Number sign

  (Redirected from Hash (character))

The symbol # is known variously in English-speaking regions as the number sign,[1] hash,[2] or pound sign.[3] The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois – having been derived from the now-rare .[4]

#
Number sign
In UnicodeU+0023 # NUMBER SIGN (HTML # · #)
Related
See alsoU+00A3 £ POUND SIGN
U+2116 NUMERO SIGN
Different from
Different fromU+266F MUSIC SHARP SIGN
U+2317 VIEWDATA SQUARE
U+22D5 EQUAL AND PARALLEL TO

Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags",[5] and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes called a hashtag.[6]

The symbol is distinguished from similar symbols by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes.

HistoryEdit

 
A stylized version of the abbreviation for libra pondo ("pound weight")
 
The abbreviation written by Isaac Newton, showing the evolution from "℔" toward "#"

It is believed that the symbol traces its origins to the symbol ,[a] an abbreviation of the Roman term libra pondo, which translates as "pound weight".[7][8] This abbreviation was printed with a dedicated ligature type, with a horizontal line across, so that the lowercase letter l would not be mistaken for the numeral 1. Ultimately, the symbol was reduced for clarity as an overlay of two horizontal strokes "=" across two slash-like strokes "//".[8] Examples of it being used to indicate pounds exist at least as far back as 1850.[9][b]

The symbol is described as the "number" character in an 1853 treatise on bookkeeping,[10] and its double meaning is described in a bookkeeping text from 1880.[11] The instruction manual of the Blickensderfer model 5 typewriter (c. 1896) appears to refer to the symbol as the "number mark".[12] Some early-20th-century U.S. sources refer to it as the "number sign",[13] although this could also refer to the numero sign.[14] A 1917 manual distinguishes between two uses of the sign: "number (written before a figure)" and "pounds (written after a figure)".[15] The use of the phrase "pound sign" to refer to this symbol is found from 1932 in U.S. usage.[16] The term hash sign is found in South African writings from the late 1960s[17] and from other non-North-American sources in the 1970s.[citation needed]

The symbol appears to have been used primarily in handwritten material; in the printing business, the numero symbol (№) and barred-lb (℔) are used for "number" and "pounds" respectively.[where?][citation needed]

For mechanical devices, the symbol appeared on the keyboard of the Remington Standard typewriter (c. 1886)[18] but was not used on the keyboards used for typesetting.[9] It appeared in many of the early teleprinter codes and from there was copied to ASCII, which made it available on computers and thus caused many more uses to be found for the character. The symbol was introduced on the bottom right button of touch-tone keypads in 1968, but that button was not extensively used until the advent of large scale voicemail (PBX systems, etc.) in the early 1980s.[19]

One of the uses in computers was to label the following text as having a different interpretation (such as a command or a comment) from the rest of the text. It was adopted for use within internet relay chat (IRC) networks circa 1988 to label groups and topics.[20] This usage inspired[21] Chris Messina to propose a similar system to be used on Twitter to tag topics of interest on the microblogging network;[22] this became known as a hashtag. Although used initially and most popularly on Twitter, hashtag use has extended to other social media sites.[23]

NamesEdit

Number sign

'Number sign' is the name chosen by the Unicode consortium. Most common in Canada[24] and the northeastern United States.[citation needed] American telephone equipment companies which serve Canadian callers often have an option in their programming to denote Canadian English, which in turn instructs the system to say number sign to callers instead of pound.[25]

Pound sign or pound

'Pound sign' or 'pound' are the most common names used in the United States, where the '#' key on a phone is commonly referred to as the pound key or simply pound. Dialing instructions to an extension such as #77, for example, can be read as "pound seven seven".[26] This name is rarely used outside the United States, where the term pound sign is understood to mean the currency symbol £.

Hash, hash mark, hashmark

In the United Kingdom,[27] and some other countries,[citation needed] it is generally called a 'hash' (probably from 'hatch',[28] referring to cross-hatching, although the exact derivation is disputed).

Hashtag

The word 'hashtag' is often used when reading social media messages aloud, indicating the start of a hashtag. For instance, the text "#foo" is often read out loud as "hashtag foo" (as opposed to "hash foo"). This leads to the common belief that the symbol itself is called hashtag.[6] Twitter documentation refers to it as "the hashtag symbol".[29] Programmers rarely do this; for instance #! is "hash, bang".

Hex

'Hex' is commonly used in Singapore and Malaysia, as spoken by many recorded telephone directory-assistance menus: "Please enter your phone number followed by the 'hex' key". The term 'hex' is discouraged in Singapore in favour of 'hash'. In Singapore, a hash is also called 'hex' in apartment addresses, where it precedes the floor number.[30][31]

Octothorp, octothorpe, octathorp, octatherp

Most scholars believe the word was invented by workers at the Bell Telephone Laboratories by 1968,[32] who needed a word for the symbol on the telephone keypad. Don MacPherson is said to have created the word by combining octo and the last name of Jim Thorpe, an Olympic medalist.[33] Howard Eby and Lauren Asplund claim to have invented the word as a joke in 1964, combining octo with the syllable therp which, because of the "th" digraph, was hard to pronounce in different languages.[34] The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories, 1991, has a long article that is consistent with Doug Kerr's essay,[34] which says "octotherp" was the original spelling, and that the word arose in the 1960s among telephone engineers as a joke. Other hypotheses for the origin of the word include the last name of James Oglethorpe[35] or using the Old English word for village, thorp, because the symbol looks like a village surrounded by eight fields.[36][37] The word was popularized within and outside Bell Labs.[38] The first appearance of "octothorp" in a US patent is in a 1973 filing. This patent also refers to the six-pointed asterisk (✻) used on telephone buttons as a "sextile".[39]

Sharp

Use of the name 'sharp' is due to the symbol's resemblance to , the glyph used in music notation (U+266F MUSIC SHARP SIGN). The same derivation is seen in the name of the Microsoft programming languages C#, J# and F#. Microsoft says, "It's not the 'hash' (or pound) symbol as most people believe. It's actually supposed to be the musical sharp symbol. However, because the sharp symbol is not present on the standard keyboard, it's easier to type the hash symbol (#). The name of the language is, of course, pronounced 'see sharp'."[40] According to the ECMA-334 C# Language Specification, section 6, Acronyms and abbreviations, the name of the language is written "C#" ("LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C (U+0043) followed by the NUMBER SIGN # (U+0023)") and pronounced "C Sharp".[41]

Square

 
Detail of a telephone keypad displaying the Viewdata square
On telephones, the International Telecommunication Union specification ITU-T E.161 3.2.2 states: "The symbol may be referred to as the square or the most commonly used equivalent term in other languages."[42] Formally, this is not a number sign but rather another character, the Viewdata square . The real or virtual keypads on almost all modern telephones use the simple # instead, as does their documentation.

Other

Names that may be seen include:[43][better source needed] crosshatch, crunch, fence, flash, garden fence, garden gate, gate, grid, hak, mesh, oof, pig-pen, punch mark, rake, scratch, scratch mark, tic-tac-toe, and unequal.

UsageEdit

When # prefixes a number, it is read as "number". A "#2 pencil", for example, indicates "a number-two pencil". The abbreviations 'No.' and '№' are used commonly and interchangeably.

When # is after a number, it is read as "pound" or "pounds", meaning the unit of weight. The text "5# bag of flour" would mean "five pound bag of flour". The abbreviations "lb." and "℔" are used commonly and interchangeably. But it is not a replacement for '£'.

The latter usage is rare outside North America. The sign is not used to denote pounds as weight (lb or lbs is used for this), and certainly not for pounds currency. The use of # as an abbreviation for "number" is common in informal writing, but use in print is rare.[44] Where Americans might write "Symphony #5", British and Irish people are more likely to write "Symphony No. 5".[citation needed] British typewriters had a £ key where American typewriters had a # key.[45] Many computer and teleprinter codes (such as BS 4730 (the UK national variant of the ISO/IEC 646 character set) substituted '£' for '#' to make the British versions, thus it was common for the same binary code to display as # on US equipment and £ on British equipment. ('$' was not substituted due to obvious problems if an attempt was made to communicate monetary values.)

MathematicsEdit

ComputingEdit

  • In Unicode and ASCII, the symbol has a code point as U+0023 # NUMBER SIGN and # in HTML5.[46]
  • In many scripting languages and data file formats, especially ones that originated on Unix, # introduces a comment that goes to the end of the line.[47] The combination #! at the start of an executable file is a "shebang", "hash-bang" or "pound-bang", used to tell the operating system which program to use to run the script (see magic number). This combination was chosen so it would be a comment in the scripting languages.
    • #! is the symbol of the CrunchBang Linux distribution.
  • In the Perl programming language, # is used as a modifier to array syntax to return the index number of the last element in the array, e.g., an array's last element is at $array[$#array]. The number of elements in the array is $#array + 1, since Perl arrays default to using zero-based indices. If the array has not been defined, the return is also undefined. If the array is defined but has not had any elements assigned to it, e.g., @array = (), then $#array returns −1. See the section on Array functions in the Perl language structure article.
  • In both the C and C++ preprocessors, as well as in other syntactically C-like languages, # is used to start a preprocessor directive. Inside macros, after #define, it is used for various purposes; for example, the double pound (hash) sign ## is used for token concatenation.
  • In Unix shells, # is placed by convention at the end of a command prompt to denote that the user is working as root.
  • # is used in a URL of a web page or other resource to introduce a "fragment identifier" – an id which defines a position within that resource. For example, in the URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_sign#In_computing the portion after the # (In_computing) is the fragment identifier, in this case denoting that the display should be moved to show the tag marked by <span id="In_computing">...</span> in the HTML.[48]
  • Internet Relay Chat: on (IRC) servers, # precedes the name of every channel that is available across an entire IRC network.
  • In blogs, # is sometimes used to denote a permalink for that particular weblog entry.
  • In lightweight markup languages, such as wikitext, # is often used to introduce numbered list items.
  • # is used in the Modula-2 and Oberon programming languages designed by Niklaus Wirth and in the Component Pascal language derived from Oberon to denote the not equal symbol, as a stand-in for the mathematical unequal sign , being more intuitive than <> or !=. For example: IF i # 0 THEN ...
  • In Rust, # is used for attributes such as in #[test].
  • In OCaml, # is the operator used to call a method.
  • In Common Lisp,[49] # is a dispatching read macro character used to extend the S-expression syntax with short cuts and support for various data types (complex numbers, vectors and more).
  • In Scheme, # is the prefix for certain syntax with special meaning.
  • In Standard ML, #, when prefixed to a field name, becomes a projection function (function to access the field of a record or tuple); also, # prefixes a string literal to turn it into a character literal.
  • In Mathematica syntax, #, when used as a variable, becomes a pure function (a placeholder that is mapped to any variable meeting the conditions).
  • In LaTeX, #, when prefixing a number, references an arguments for a user defined command. For instance \newcommand{\code}[1]{\texttt{#1}}.
  • In Javadoc,[50] # is used with the @see tag to introduce or separate a field, constructor, or method member from its containing class.
  • In Redcode and some other dialects of assembly language, # is used to denote immediate mode addressing, e.g., LDA #10, which means "load accumulator A with the value 10" in MOS 6502 assembly language.
  • in HTML, CSS, SVG, and other computing applications # is used to identify a color specified in hexadecimal format, e.g., #FFAA00. This usage comes from X11 color specifications, which inherited it from early assembler dialects that used # to prefix hexadecimal constants, e.g.: ZX Spectrum Z80 assembly.[51]
  • In Be-Music Script, every command line starts with #. Lines starting with characters other than "#" are treated as comments.
  • The use of the hash symbol in a hashtag is a phenomenon conceived by Chris Messina, and popularized by social media network Twitter, as a way to direct conversations and topics amongst users. This has led to an increasingly common tendency to refer to the symbol itself as "hashtag".[52]
  • In programming languages like PL/1 and Assembler used on IBM mainframe systems, as well as JCL (Job Control Language), the # (along with $ and @) are used as additional letters in identifiers, labels and data set names.
  • In J, # is the Tally or Count function,[53] and similarly in Lua, # can be used as a shortcut to get the length of a table, or get the length of a string. Due to the ease of writing "#" over longer function names, this practice has become standard in the Lua community.
  • In Dyalog APL, # is a reference to the root namespace while ## is a reference to the current space's parent namespace.

Other usesEdit

  • Algebraic notation for chess: A hash after a move denotes checkmate.
  • American Sign Language transcription: The hash prefixing an all-caps word identifies a lexicalized fingerspelled sign, having some sort of blends or letter drops. All-caps words without the prefix are used for standard English words that are fingerspelled in their entirety.[54]
  • Copy writing and copy editing: Technical writers in press releases often use three number signs, ### directly above the boilerplate or underneath the body copy, indicating to media that there is no further copy to come.[55]
  • Footnote symbols (or endnote symbols): Due to ready availability in many fonts and directly on computer keyboards, "#" and other symbols (such as the caret) have in recent years begun to be occasionally used in catalogues and reports in place of more traditional symbols (esp. dagger, double-dagger, pilcrow).
  • Linguistic phonology: # denotes a word boundary. For instance, /d/ → [t] / _# means that /d/ becomes [t] when it is the last segment in a word (i.e. when it appears before a word boundary).
  • Linguistic syntax: A hash before an example sentence denotes that the sentence is semantically ill-formed, though grammatically well-formed. For instance, "#The toothbrush is pregnant" is a grammatically correct sentence, but the meaning is odd.[56]
  • Medical prescription drug delimiter: In some countries, such as Norway or Poland, # is used as a delimiter between different drugs on medical prescriptions.
  • Medical shorthand: The hash is often used to indicate a bone fracture.[57] For example, "#NOF" is often used for "fractured neck of femur". In radiotherapy, a full dose of radiation is divided into smaller doses or 'fractions'. These are given the shorthand # to denote either the number of treatments in a prescription (e.g. 60Gy in 30#), or the fraction number (#9 of 25).
  • Press releases: The notation ### denotes "end", i.e. that there is no further copy to come.[58]
  • As a proofreading mark, to indicate that a space should be inserted.[59]
  • Publishing: When submitting a science fiction manuscript for publication, a number sign on a line by itself (indented or centered) indicates a section break in the text.[60]
  • Scrabble: Putting a number sign after a word indicates that the word is found in the British word lists, but not the North American lists.[61]
  • Teletext and DVB subtitles (in the UK and Ireland): The hash symbol is used to mark text that is either sung by a character or heard in background music, e.g. # For he's a jolly good fellow #

UnicodeEdit

In Unicode, several # characters are assigned. Other attested names in Unicode are: pound sign, hash, crosshatch, octothorpe.


Character information
Preview #
Unicode name NUMBER SIGN FULLWIDTH NUMBER SIGN SMALL NUMBER SIGN
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 35 U+0023 65283 U+FF03 65119 U+FE5F
UTF-8 35 23 239 188 131 EF BC 83 239 185 159 EF B9 9F
GB 18030 35 23 163 163 A3 A3 169 124 A9 7C
Numeric character reference &#35; &#x23; &#65283; &#xFF03; &#65119; &#xFE5F;
Named character reference &num;
ASCII and extensions 35 23
EBCDIC (037, 500, UTF)[62][63][64] 123 7B
EBCDIC (1026)[65] 236 EC
Shift JIS[66] 35 23 129 148 81 94
EUC-JP[67] 35 23 161 244 A1 F4
EUC-KR[68] / UHC[69] 35 23 163 163 A3 A3
Big5[70] 35 23 161 173 A1 AD 161 204 A1 CC
EUC-TW 35 23 161 236 A1 EC 162 173 A2 AD
LaTeX[71] \#


Character information
Preview  
Unicode name KEYCAP NUMBER SIGN[72]
Encodings decimal hex
Unicode 35 65039 8419 U+0023+FE0F+20E3
UTF-8 35 239 184 143 226 131 163 23 EF B8 8F E2 83 A3
GB 18030 35 132 49 130 53 129 54 184 54 23 84 31 82 35 81 36 B8 36
Numeric character reference &#35;&#65039;&#8419; &#x23;&#xFE0F;&#x20E3;
Shift JIS (NTT Docomo)[73] 249 133 F9 85
Shift JIS (SoftBank 3G)[74] 247 176 F7 B0
Shift JIS (au by KDDI)[75] 244 137 F4 89
7-bit JIS (au by KDDI and others)[76] 123 105 7B 69
Emoji shortcode[77] :hash:

At least three orthographically distinct number signs from other languages are also assigned:

On keyboardsEdit

On the standard US keyboard layout, the # symbol is ⇧ Shift+3. On standard UK and some other European keyboards, the same keystrokes produce the pound (sterling) sign, £ symbol, and # may be moved to a separate key above the right shift key. If there is no key, the symbol can be produced on Windows with Alt+35, on Mac OS with ⌥ Opt+3, and on Linux with Compose++.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ U+2114 L B BAR SYMBOL (HTML &#8468;)
  2. ^ Although widely repeated, evidence to support the theory that # and £ shared the same code point in the late 19th century Baudot code has not been produced, whereas evidence is available of a code table from 1929 showing both symbols.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "number sign". Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ "hash". Oxford English Dictionary.
  3. ^ "pound sign". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  4. ^ Houston, Keith (20 October 2014). Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. W W Norton & Company.
  5. ^ Piercy, Joseph (25 October 2013). Symbols: A Universal Language. Michael OMara. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-78243-073-5. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Why is the symbol # called the hashtag in Twitter?". Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary.
  7. ^ Keith Gordon Irwin (1967) [1956]. The romance of writing, from Egyptian hieroglyphics to modern letters, numbers, and signs. New York: Viking Press. p. 125. The Italian libbra (from the old Latin word libra, 'balance') represented a weight almost exactly equal to the avoirdupois pound of England. The Italian abbreviation of lb with a line drawn across the letters was used for both weights.
  8. ^ a b Houston, Keith (2013-09-06). "The Ancient Roots of Punctuation". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "The Sign of the Number". Sentence Spacing. 2015-10-06. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  10. ^ Crittendon, S. W. (1853). An Elementary Treatise on Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry. Philadelphia: E., C., & J. Biddle. p. 10. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  11. ^ Duff, C. P.; Duff, W. H.; Duff, R. P. (1880). Book-Keeping By Single and Double Entry. Harper and Brothers. p. 21. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  12. ^ n.a. (1896). Method of Operating and Instructions for Practice on the Blickensderfer Typewriter (PDF). Atlanta, GA: K. M. Turner. p. 14. It is best to use the 'number mark' for plus; the hyphen for minus, and two hyphens for the sign =
  13. ^ e.g. J. W. Marley, "The Detection and Illustration of Forgery By Comparison of Handwriting", in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Kansas Bankers' Association. Kansas City: Rusell. 1903. p. 180.
  14. ^ e.g. The British Printer vol. viii (1895), p. 395
  15. ^ Thurston, Ernest L. (1917). Business Arithmetic for Secondary Schools. New York: Macmillan. p. 419. business symbols pound.
  16. ^ Lawrence, Nancy M.; F. Ethel McAfee; Mildred M. Butler (1932). Correlated studies in stenography. Gregg. p. 141.
  17. ^ Research Review. Navorsingsoorsig vols. 18–21, pp. 117, 259 (1968)
  18. ^ "Remington Standard typewriter". New York: Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. 1886. p. 50.
  19. ^ Keith Houston (2013). "The Octothorpe". Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 41–57. ISBN 9780393064421.
  20. ^ "Channel Scope". Section 2.2. RFC 2811
  21. ^ "#OriginStory". Carnegie Mellon University. August 29, 2014.
  22. ^ Parker, Ashley (June 10, 2011). "Twitter's Secret Handshake". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  23. ^ Mashable, By Christina Warren. "Facebook finally gets #hashtags - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved July 16, 2006.
  24. ^ Barber, Katherine, ed. (2004). The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195418166.
  25. ^ https://downloads.avaya.com/css/P8/documents/100141949
  26. ^ William Safire (March 24, 1991). "On Language; Hit the Pound Sign". The New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  27. ^ "How the # became the sign of our times". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  28. ^ "Hash sign". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  29. ^ "Using hashtags on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  30. ^ Jack Tsen-Ta Lee. "A Dictionary of Singlish and Singapore English". Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  31. ^ "Address Formats". Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  32. ^ Hochhester, Sheldon (2006-09-29). "Pressing Matters: Touch-tone phones spark debate" (PDF). Encore.
  33. ^ Ralph Carlsen, "What the ####?" Telecoms Heritage Journal 28 (1996): 52–53.
  34. ^ a b Douglas A. Kerr (2006-05-07). "The ASCII Character "Octatherp"" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ John Baugh, Robert Hass, Maxine H. Kingston, et al., "Octothorpe," The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
  36. ^ Quinion, Michael (19 May 2010). "Octothorpe". World Wide Words. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  37. ^ Bringhurst, "Octothorpe". Elements of Typographic Style
  38. ^ "You Asked Us: About the * and # on the New Phones," The Calgary Herald, September 9, 1972, 90.
  39. ^ "U.S. Patent No. 3,920,926". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  40. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about C#". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  41. ^ "Ecma-international.com". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  42. ^ "E.161 : Arrangement of digits, letters and symbols on telephones and other devices that can be used for gaining access to a telephone network". International Telecommunication Union. 2 February 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  43. ^ "Pronunciation guide for Unix - Bash - SS64.com". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  44. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer".
  45. ^ "The Hashtag: A History Deeper than Twitter". July 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  46. ^ HTML5 is the only version of HTML that has a named entity for the number sign, see https://www.w3.org/TR/html4/sgml/entities.html ("The following sections present the complete lists of character entity references.") and https://www.w3.org/TR/2014/CR-html5-20140731/syntax.html#named-character-references ("num;").
  47. ^ "CSS Syntax and Selectors". W3Schools. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  48. ^ "Introduction to HTML". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  49. ^ "Lispworks.com". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  50. ^ "Oracle.com". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  51. ^ "HISOFT DEVPAC ZX Spectrum Programmer's Manual" (PDF). worldofspectrum.org.
  52. ^ Nicks, Denver (June 13, 2014). "You'll Never Guess the Real Name for a Hashtag". TIME. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  53. ^ "Vocabulary/number". J NuVoc. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  54. ^ Vicars, Bill. "Lexicalization". ASL University. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
  55. ^ Cohn, Lara. "###: What does ### mean at the end of a press release?". The Halo Group. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  56. ^ Carnie, Andrew (2006). Syntax: A Generative Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 1-4051-3384-8.
  57. ^ Glossary of Medical Devices and Procedures: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions
  58. ^ "How to Format a Press Release for the Associated Press", wikiHow
  59. ^ "Proofreaders' Marks". Archived from the original on 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2020-09-03.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) from Merriam Webster
  60. ^ McIntyre, Vonda (October 2008). "Manuscript Preparation" (PDF). sfwa.org. Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
  61. ^ "Scrabble Glossary". Tucson Scrabble Club. Archived from the original on 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
  62. ^ Steele, Shawn (1996-04-24). "cp037_IBMUSCanada to Unicode table". Microsoft / Unicode Consortium.
  63. ^ Steele, Shawn (1996-04-24). "cp500_IBMInternational to Unicode table". Microsoft / Unicode Consortium.
  64. ^ Umamaheswaran, V.S. (1999-11-08). "3.3 Step 2: Byte Conversion". UTF-EBCDIC. Unicode Consortium. Unicode Technical Report #16.
  65. ^ Steele, Shawn (1996-04-24). "cp1026_IBMLatin5Turkish to Unicode table". Microsoft / Unicode Consortium.
  66. ^ Unicode Consortium (2015-12-02) [1994-03-08]. "Shift-JIS to Unicode".
  67. ^ Unicode Consortium; IBM. "EUC-JP-2007". International Components for Unicode.
  68. ^ Unicode Consortium; IBM. "IBM-970". International Components for Unicode.
  69. ^ Steele, Shawn (2000). "cp949 to Unicode table". Microsoft / Unicode Consortium.
  70. ^ van Kesteren, Anne. "big5". Encoding Standard. WHATWG.
  71. ^ Pakin, Scott (2020-06-25). "The Comprehensive LATEX Symbol List" (PDF).
  72. ^ Unicode Consortium. "Unicode Named Character Sequences". Unicode Character Database.
  73. ^ IBM; Apple. "Docomo emoji mappings". International Components for Unicode, 59180.0.1.
  74. ^ IBM; Apple. "Softbank emoji primary mappings". International Components for Unicode, 59180.0.1.
  75. ^ IBM; Apple. "KDDI emoji mappings". International Components for Unicode, 59180.0.1.
  76. ^ Scherer, Markus; Davis, Mark; Momoi, Kat; Tong, Darick; Kida, Yasuo; Edberg, Peter. "Emoji Symbols: Background Data—Background data for Proposal for Encoding Emoji Symbols" (PDF). UTC L2/10-132.
  77. ^ JoyPixels. "Emoji Alpha Codes". Emoji Toolkit.