Health effects of coffee

The health effects of coffee include various health benefits and health risks.[1]

A 2017 umbrella review of meta-analyses found that drinking coffee is generally safe within usual levels of intake and is more likely to improve health outcomes than to cause harm at doses of 3 or 4 cups of coffee daily. Exceptions include possible increased risk in women having bone fractures, and a possible increased risk in fetal loss or decreased birth weight during pregnancy.[2] Results were complicated by poor study quality, and differences in age, gender, health status, and serving size.[2]

Digestion edit

A 1999 review found that coffee does not cause indigestion, but may promote gastrointestinal reflux.[3] Two reviews of clinical studies on people recovering from abdominal, colorectal, and gynecological surgery found that coffee consumption was safe and effective for enhancing postoperative gastrointestinal function.[4][5]

In some people, coffee induces defecation within minutes of consumption.[5][6][7][8] However, the specific mechanism of action and chemical constituents responsible are still unknown.[9]

Mortality edit

A 2014 meta-analysis found that coffee consumption (4 cups/day) was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (a 16% lower risk), as well as cardiovascular disease mortality specifically (a 21% lower risk from drinking 3 cups/day), but not with cancer mortality[10] with exception being oral cancer mortality.[11]

Additional meta-analyses corroborated these findings, showing that higher coffee consumption (2–4 cups per day) was associated with a reduced risk of death by all disease causes.[12][13] An association of coffee drinking with reduced risk for death from various sources was confirmed by a widely cited prospective cohort study of ten European countries in 2017.[14]

Cardiovascular disease edit

Moderate coffee consumption is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease.[15] A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that people who drank moderate amounts of coffee had a lower rate of heart failure, with the biggest effect found for those who drank more than four cups a day.[16] A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, is less likely with three to five cups of non-decaffeinated coffee per day, but more likely with over five cups per day.[17] A 2016 meta-analysis showed that coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of death in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.[18]

The effect of no or moderate daily consumption of coffee on risk for developing hypertension has been assessed in several reviews during the 21st century. A 2019 review found that one to two cups consumed per day had no effect on hypertension risk, whereas drinking three or more cups per day reduced the risk,[19] a finding in agreement with a 2017 analysis which showed a 9% lower risk of hypertension with long-term consumption of up to seven cups of coffee per day.[20] Another review in 2018 found that the risk of hypertension was reduced by 2% with each one cup per day increment of coffee consumption up to 8 cups per day, compared with people who did not consume any coffee.[21] By contrast, a 2011 review had found that drinking one to three cups of coffee per day may pose a slightly increased risk of developing hypertension.[22]

The 2021 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice state: "Non-filtered coffee contains LDL-C-raising cafestol and kahweol, and may be associated with an up to 25% increased risk of ASCVD mortality by consumption of nine or more drinks a day. Non-filtered coffee includes boiled, Greek, and Turkish coffee and some espresso coffees. Moderate coffee consumption (3–4 cups per day) is probably not harmful, perhaps even moderately beneficial".[23]

Atrial fibrillation edit

The Women's Health Study showed an increased risk of atrial fibrillation with 2–3 cups/day of caffeinated coffee,[24] but other studies found either no effect or a protective effect.[25]

Parkinson's disease edit

Meta-analyses have consistently found that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease.[2]

Type II diabetes edit

In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 prospective observational studies, representing over one million participants, every additional cup of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumed in a day was associated, respectively, with a 9% and 6% lower risk of type 2 diabetes.[26]

Cancer edit

Research on the effects of coffee consumption on cancer risk generally has indicated no effect[27][28] or a slightly lower risk of cancer, particularly in the liver.[29][30]

Liver disease edit

Preliminary evidence indicates that coffee consumption may be protective against the progression of liver disease, although the possible mechanisms for such an effect remain unclear.[31]

Mental health edit

The UK National Health Service advises that avoiding coffee may reduce anxiety.[32] In chronic psychiatric patients, caffeine, the major active ingredient in coffee, is associated with anxiety.[33][34] At high doses, typically greater than 300 mg, caffeine can both cause and worsen anxiety.[35] For some people, discontinuing caffeine use can significantly reduce anxiety.[36] Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is a subclass of substance- or medication-induced anxiety disorder.[37] Populations that may be most impacted by caffeine consumption are adolescents and those already suffering anxiety disorders.[38] Preliminary research indicated the possibility of a beneficial relationship between coffee intake and reduced depression.[2][39][40] Long-term preliminary research, including assessment of symptoms for dementia and cognitive impairment, was inconclusive for coffee having an effect in the elderly, mainly due to the poor quality of the studies.[2][41]

References edit

  1. ^ "Coffee - Brewing, Roasting, Varieties | Britannica". Retrieved 2023-07-09.
  2. ^ a b c d e Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J (November 2017). "Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes". BMJ. 359: j5024. doi:10.1136/bmj.j5024. PMC 5696634. PMID 29167102. 
  3. ^ Boekema PJ, Samsom M, van Berge Henegouwen GP, Smout AJ (1999). "Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement. 34 (230): 35–39. doi:10.1080/003655299750025525. PMID 10499460.
  4. ^ Cornwall HL, Edwards BA, Curran JF, Boyce S (May 2020). "Coffee to go? The effect of coffee on resolution of ileus following abdominal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Clinical Nutrition. 39 (5): 1385–1394. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2019.06.003. PMID 31253438. S2CID 195766007.
  5. ^ a b Eamudomkarn, Nuntasiri; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Kaewrudee, Srinaree; Jampathong, Nampet; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Lumbiganon, Pisake (2018). "Effect of postoperative coffee consumption on gastrointestinal function after abdominal surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Scientific Reports. 8 (1). 17349. Bibcode:2018NatSR...817349E. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35752-2. PMC 6255780. PMID 30478433.
  6. ^ Sloots, Cornelius E.J.; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J.F.; West, Rachel L.; Kuipers, Ernst J. (2005). "Stimulation of defecation: Effects of coffee use and nicotine on rectal tone and visceral sensitivity". Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. 40 (7): 808–813. doi:10.1080/00365520510015872. PMID 16109656. S2CID 23622961.
  7. ^ Dulskas, Audrius; Klimovskij, Michail; Vitkauskiene, Marija; Samalavicius, Narimantas (2015). "Effect of Coffee on the Length of Postoperative Ileus After Elective Laparoscopic Left-Sided Colectomy". Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 58 (11): 1064–1069. doi:10.1097/DCR.0000000000000449. PMID 26445179. S2CID 45213244.
  8. ^ Nehlig, Astrid (2022). "Effects of Coffee on the Gastro-Intestinal Tract: A Narrative Review and Literature Update". Nutrients. 14 (2): 399. doi:10.3390/nu14020399. PMC 8778943. PMID 35057580.
  9. ^ Francis, Ali (2023-08-18). "Why Does Coffee Make You Poop?". Bon Appétit. Archived from the original on 2023-08-20. Retrieved 2023-10-27.
  10. ^ Crippa A, Discacciati A, Larsson SC, Wolk A, Orsini N (October 2014). "Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis". American Journal of Epidemiology. 180 (8): 763–775. doi:10.1093/aje/kwu194. PMID 25156996.
  11. ^ Hildebrand JS, Patel AV, McCullough ML, Gaudet MM, Chen AY, Hayes RB, Gapstur SM (January 2013). "Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort". American Journal of Epidemiology. 177 (1): 50–58. doi:10.1093/aje/kws222. PMID 23230042.
  12. ^ Je Y, Giovannucci E (April 2014). "Coffee consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort studies". The British Journal of Nutrition. 111 (7): 1162–1173. doi:10.1017/S0007114513003814. PMID 24279995. Archived from the original on 31 August 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  13. ^ Zhao Y, Wu K, Zheng J, Zuo R, Li D (May 2015). "Association of coffee drinking with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutrition. 18 (7): 1282–1291. doi:10.1017/S1368980014001438. PMC 10271516. PMID 25089347.
  14. ^ Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Cross AJ, Dossus L, Dartois L, Fagherazzi G, et al. (August 2017). "Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study". Annals of Internal Medicine. 167 (4): 236–247. doi:10.7326/M16-2945. PMC 5788283. PMID 28693038.
  15. ^ Wu JN, Ho SC, Zhou C, Ling WH, Chen WQ, Wang CL, Chen YM (November 2009). "Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: a meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies". International Journal of Cardiology. 137 (3): 216–225. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.06.051. PMID 18707777.
  16. ^ Mostofsky E, Rice MS, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA (July 2012). "Habitual coffee consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose-response meta-analysis". Circulation: Heart Failure. 5 (4): 401–405. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967299. PMC 3425948. PMID 22740040.
  17. ^ Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB (February 2014). "Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Circulation. 129 (6): 643–659. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.113.005925. PMC 3945962. PMID 24201300.
  18. ^ Brown OI, Allgar V, Wong KY (November 2016). "Coffee reduces the risk of death after acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis". Coronary Artery Disease. 27 (7): 566–572. doi:10.1097/MCA.0000000000000397. PMID 27315099. S2CID 7980392. Archived from the original on 2 April 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  19. ^ D'Elia L, La Fata E, Galletti F, Scalfi L, Strazzullo P (February 2019). "Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies". European Journal of Nutrition. 58 (1): 271–280. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1591-z. PMID 29222637. S2CID 7264285. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  20. ^ Grosso G, Micek A, Godos J, Pajak A, Sciacca S, Bes-Rastrollo M, et al. (August 2017). "Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis". Nutrients. 9 (8): 890. doi:10.3390/nu9080890. PMC 5579683. PMID 28817085.
  21. ^ Xie C, Cui L, Zhu J, Wang K, Sun N, Sun C (February 2018). "Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies". Journal of Human Hypertension. 32 (2): 83–93. doi:10.1038/s41371-017-0007-0. PMID 29302055. S2CID 3515374.
  22. ^ Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L (June 2011). "Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 93 (6): 1212–1219. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004044. PMID 21450934.
  23. ^ Visseren FL, Mach F, Smulders YM, Carballo D, Koskinas KC, Bäck M, et al. (September 2021). "2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice". European Heart Journal. 42 (34): 3227–3337. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehab484. PMID 34458905.
  24. ^ Conen D, Chiuve SE, Everett BM, Zhang SM, Buring JE, Albert CM (September 2010). "Caffeine consumption and incident atrial fibrillation in women". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 92 (3): 509–514. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29627. PMC 2921535. PMID 20573799.
  25. ^ Chieng D, Canovas R, Segan L, Sugumar H, Voskoboinik A, Prabhu S, et al. (September 2022). "The impact of coffee subtypes on incident cardiovascular disease, arrhythmias, and mortality: long-term outcomes from the UK Biobank". European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 29 (17): 2240–2249. doi:10.1093/eurjpc/zwac189. PMID 36162818.
  26. ^ Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, van Dam RM, Hu FB (February 2014). "Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis". Diabetes Care (Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis). 37 (2): 569–586. doi:10.2337/dc13-1203. PMC 3898757. PMID 24459154.
  27. ^ Xie F, Wang D, Huang Z, Guo Y (September 2014). "Coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a large updated meta-analysis of prospective studies". Nutrients. 6 (9): 3734–3746. doi:10.3390/nu6093734. PMC 4179186. PMID 25237829.
  28. ^ Akter S, Kashino I, Mizoue T, Matsuo K, Ito H, Wakai K, et al. (August 2016). "Coffee drinking and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review and meta-analysis among the Japanese population". Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 46 (8): 781–787. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyw059. PMID 27174958. Archived from the original on 29 September 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  29. ^ Bravi F, Tavani A, Bosetti C, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C (September 2017). "Coffee and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies". European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 26 (5): 368–377. doi:10.1097/cej.0000000000000252. PMID 27111112. S2CID 25243023.
  30. ^ Zhao LG, Li ZY, Feng GS, Ji XW, Tan YT, Li HL, et al. (February 2020). "Coffee drinking and cancer risk: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies". BMC Cancer. 20 (1): 101. doi:10.1186/s12885-020-6561-9. PMC 7003434. PMID 32024485.
  31. ^ Wadhawan M, Anand AC (March 2016). "Coffee and Liver Disease". Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 6 (1): 40–46. doi:10.1016/j.jceh.2016.02.003. PMC 4862107. PMID 27194895.
  32. ^ "Self-help: Generalised anxiety disorder in adults". National Health Service, UK. 19 December 2018. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  33. ^ Winston AP (2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 11 (6): 432–439. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
  34. ^ Vilarim MM, Rocha Araujo DM, Nardi AE (August 2011). "Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 11 (8): 1185–1195. doi:10.1586/ern.11.83. PMID 21797659. S2CID 5364016.
  35. ^ Smith A (September 2002). "Effects of caffeine on human behavior". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40 (9): 1243–1255. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00096-0. PMID 12204388.
  36. ^ Bruce MS, Lader M (February 1989). "Caffeine abstention in the management of anxiety disorders". Psychological Medicine. 19 (1): 211–214. doi:10.1017/S003329170001117X. PMID 2727208. S2CID 45368729.
  37. ^ Addicott MA (September 2014). "Caffeine Use Disorder: A Review of the Evidence and Future Implications". Current Addiction Reports. 1 (3): 186–192. doi:10.1007/s40429-014-0024-9. PMC 4115451. PMID 25089257.
  38. ^ O'Neill CE, Newsom RJ, Stafford J, Scott T, Archuleta S, Levis SC, et al. (May 2016). "Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 67: 40–50. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2016.01.030. PMC 4808446. PMID 26874560.
  39. ^ Wang L, Shen X, Wu Y, Zhang D (March 2016). "Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 50 (3): 228–242. doi:10.1177/0004867415603131. PMID 26339067. S2CID 23377304.
  40. ^ Grosso G, Micek A, Castellano S, Pajak A, Galvano F (January 2016). "Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of depression: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 60 (1): 223–234. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201500620. PMID 26518745.
  41. ^ Panza F, Solfrizzi V, Barulli MR, Bonfiglio C, Guerra V, Osella A, et al. (March 2015). "Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and prevention of late-life cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review". The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 19 (3): 313–328. doi:10.1007/s12603-014-0563-8. hdl:11586/145493. PMID 25732217. S2CID 8376733.