Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin

Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin ibni Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien II was the 25th Sultan of Brunei from 30 May 1885 to 10 May 1906.[citation needed] Before he became the Sultan, he was one of the four Wazirs in Brunei and was known as Pengiran Temenggong Sahibul Bahar Pengiran Anak Hashim. He had acted as regent when Sultan Abdul Momin became old. At that time also, his elder brother, Pengiran Pemancha Pengiran Anak Muhammad Salleh had died.

Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin
هاشم جليل العالم أقام الدين
Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin.jpg
25th Sultan of Brunei
Reign30 May 1885 – 10 May 1906
Coronation30 May 1895
PredecessorAbdul Momin
SuccessorMuhammad Jamalul Alam II
Istana Kampong Ayer, Sultan Lama, Brunei Town, Brunei
Died10 May 1906 (aged 81)
Istana Kampong Ayer, Sultan Lama, Brunei Town, Brunei
SpousesPengiran Chendra Kesuma binti Pengiran Indera Negara
Pengiran Isteri Pengiran Siti Fatimah
IssuePengiran Muda Besar Pengiran Omar Ali Saifuddin
Pengiran Muda Tengah
Pengiran Muda Bongsu Muhammad Jamalul Alam II
Pengiran Anak Siti Zubaidah
Pengiran Anak Sharif Mohammad Salleh
Pengiran Anak Sharif Abdul Razak
Pengiran Anak Siti Rauyah
Pengiran Anak Siti Mariam
Pengiran Di-Gadong Pengiran Anak Haji Kamis
Pengiran Anak Safar
Pengiran Anak Sabtu
Pengiran Anak Metusin Kula
Pengiran Anak Saliha
Pengiran Anak Sharif Muhammad Arshad Duman
Pengiran Anak Sharif Ismail Apong
Pengiran Anak Untong
Pengiran Anak Jaga
Pengiran Anak Rabaha
Pengiran Anak Tuah
Pengiran Anak Sharif Mahmud
FatherOmar Ali Saifuddin II
MotherTuan Zaidah binti Pengarah Di-Gadong Laman Awang Sulaiman


Upon his ascension to the throne, he inherited a much smaller kingdom than when his father was sultan. He faced a challenge from the British North Borneo Company and the Brooke government in Sarawak who wanted more lands from Brunei and it was not strong enough to stop them from taking control of these lands. Therefore, although he was aware of Sultan Abdul Momin’s Amanat, he still had to sign an agreement to cede Punang Terusan to Sarawak. Towards the end of his life, Sultan Hashim was 'unwilling to trust any of his chiefs' and depended 'almost exclusively ' upon the help of Edmund Roberts, Manager of the Brunei cutch works and as Director of Public Works in Brunei and Labuan.[1]

Treaty of Protection 1888Edit

During his reign, two important agreements were made between Brunei and Britain. The Treaty of Protection of 1888 made Brunei a British Protectorate. And another agreement was Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906. The agreement effectively made Malcolm McArthur, 'savior of Brunei', as the first Brunei Resident.

The Loss of LimbangEdit

Limbang, which today become part of Sarawak, was originally part of Brunei until the reign of Sultan Hashim. However, it was after the signing of the Treaty of Protection of 1888 did Brunei loss Limbang. This treaty eventually did not save Brunei from any foreign intervention because the British did not stop Charles Brooke from seizing Limbang in 1890. In 1901 and 1902, Brooke and Hewett asked him to cede Belait and Tutong to them but he refused and said, "What would happen to me, my chiefs and my descendants? I should be left like a tree, stripped of branches and twigs."

The beginning of British indirect rule in BruneiEdit

Sultan Abdul Hamid II

He felt that the British were not really protecting Brunei. He sought help from Sultan Abdul Hamid of Ottoman Turkey. The British discovered this and decided to send Malcolm McArthur to solve the problems in Brunei. Therefore, the Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906 was signed. Under this treaty, Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on both external and internal affairs except those relating to Islam and Malay customs.

The establishment of the Brunei official flagEdit

After Brunei signed the Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906, which made the sultanate a British shade, it was deemed of interest that they should have their own national flag like other countries. Design proposals were made and eventually agreed upon that the design of the flag would be based on the yellow and the irregular colors of white and black. All of these colors have their own symbolic meanings, yellow being the symbol for the Sultan, white being the symbol for the Pengiran Bendahara, and black being the symbol for the Pengiran Pemancha. In 1906, the Brunei flag at that time had no banners.


In 1903, his eldest son and chosen heir, Pengiran Muda Besar Omar Ali Saifuddin, died in an outbreak of cholera, as did his second son, Pengiran Muda Tengah. Mourning their deaths, his health deteriorated further.

The expansion of Sarawak Rajahnate with the concession of Lawas District in 1905.

He died on 10 May 1906. He was buried at the Royal Mausoleum in Bandar Brunei, alongside his father, Omar Ali Saifuddin II. He was succeeded by his surviving son, Pengiran Muda Bongsu Muhammad Jamalul Alam.


  1. ^ Hussainmiya, B. A. (1995). Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III and Britain: The Making of Brunei Darussalam. Oxford University Press, USA. p.74
Regnal titles
Preceded by Sultan of Brunei
1885 – 1906
Succeeded by