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Hasan al-Rammah (died 1295) was an Arab[1] chemist and engineer during the Mamluk Sultanate who studied gunpowders and explosives, and sketched prototype instruments of warfare, including the first torpedo.[2][3] Al-Rammah called his early torpedo "an egg which moves itself and burns." It was made of two sheet-pans of metal fastened together and filled with naptha, metal filings, and saltpeter. It was intended to move across the surface of the water, propelled by a large rocket and kept on course by a small rudder.[3][4]

Al-Rammah devised several new types of gunpowder,[5] and he invented a new type of fuse and two types of lighters.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Elgood, Robert (1995). Firearms of the Islamic World: In the Tared Rajab Museum, Kuwait. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781850439639.
  2. ^ Hinds, Joseph (23 February 2009). "Very, Very Early Torpedoes". Great History. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ a b Williamson, Mitch (21 April 2013). "Hassan Al Rammah". Weapons and Warfare | Military History and Hardware. Archived from the original on 17 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ a b Partington, James Riddick (1999), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 203, ISBN 0-8018-5954-9
  5. ^ Al-Hassan, Ahmad Y. (1992-03-27). Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History (1st ed.). Cambridge ; New York : Paris: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42239-0.