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Hatred

  (Redirected from Hate)

Hatred or hate is a (sometimes deep and extreme) emotion-based dislike, especially invoking feelings of animosity, anger or resentment, which can be directed against individuals, groups, entities, objects, behaviors, or ideas.[1]

Hatred is often associated with feelings of anger, disgust and a disposition towards hostility.

Contents

As emotionEdit

As an emotion, hatred can be short-lived or long-lasting.[2] It can be of low intensity - 'I hate broccoli' - or high intensity: 'I hate the whole world'.[3]

Robert Steinberg saw three main elements in hatred:

  1. a negation of intimacy, by creating distance when closeness had become threatening;
  2. an infusion of passion, such as fear or anger;
  3. a decision to devalue a previously valued object.[4]

The important self-protective function, to be found in hatred,[5] can be illustrated by Steinberg's analysis of 'mutinous' hatred, whereby a dependent relationship is repudiated in a quest for autonomy.[6]

Psychoanalytic viewsEdit

Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source of its unhappiness, stressing that it was linked to the question of self-preservation.[7] Donald Winnicott highlighted the developmental step involved in hatred, with its recognition of an outside object: "As compared to magical destruction, aggressive ideas and behaviour take on a positive value, and hate becomes a sign of civilization".[8]

In his wake, Object relations theory has emphasised the importance of recognising hate in the analytic setting: the analyst acknowledges his own hate (as revealed in the strict time-limits and the fee charged),[9] which in turn may make it possible for the patient to acknowledge and contain their previously concealed hate for the analyst.[10]

Adam Phillips went so far as to suggest that true kindness is impossible in a relationship without hating and being hated, so that an unsentimental acknowledgement of interpersonal frustrations and their associated hostilities can allow real fellow-feeling to emerge.[11]

Legal issuesEdit

In the English language, a hate crime (also known as a "bias-motivated crime") generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by hate. Those who commit hate crimes target victims because of their perceived membership in a certain social group, usually defined by race, gender, religion, sexual orientation, mental disorder, disability, class, ethnicity, nationality, age, gender identity, or political affiliation.[12] Incidents may involve physical assault, destruction of property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse or insults, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[13]

Hate speech is speech perceived to disparage a person or group of people based on their social or ethnic group,[14] such as race, sex, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, mental disorder, disability, language ability, ideology, social class, occupation, appearance (height, weight, skin color, etc.), mental capacity, and any other distinction that might be considered a liability. The term covers written as well as oral communication and some forms of behaviors in a public setting. It is also sometimes called antilocution and is the first point on Allport's scale which measures prejudice in a society. In many countries, deliberate use of hate speech is a criminal offence prohibited under incitement to hatred legislation. It is often alleged that the criminalization of hate speech is sometimes used to discourage legitimate discussion of negative aspects of voluntary behavior (such as political persuasion, religious adherence and philosophical allegiance). There is also some question as to whether or not hate speech falls under the protection of freedom of speech in some countries.

Both of these classifications have sparked debate, with counter-arguments such as, but not limited to, a difficulty in distinguishing motive and intent for crimes, as well as philosophical debate on the validity of valuing targeted hatred as a greater crime than general misanthropy and contempt for humanity being a potentially equal crime in and of itself.

Neurological researchEdit

The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brains scanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the middle frontal gyrus, right putamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insular cortex of the human brain.[15]

EthnolinguisticsEdit

Hate, like love, takes different shapes and forms in different languages.[16] While it may be fair to say that one single emotion exists in English, French (haine), and German (Hass), hate is historically situated and culturally constructed: it varies in the forms in which it is manifested. Thus a certain relationless hatred is expressed in the French expression J'ai la haine, which has no precise equivalent in English; for wWhile for English-speakers, loving and hating invariably involve an object, or a person, and therefore, a relationship with something or someone, J'ai la haine (literally, I have hate) precludes the idea of an emotion directed at a person.[17] This is a form of frustration, apathy and animosity which churns within the subject but establishes no relationship with the world, other than an aimless desire for destruction.

French forms of anti-Americanism have been seen as a specific form of cultural resentment, registering joy-in-hate.[18]

Religious perspectivesEdit

Old TestamentEdit

The Hebrew word describing David’s "perfect hatred" (KJV) means that it "brings a process to completion".[19]

Literary explicationsEdit

  • W B Yeats had his (imaginary) hermit Ribh proclaim:

"I study hatred with great diligence, For that's a passion in my own control, A sort of besom that can clear the soul Of everything that is not mind or sense."[20]

  • Doris Lessing considered there was a hate-region of the mind that could be tapped rather like a radio: "ypu discover hatred is a kind of wavelength you can tune into...plugged into Hater".[21]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reber, A.S., & Reber, E. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of psychology. New York: Penguin Books.
  2. ^ Y Ito ed., Encyclopedia of Emotion (2010) p. 302
  3. ^ S Kucuk, Brand Hate (2016) p. 12-3
  4. ^ Y Ito ed., Encyclopedia of Emotion (2010) p. 302
  5. ^ I Craib, Psychoanalysis (Cambridge 2001) p. 208
  6. ^ Y Ito ed., Encyclopedia of Emotion (2010) p. 303
  7. ^ S Freud, 'The instincts and their vicissitudes' (1915) in On Metapsychology (PFL 11) p. 135-5.
  8. ^ D W Winnicott, The Child, the Family, and the Outside World (Penguin 1973) p. 239
  9. ^ J Malcolm, Psychoanalysis (London 1988) p. 143
  10. ^ I Craib, Psychoanalysis (Cambridge 2001) p. 208
  11. ^ A Phillips/B Taylor, On Kindness (London 2004) p. 93-4
  12. ^ Stotzer, R.: Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups, Williams Institute, 2007–06. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  13. ^ Hate crime Archived November 26, 2005, at the Wayback Machine., Home Office
  14. ^ "Dictionary.com: Hate speech". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
  15. ^ Zeki, S.; Romaya, J.P. (October 2008). Lauwereyns, Jan, ed. "Neural Correlates of Hate". PLoS ONE. 3 (10): e3556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003556. PMC 2569212. PMID 18958169. Archived from the original on January 3, 2009.
  16. ^ James W. Underhill, Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, (2012) p. 160
  17. ^ James W. Underhill, Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, (2012) p. 161-2
  18. ^ James W. Underhill, Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, (2012) p. 173-181
  19. ^ Harris, R Laird (10/01/2003). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Moody Publishers; New Edition. ISBN 0802486495. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ W. B. Yeats, The Poems (London 1983) p. 286
  21. ^ D Lessing, The Four-Gated City (London 1993) p. 69 and p. 564

Further readingEdit

  • The Psychology of Hate by Robert Sternberg (Ed.)
  • Hatred: The Psychological Descent into Violence by Willard Gaylin
  • Why We Hate by Jack Levin
  • The Psychology of Good and Evil: Why Children, Adults, and Groups Help and Harm Others by Ervin Staub
  • Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence by Aaron T. Beck
  • Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing by James Waller
  • Ethnolinguistics and Cultural Concepts: truth, love, hate & war, by James W. Underhill, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • "Hatred as an Attitude", by Thomas Brudholm (in Philosophical Papers 39, 2010).
  • The Globalisation of Hate, (eds.) Jennifer Schweppe and Mark Walters, Oxford: Oxford University Press.