the 'dark' continent and her people. Those of us who are not from Africa may be prepared to pay this price, but this price is far too high for Achebe".[39] More recent critics have stressed that the "continuities" between Conrad and Achebe are profound and that a form of "postcolonial mimesis" ties the two authors.[40]

Adaptations and influencesEdit

Radio and stageEdit

Orson Welles adapted and starred in Heart of Darkness in a CBS Radio broadcast on 6 November 1938 as part of his series, The Mercury Theatre on the Air. In 1939, Welles adapted the story for his first film for RKO Pictures,[41] writing a screenplay with John Houseman. The story was adapted to focus on the rise of a fascist dictator.[41] Welles intended to play Marlow and Kurtz[41] and it was to be entirely filmed as a POV from Marlow's eyes. Welles even filmed a short presentation film illustrating his intent. It has been reported as lost to history. The film's prologue to be read by Welles said "You aren't going to see this picture - this picture is going to happen to you."[41] The project was never realised; one reason given was the loss of European markets after the outbreak of war. Welles still hoped to produce the film when he presented another radio adaptation of the story as his first program as producer-star of the CBS radio series This Is My Best. Welles scholar Bret Wood called the broadcast of 13 March 1945, "the closest representation of the film Welles might have made, crippled, of course, by the absence of the story's visual elements (which were so meticulously designed) and the half-hour length of the broadcast."[42]:95, 153–156,136–137

In 1991, Australian author/playwright Larry Buttrose wrote and staged a theatrical adaptation titled Kurtz with the Crossroads Theatre Company, Sydney.[43] The play was announced to be broadcast as a radio play to Australian radio audiences in August 2011 by the Vision Australia Radio Network,[44] and also by the RPH – Radio Print Handicapped Network across Australia.

In 2011, composer Tarik O'Regan and librettist Tom Phillips adapted an opera of the same name, which premiered at the Linbury Theatre of the Royal Opera House in London.[45] A suite for orchestra and narrator was subsequently extrapolated from it.[46]

In 2015, an adaption of Welles' screenplay by Jamie Lloyd and Laurence Bowen aired on BBC Radio 4.[47] The production starred James McAvoy as Marlow.

Film and televisionEdit

The CBS television anthology Playhouse 90 aired a loose 90-minute adaptation in 1958, Heart of Darkness (Playhouse 90). This version, written by Stewart Stern, uses the encounter between Marlow (Roddy McDowall) and Kurtz (Boris Karloff) as its final act, and adds a backstory in which Marlow had been Kurtz's adopted son. The cast includes Inga Swenson and Eartha Kitt.[48]

Perhaps the best known adaptation is Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film Apocalypse Now, based on the screenplay by John Milius, which moves the story from the Congo to Vietnam and Cambodia during the Vietnam War.[49] In Apocalypse Now, Martin Sheen stars as Captain Benjamin L. Willard, a US Army Captain assigned to "terminate the command" of Colonel Walter E. Kurtz, played by Marlon Brando. A film documenting the production, titled Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse, showed some of the difficulties which director Coppola faced making the film, which resembled some of the novella's themes.

On 13 March 1993, TNT aired a new version of the story, directed by Nicolas Roeg, starring Tim Roth as Marlow and John Malkovich as Kurtz.[50]

James Gray's 2019 science fiction film Ad Astra is loosely inspired by the events of the novel. It features Brad Pitt as an astronaut travelling to the edge of the solar system to confront and potentially kill his father (Tommy Lee Jones), who has gone rogue.[51]

Video gamesEdit

The video game Far Cry 2, released on 21 October 2008, is a loose modernised adaptation of Heart of Darkness. The player assumes the role of a mercenary operating in Africa whose task it is to kill an arms dealer, the elusive "Jackal". The last area of the game is called "The Heart of Darkness".[52][53][54]

Spec Ops: The Line, released on 26 June 2012, is a direct modernised adaptation of Heart of Darkness. The player assumes the role of special-ops agent Martin Walker as he and his team search Dubai for survivors in the aftermath of catastrophic sandstorms that left the city without contact to the outside world. The character John Konrad, who replaces the character Kurtz, is a reference to Joseph Conrad.[55]

Victoria II, a grand strategy game produced by Paradox Interactive, launched an expansion pack titled "Heart of Darkness" on 16 April 2013, which revamped the game's colonial system, and naval warfare.[56]

World of Warcraft's seventh expansion, Battle for Azeroth, has a dark, swampy zone named Nazmir that makes many references to both Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now. Examples include the sub zone "Heart of Darkness" and a quest of the same name that mentions a character named "Captain Conrad", amongst others.[57][58]

LiteratureEdit

T. S. Eliot's 1925 poem The Hollow Men quotes, as its first epigraph, a line from Heart of Darkness: "Mistah Kurtz – he dead."[59] Eliot had planned to use a quotation from the climax of the tale as the epigraph for The Waste Land, but Ezra Pound advised against it.[60] Eliot said of the quote that "it is much the most appropriate I can find, and somewhat elucidative."[61] Biographer Peter Ackroyd suggested that the passage inspired or at least anticipated the central theme of the poem.[62]

The novel Hearts of Darkness by Paul Lawrence moves the events of the novel to England in 1666. Marlow's journey into the jungle becomes a journey by the narrator, Harry Lytle and his friend Davy Dowling out of London and towards Shyam, a plague-stricken town that has descended into cruelty and barbarism, loosely modelled on real-life Eyam. While Marlow must return to civilisation with Kurtz, Lytle and Dowling are searching for the spy James Josselin. Like Kurtz, Josselin's reputation is immense and the protagonists are well-acquainted with his accomplishments by the time they meet him.[63]

Poet Yedda Morrison's 2012 book Darkness erases Conrad's novella, "whiting out" his text so that only images of the natural world remain.[64]

James Reich's Mistah Kurtz! A Prelude to Heart of Darkness presents the early life of Kurtz, his appointment to his station in the Congo and his messianic disintegration in a novel that dovetails with the conclusion of Conrad's novella. Reich's novel is premised upon the papers Kurtz leaves to Marlow at the end of Heart of Darkness'.'[65]

In Josef Škvorecký's 1984 novel The Engineer of Human Souls, Kurtz is seen as the epitome of exterminatory colonialism and, there and elsewhere, Škvorecký emphasises the importance of Conrad's concern with Russian imperialism in Eastern Europe.[66]

Timothy Findley's 1993 novel Headhunter is an extensive adaptation that reimagines Kurtz and Marlow as psychiatrists in Toronto. The novel begins: "On a winter's day, while a blizzard raged through the streets of Toronto, Lilah Kemp inadvertently set Kurtz free from page 92 of Heart of Darkness."[67][68]

Another literary work with an acknowledged debt to Heart of Darkness is Wilson Harris' 1960 postcolonial novel Palace of the Peacock[69][70][71]

J.G. Ballard's 1962 climate fiction novel The Drowned World includes many similarities to Conrad's novella. However, Ballard said he had read nothing by Conrad before writing the novel, prompting literary critic Robert S. Lehman to remark that "the novel’s allusion to Conrad works nicely, even if it is not really an allusion to Conrad".[72][73]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Heart of Darkness Novella by Conrad Archived 9 April 2017 at the Wayback MachineEncyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 August 2015
  2. ^ Chinua Achebe "An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness" in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, vol. 2 (7th edition) (2000), p. 2036.
  3. ^ The Norton Anthology, 7th edition, (2000), p. 1957.
  4. ^ National Library of Scotland: Blackwoods magazine exhibition. In Blackwood's, the story is titled "The Heart of Darkness" but when published as a separate book "The" was dropped from the title.
  5. ^ 100 Best Archived 7 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Modern Library's website. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  6. ^ a b Bloom 2009, p. 15
  7. ^ Karl & Davies 1986, p. 417
  8. ^ Karl, F.R. (1968). "Introduction to the dance macabre: Conrad's Heart of Darkness". Modern Fiction Studies. 14 (2): 143–156.
  9. ^ Bloom 2009, p. 16
  10. ^ Hochschild, Adam (1998). King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. New York: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 98, 145. ISBN 978-0-395-75924-0 – via Internet Archive.
  11. ^ Sherry, Norman (1971). Conrad's Western World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 95.
  12. ^ Coosemans, M. (1948). "Hodister, Arthur". Biographie Coloniale Belge. I: 514–518.
  13. ^ Firchow, Peter (2015). Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 65–68.
  14. ^ Ankomah, Baffour (October 1999). "The Butcher of Congo". New African.
  15. ^ Firchow, Peter (2015). Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. University of Kentucky Press. pp. 67–68.
  16. ^ Bloom 2009, p. 17
  17. ^ a b c Moore 2004, p. 4
  18. ^ Moore 2004, p. 5
  19. ^ "13.02.01: Moving Beyond "Huh?": Ambiguity in Heart of Darkness".
  20. ^ Hochschild 1999, p. 143
  21. ^ Curtler, Hugh (March 1997). "Achebe on Conrad: Racism and Greatness in Heart of Darkness". Conradiana. 29 (1): 30–40.
  22. ^ Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe. "The Horror of the West". Bloomsbury.
  23. ^ a b Podgorski, Daniel (6 October 2015). "A Controversy Worth Teaching: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and the Ethics of Stature". The Gemsbok. Your Tuesday Tome. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  24. ^ "Chinua Achebe Biography". Biography.com. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  25. ^ Watts, Cedric (1983). "'A Bloody Racist': About Achebe's View of Conrad". The Yearbook of English Studies. 13: 196–209. doi:10.2307/3508121. JSTOR 3508121.
  26. ^ Achebe, Chinua (1978). "An Image of Africa". Research in African Literatures. 9 (1): 1–15. JSTOR 3818468.
  27. ^ Lackey, Michael (Winter 2005). "The Moral Conditions for Genocide in Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness"". College Literature. 32 (1): 20–41. doi:10.1353/lit.2005.0010. JSTOR 25115244.
  28. ^ Watts, Cedric (1983). "'A Bloody Racist': About Achebe's View of Conrad". The Yearbook of English Studies. 13: 196–209. doi:10.2307/3508121. JSTOR 3508121.
  29. ^ Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness, Book I.
  30. ^ Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: A Biography, 1991.
  31. ^ Morel, E.D. (1968). History of the Congo Reform Movement. Ed. William Roger Louis and Jean Stengers. London: Oxford UP. pp. 205, n.
  32. ^ Firchow, Peter (2000). Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-8131-2128-4.
  33. ^ Lackey, Michael (Summer 2003). "Conrad Scholarship Under New-Millennium Western Eyes". Journal of Modern Literature. 26 (3/4): 144. doi:10.1353/jml.2004.0030. S2CID 162347476.
  34. ^ Raja, Masood (2007). "Joseph Conrad: Question of Racism and the Representation of Muslims in his Malayan Works". Postcolonial Text. 3 (4): 13.
  35. ^ Moore 2004, p. 6
  36. ^ Marwala, Tshilidzi (30 June 2020). "Heart of Darkness: The falling of statues and the conundrum of offensive books". The Daily Maverick. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  37. ^ Mwikisa, Peter. "Conrad's Image of Africa: Recovering African Voices in Heart of Darkness. Mots Pluriels 13 (April 2000): 20–28.
  38. ^ Galloway, Stan. The Teenage Tarzan: A Literary Analysis of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Jungle Tales of Tarzan. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010. p. 112.
  39. ^ Phillips, Caryl (22 February 2003). "Out of Africa". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  40. ^ Lawtoo, Nidesh (2013). "A Picture of Africa: Frenzy, Counternarrative, Mimesis" (PDF). Modern Fiction Studies. 59 (1): 26–52. doi:10.1353/mfs.2013.0000. S2CID 161325915.
  41. ^ a b c d Hitchens, Gordon (13 June 1979). "Orson Welles Prior Interest In Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness'". Variety. p. 24.
  42. ^ Wood, Bret, Orson Welles: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990 ISBN 0-313-26538-0
  43. ^ "Larry Buttrose". doollee.com.
  44. ^ "Vision Australia". Visionaustralia.org. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  45. ^ Royal Opera House Page for Heart of Darkness Archived 20 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Tarik O'Regan and Tom Phillips
  46. ^ Suite from Heart of Darkness first London performance, Cadogan Hall, retrieved 17 June 2015
  47. ^ "Orson Welles' Heart of Darkness, Unmade Movies, Drama – BBC Radio 4". BBC. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  48. ^ Cast and credits are available at "The Internet Movie Database". Retrieved 2 December 2010. A full recording can be viewed onsite by members of the public upon request at The Paley Center for Media (formerly the Museum of Television & Radio) in New York City and Los Angeles.
  49. ^ Scott, A. O. (3 August 2001). "Aching Heart of Darkness". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
  50. ^ Tucker, Ken. Heart of Darkness. Entertainment Weekly, 11 March 1994. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
  51. ^ Chitwood, Adam (10 April 2017). "James Gray Says His Sci-Fi Movie 'Ad Astra' Starts Filming This Summer with Brad Pitt". Collider. Complex Media Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  52. ^ Mikel Reparaz (30 July 2007). "The Darkness". GamesRadar+.
  53. ^ "Africa Wins Again: Far Cry 2's literary approach to narrative". Infovore.org. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  54. ^ "Far Cry 2 – Jorge Albor – ETC Press". Cmu.edu. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  55. ^ "Spec Ops: The Line preview – heart of darkness". Metro. 10 January 2012.
  56. ^ "Victoria 2: Heart of Darkness – Paradox Interactive". Paradoxplaza.com. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  57. ^ "Heart of Darkness (Nazmir)". Wowpedia. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  58. ^ "Heart of Darkness". Wowhead. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  59. ^ Ebury, Katherine (2012). "'In this valley of dying stars': Eliot's Cosmology. Journal of Modern Literature], vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 139-57.
  60. ^ Pound, Ezra (1950). The Letters of Ezra Pound. London: Faber and Faber. p. 234.
  61. ^ Eliot, T.S. (1988). The Letters of T.S. Eliot: 1898-1922. London: Faber and Faber. p. 504. ISBN 0571136214.
  62. ^ Ackroyd, Peter (1984). T.S, Eliot. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 118. ISBN 0671530437.
  63. ^ "Hearts of Darkness". Allisonandbusby.com. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  64. ^ Morrison, Yedda. "Yedda Morrison". Yeddamorrison.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  65. ^ Hurley, Brian (14 March 2016). "Q&A with James Reich, Author of Mistah Kurtz". Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  66. ^ Škvorecký, Josef (1984). "Why the Harlequin? On Conrad's Heart of Darkness." Cross Currents: A Yearbook of Central European Culture, vol. 3, pp. 259-264.
  67. ^ Findley, Timothy (1993). Headhunter. Toronto: HarperCollins.
  68. ^ Brydon, Diana (1999). "Intertextuality in Timothy Findley's Headhunter". Journal of Canadian Studies. 33 (4): 53–62. doi:10.3138/jcs.33.4.53. S2CID 140336153.
  69. ^ Harris, Wilson (1960). Palace of the Peacock. London: Faber & Faber.
  70. ^ Harris, Wilson (1981). "The Frontier on Which Heart of Darkness Stands." Research in African Literatures, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 86-93.
  71. ^ Carr, Robert (1995). "The New Man in the Jungle: Chaos, Community, and the Margins of the Nation-State." Callaloo, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 133-56.
  72. ^ Ballard, J.G. (1962). The Drowned World. New York: Berkley.
  73. ^ Lehman, Robert S. (2018). "Back to the Future: Late Modernism in J.G. Ballard's The Drowned World. Journal of Modern Literature, vol. 41, no. 4, p. 167.

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Farn, Regelind Colonial and Postcolonial Rewritings of "Heart of Darkness" – A Century of Dialogue with Joseph Conrad (2004). A dissertation.
  • Firchow, P. Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000).
  • Lawtoo, Nidesh, ed. Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Contemporary Thought: Revisiting the Horror with Lacoue-Labarthe (London: Bloomsbury, 2012).
  • Parry, Benita Conrad and Imperialism (London: Macmillan, 1983).
  • Said, Edward W. Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1966) [no ISBN].
  • Watts, Cedric Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness': A Critical and Contextual Discussion (Milan: Mursia International, 1977).

External linksEdit