Hartland Covered Bridge

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The Hartland Covered Bridge (French: Pont couvert de Hartland), otherwise known simply as the Hartland Bridge, is the world's longest covered bridge, measuring approximately 1,282 feet (391 m) long. Located in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, the bridge crosses the Saint John River from Hartland to Somerville, both located in Carleton County. The framework consists of seven small Howe Truss bridges joined on six piers.[2] The bridge was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1977, as well as a Provincial Heritage Place in New Brunswick under the Heritage Conservation Act in 1999.

Hartland Covered Bridge
Hartland Covered Bridge, from the Somerville side looking back toward Hartland.
Coordinates46°17′48″N 67°31′49″W / 46.29667°N 67.53028°W / 46.29667; -67.53028
CarriesHartland Hill Bridge Road
CrossesSaint John River
LocaleHartland-Somerville, New Brunswick, Canada
Characteristics
DesignHowe truss covered bridge[1]
MaterialConcrete (piers)
wood (truss)[1]
Total length1,282 feet (391 m)
No. of spans7
Piers in water5
Load limit10 tonnes (regularly)
3 tonnes (since December 2023)
History
Construction startDecember 1899 (1899-12)
Construction endJune 1901 (1901-06)
Construction cost$33,000
OpenedMay 14, 1901 (1901-05-14)
InauguratedJuly 4, 1901 (1901-07-04)
ReplacesHartland ferry, Ice bridge
Official nameHartland Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada
DesignatedNovember 17, 1977 (1977-11-17)
TypeProvincial Heritage Place
DesignatedSeptember 15, 1999 (1999-09-15)
Location
Map

Construction on the Hartland Covered Bridge began in late 1899 following initial planning that began the previous year, though the topic of constructing a bridge in Hartland had been discussed as a political issue years earlier. The bridge was opened in 1901 and initially was a contrast to what it is today; it was used as a toll bridge until being purchased by the provincial government in 1906, and the bridge had not been covered until 1922 after it was rebuilt following weather-caused structural damage in early 1920.

The Hartland Covered Bridge continues to be used primarily as a tourist attraction, featuring only one lane as well as load and height limits which restrict heavier vehicles from crossing.

Overview

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The Hartland Covered Bridge is located on the 0.303 km (0.188 mi) long Hartland Hill Bridge Road,[3][4] crossing the Saint John River to connect together Hartland and Somerville,[5] both in Carleton County. Formerly part of the Trans-Canada Highway,[3] the bridge connects New Brunswick Route 103 (Somerville side) to New Brunswick Route 105 (Hartland side, otherwise known as Main Street).[6] Due to its status as the world's longest covered bridge, the one-lane bridge is often visited by tourists.[7]

History

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Background

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Before the bridge, crossing the Saint John River in the area was previously done by ferry.[8] The need for a bridge in Hartland emerged as a political issue in the province during the late 19th century, with Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick member Allan Dibblee having advocated for the construction of one among other improvements to infrastructure.[9] Proposals and planning for the establishment of a bridge in Hartland took place as early as 1895.[10][11] On a newspaper dated May 13, 1896, Dibblee clarified that "if we could not get a grant for the Hartland bridge I would go into opposition." At the time, $400,000 was allocated by the government to issue bonds for constructing new bridges.[9] A letter to the editor for the Hartland Advertiser dated December 22, 1897, highlighted the Hartland bridge issue being of importance for residents on both sides of the Saint John River "within a radius of five or six miles" from Hartland.[12]

Construction

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Initial planning work for the bridge began in 1898.[8] On October 9, 1899, the Hartland Bridge Company issued a notice stating that they have deposited plans with the Minister of Public Works (then-Henry Emmerson) to build the bridge.[13] Later that month, a public notice for an invitation to tender issued by the Hartland Bridge Company dated October 19, 1899, appeared in The Royal Gazette on October 25, calling for contractors to submit sealed tenders for a bridge crossing the Saint John River in Hartland to be constructed. Tenders were to be marked "Tenders for the Hartland Bridge" and were due November 20, the following month.[14] The Dispatch featured a story from the Hartland Advertiser on November 15, providing an update on bridge development, indicating that the Hartland Bridge Company has begun purchasing land for the site(s) of the bridge pier.[15] On December 13, 1899, it was announced that the tender for the bridge was officially awarded to Albert Brewer – whose bid of $27,945 was the lowest out of three total tenders – with construction expected to start soon along with an expected completion date within a year.[16] As early construction work saw the shipment of building materials underway, it was reported on February 28, 1900 that the bridge was to feature seven piers and two abutments.[17] By early April 1900, three piers had been built, with a fourth scheduled to be built soon; the estimated completion time by then was "by next November."[18]

In March 1901, the Hartland Advertiser made a report on the bridge progress, stating that it was "now completed as far as the actual construction is concerned," adding that the bridge would be open to the public after workers are done adding the flooring. It was also reported that Charles McCormac, the president of the Hartland Bridge Company, sought discussions with the government on implementing bridge tolls, proposing costs of "3c for foot passengers, 6c for single teams, and 12c for double teams."[19] By late April 1901, progress on the bridge was described as being "all floored but the span on the west end."[20] It was later opened on May 14, 1901.[8] On June 12, 1901, The Daily Gleaner reported that construction on the bridge was almost finished, adding that the formal opening was to be held "sometime during July."[21]

Completion and early use

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Hartland Bridge when it opened on July 4, 1901.

On May 13, 1901, A. W. Estey, a doctor from Hartland, was the first person to cross the Hartland Bridge one day before its official opening; he received an emergency call when workers were finalizing construction on the bridge.[22] Following the bridge's completion and subsequent use prior to its formal opening, its financial performance was described as "very satisfactory," with the bridge making around $8 to $12 daily in toll revenue.[23] The opening ceremony for the bridge was scheduled to take place on July 4, 1901, with invitations having been announced shortly beforehand.[24] It was reported that among those attending included prominent individuals such as government members.[23] The opening ceremony was attended by "nearly 4,000 people from surrounding villages and the countryside," along with provincial government members including Lemuel John Tweedie, then-Premier as well as Stephen Burpee Appleby, Harrison A. McKeown, and Charles H. LaBillois, among those in attendance.[25] The bridge was not originally built covered.[1]

As the bridge utilized a toll system,[26][27] opposition towards the tolls had been voiced as early as February 1902, during which a petition was carried out for its abolition.[28] On October 10, 1902, a local delegation appeared in front of the government, requesting them to take over ownership of the bridge and make it free to use.[29] The provincial government ultimately purchased the bridge at a cost of $5,461.71 that year,[30] and the toll system was officially removed on May 1, 1906;[31] its removal had been announced earlier in the year.[32] Early in the morning on July 15, 1907, a fire broke out near the bridge and caused over $130,000 in damages to affected businesses; the bridge, as well as its toll house, were described as having "narrow[ly] escape[d] from destruction."[33] The fire was quickly speculated to having been started using an incendiary device;[34] a man was arrested and charged in connection with the incident on July 20,[35] but was later set to be released before trial by both Justices examining the case due to insufficient evidence.[36][37] In March 1909, a local news item featured on The Daily Gleaner reported that a contract for supplying materials necessary for re-flooring the bridge had been awarded, with tenders having recently closed.[38]

Restoration and modern use

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By the late 1910s, the bridge's condition had started becoming a political issue, with calls having been made to address maintaining it,[39][40] as well as for the bridge to be replaced using steel.[41] Preparations made to further repair the bridge began in November 1919.[42] By early January 1920, construction work on repairing the bridge was underway, with traffic being closed due to the formation of an ice bridge.[43] On April 6, 1920, a freshet combined with ice running due to heavy rainfall in the Saint John River area caused the west side of the bridge to sustain damage, with two spans having collapsed.[44] Around this time, the topic of converting the bridge into a covered bridge had also emerged, albeit controversial. Benjamin Franklin Smith, a legislative member representing Carleton, saw the idea of the bridge being covered as being "considerable of a menace," and found himself against advising the Minister of Public Works to follow through with the idea.[45] The legislature passed 142 acts during a session in late April 1920, the 122nd of which being an act guaranteeing the reconstruction of the bridge.[46] Unsuccessful efforts around this time had also been made to temporarily replace the bridge with a ferry.[47] Around June 1920, the N. B. Contracting Company advertised in The Daily Gleaner offering a reward to anybody who found and notified them of any debris from the bridge.[48] Reconstruction work on the piers began around August 1920, with the project having set an estimate to hire "upwards of 100 men."[49] Repairs were completed by the following year, and the bridge was re-opened to traffic on March 7, 1921.[50] That same year, a roof was added, which gained the bridge its status of a covered bridge.[51][52] According to a letter to the editor sent to The Daily Gleaner in 2001, the bridge’s piers, which were previously wooden at the time, were also converted to concrete.[53] In April 1925, repairs were made to the floor of the bridge to address noise complaints;[54] further noise complaints were posted to The Carleton Observer in June later that year.[55]

 
Hartland Covered Bridge, pictured from the Hartland side

The Hartland Covered Bridge, like many other covered bridges in New Brunswick, has been subjected to damage through means such as weather, vandalism including arson, as well as vehicle accidents.[56][57] In 1970, heavy trucks were barred from crossing the bridge.[58] The bridge was designated a National Historic Site on November 17, 1977,[59] and a Provincial Historic Site under the Heritage Conservation Act on September 15, 1999.[60] In 2006, the town of Hartland contributed a small piece of wood from the bridge to the Six String Nation project. Part of this material now serves as one of the reinforcing strips on the interior of Voyageur, the guitar at the heart of the project.[61][62] On July 4, 2012, in honour of its 111th anniversary, the bridge was celebrated with a Google Doodle on Google's Canadian homepage.[63][64]

In August 2012, the town considered installing traffic lights at the bridge following concerns raised by locals.[65] In October 2023, a structural survey discovered a "downward bend" which resulted in the bridge being closed for repairs. When it was reopened in January 2024, the Department of Transportation and Infrastructure announced a load limit reduction from ten tonnes to three tonnes "until further notice".[6]

Bridge dimensions

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Dashcam footage of an individual driving through the Hartland Covered Bridge

The Hartland Covered Bridge is the longest covered bridge in the world.[66][67] Its National Historic Sites of Canada entry by Parks Canada gives the bridge a span of 390.75 metres, or approximately 1,282 feet.[68] Its entry on Guinness World Records rounds the length up to 391 metres, "from one bank to the other."[69] Out of the seven spans that are featured, five are 51 metres (167 ft), while two others are 43.9 metres (144 ft).[70] It is also the longest covered bridge ever constructed in Canada, the second-longest being a 377 metres (1,237 ft) long bridge on the Batiscan river in Quebec, in use between 1844 and 1870.[71] It is not the longest covered bridge that has ever been built; some longer bridges have been built earlier in the 19th century, including the earliest renditions of the Columbia–Wrightsville Bridge in Pennsylvania, though such bridges have since ceased to exist.[69]

The bridge only has one lane.[72] It has a usual load limit of 10 tonnes, which has since been reduced to three tonnes after being re-opened in December 2023 following maintenance work; heavier vehicles that wish to cross must detour using the nearby Hugh John Flemming Bridge.[6] It also has a height limit of 4.20 metres (13.8 ft).[66] A small covered walkway, which has been in place since 1945, is attached to the side of the bridge and permits access to pedestrians.[73][74]

See also

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References

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Citations

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  1. ^ a b c Hartland Bridge at Structurae
  2. ^ Kennedy, Doris E. (2009). "Brief history". Hidden History of Hartland. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-9813773-0-8.
  3. ^ a b Caswell, Bill. "Hartland, Carleton County". Covered Spans of Yesteryear (lostbridges.org). Retrieved June 27, 2024.
  4. ^ White, Corey (December 15, 2023). "Local Government Kilometrage: Hartland" (PDF). Department of Transportation and Infrastructure Capital Planning. Government of New Brunswick. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  5. ^ "Epoxy polymer overlay protects wooden deck of historic bridge". Materials Performance. Vol. 47, no. 11. Houston, Texas: NACE International. November 2008. pp. 16–18. ProQuest 222949749. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  6. ^ a b c Grey, Shana (January 18, 2024). "World's longest covered bridge reopens - but with reduced weight limit". The Daily Gleaner. p. A7. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  7. ^ Dickinson, Doug (July 20, 2012). "The intriguing rules of the world's longest covered bridgeLocal ice cream vendor often advises tourists on crossing the bridge; Hartland residents and tourists share their take on the rules and etiquette of driving across an N.B. icon". The Bugle-Observer. Canwest. p. A1. Archived from the original on June 25, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  8. ^ a b c "Covered Bridges: A Part of New Brunswick's Heritage – History of the Hartland Bridge – The World's Longest". Provincial Archives of New Brunswick. Archived from the original on July 3, 2022. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  9. ^ a b "Ottawa Has No Charms For Him: J. T. A. Dibblee M. P. P. Says He Will Not Run". The Dispatch. Vol. 2, no. 50. Woodstock, N.B. May 13, 1896. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 24, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  10. ^ "Hartland Bridge - Chief Commissioner Emmerson Promises the People a Bridge Across the River". Weekly Sun. Vol. 18, no. 25. Saint John, N.B. June 19, 1895. p. 9. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  11. ^ "New Hartland Bridge - The Local Government Likely Getting Ready for an Election". Weekly Sun. Vol. 18, no. 37. September 11, 1895. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  12. ^ "Two Burning Questions". Hartland Advertiser. Vol. 1, no. 45. December 25, 1897. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 24, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  13. ^ "Notice". The Dispatch. Vol. 6, no. 21. October 23, 1899. p. 5. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  14. ^ "Bridge Notice". The Royal Gazette. Vol. 57. Fredericton, New Brunswick: Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick. October 25, 1899. p. 283. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  15. ^ "Local Topics". The Dispatch. Vol. 6, no. 24. Hartland Advertiser. November 15, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 24, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  16. ^ "Local Topics - The Press says:". The Dispatch. Vol. 6, no. 28. December 13, 1899. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  17. ^ "Local Topics". The Dispatch. Vol. 6, no. 39. February 28, 1900. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 25, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  18. ^ "The Hartland Bridge - The Fourth Pier Being Put in Position". The Semi-Weekly Telegraph. April 7, 1900. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  19. ^ "The New Hartland Bridge". St. John Star. Vol. 1, no. 172. Hartland Advertiser. March 30, 1901. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  20. ^ "The Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. Vol. 11, no. 99. Woodstock Dispatch. April 26, 1901. p. 9–10. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  21. ^ "In And About The City - The Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. June 12, 1901. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  22. ^ Finnamore, Allison (June 30, 2001). "Marking a century". The Daily Gleaner. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  23. ^ a b "Hartland Bridge – To be Formally Opened with Appropriate Ceremonies On July 4th". The Daily Gleaner. June 29, 1901. p. 5. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  24. ^ "The Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. June 26, 1901. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  25. ^ "Hartland Bridge – Formally Opened on Thursday – Members of Government Present". The Daily Gleaner. July 5, 1901. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  26. ^ "Opening Hartland Bridge". The Dispatch. Vol. 8, no. 4. June 26, 1901. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 25, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  27. ^ "A Big Day in Hartland". The Dispatch. Vol. 8, no. 6. July 10, 1901. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  28. ^ "Provincial News". The Daily Gleaner. February 22, 1902. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024. A petition is in circulation for presentation to the local government to abolish the toll on the Hartland bridge.
  29. ^ "Government In Session". Semi-Weekly Sun. Vol. 25, no. 83. St. John, N.B. October 15, 1902. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  30. ^ "The Provincial Deficit In 1906". The Daily Gleaner. April 26, 1907. p. 3. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  31. ^ "A Free Bridge Now – Since May 1st Tolls Are Not Charged to Cross the Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. May 5, 1906. p. 4. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  32. ^ Stevens, Fred H. (March 7, 1906). "News of Hartland and Vicinity – Celebrate the Free Bridge". The Dispatch. Vol. 12, no. 40. p. 5. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  33. ^ "The Village Of Hartland Was Almost Wiped Out This Morning". The Star. Vol. 7, no. 258. Saint John, N.B. July 15, 1907. p. 1. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  34. ^ "Hartland Fire Of Incendiary Origin; People Aroused And Ask Investigation". The Star. Vol. 7, no. 259. Saint John, N.B. July 16, 1907. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  35. ^ "Hartland Man Under Arrest - Charged with Setting Recent Serious Fire There". The Star. Vol. 7, no. 264. Saint John, N.B. July 22, 1907. p. 6. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  36. ^ "Lorne McNally Not Sent Up For Trial". The Star. August 21, 1907. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  37. ^ "Thornton Was Discharged". The Star. September 7, 1907. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 26, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  38. ^ "Local News – Contract Awarded". The Daily Gleaner. March 18, 1909. p. 8. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  39. ^ "In The Matter Of Hartland Bridge". The Carleton Observer. Vol. 10, no. 28. December 19, 1918. p. 3. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  40. ^ "The Hartland Bridge". The St. John Standard. Vol. X, no. 215. Saint John, N. B. December 9, 1918. p. 4. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  41. ^ "A Steel Bridge". The Carleton Observer. Vol. 10, no. 39. March 6, 1919. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  42. ^ "Hartland Bridge". The Evening Times Star. Vol. XVI, no. 40. Saint John, N. B. November 17, 1919. p. 6. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024. R. C. Fletcher of Devon has recommenced work on the renewing of the bridge across the river at Hartland. Lumber is arriving and the work of framing is about to start. The old structure will not be closed to traffic until an ice bridge forms.
  43. ^ "The Hartland Bridge – Observer:". The Evening Times And Star. Vol. XVI, no. 79. January 3, 1920. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  44. ^ "Ice Running In Upper River; Is Doing Damage". The Daily Gleaner. Vol. 30, no. 81. April 7, 1920. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 27, 2024. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  45. ^ "Supply Items Were About All Finished In the Legislature at Saturday's Sitting - The Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. April 19, 1920. p. 6. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  46. ^ "The Complete List of the 142 Acts Passed By the Legislature at Its Recent Session". The Daily Gleaner. Vol. 30, no. 99. April 27, 1920. p. 4. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  47. ^ "Government Organ Scores Failure to Provide Ferry to Replace Hartland Bridge". The Daily Gleaner. Vol. 30, no. 104. May 3, 1920. p. 6. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  48. ^ "Reward". The Daily Gleaner. October 4, 1920. p. 7. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  49. ^ "Hartland Bridge". The Evening Times And Star. Vol. XVI, no. 263. Saint John, N. B. August 10, 1920. p. 7. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  50. ^ "Hartland Bridge Open For Traffic". The Daily Gleaner. March 8, 1921. p. 4. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  51. ^ Ramshaw, Andre (June 6, 2020). "Keep it covered; New Brunswick's many historic enclosed bridges are sturdy links to simpler, slower and safer times". Star-Phoenix. Postmedia Network. ProQuest 2409902415. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  52. ^ Chenier, Noel (May 6, 2006). "A bridge, so far; The forensic details of Hartland's span". Telegraph-Journal. Brunswick News. Canwest. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  53. ^ "Bridge piers evident in archives photo". The Daily Gleaner. Brunswick News. March 12, 2001. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  54. ^ "Repairs To Hartland Bridge". The Carleton Observer. April 29, 1925. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 25, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  55. ^ "Public Nuisances". The Carleton Observer. June 10, 1925. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 25, 2024. Retrieved June 24, 2024.
  56. ^ "Residents have special feelings for longest covered bridge". Edmonton Journal. The Canadian Press. May 17, 1986. p. 32. Retrieved June 27, 2024.
  57. ^ Goss, David (May 16, 1993). "Is this the world's longest covered bridge?". The Boston Globe. p. 206. Retrieved June 27, 2024.
  58. ^ "Heavy Trucks Banned". The Ottawa Journal. 8 Apr 1970. p. 47. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
  59. ^ Hartland Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places.
  60. ^ Hartland Covered Bridge. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  61. ^ Jowi., Taylor (2009). Six string nation : 64 pieces, 6 strings, 1 Canada, 1 guitar. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 9781553653936. OCLC 302060380.
  62. ^ "Voyageur". Six String Nation. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  63. ^ Bissett, Kevin (July 4, 2012). "New Brunswick's famous Hartland Bridge gets 'Google doodle'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  64. ^ "Google Doodle honours the Hartland Covered Bridge". CBC News. July 4, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  65. ^ "Hartland considers traffic lights for covered bridge". CBC News. August 17, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2024.
  66. ^ a b "The "Bridge"". Town of Hartland. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  67. ^ Clusiau 2000, p. 83
  68. ^ "Hartland Covered Bridge National Historic Site of Canada". Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved June 26, 2024.
  69. ^ a b "Longest covered bridge". Guinness World Records. Retrieved June 27, 2024.
  70. ^ "Ponts couverts - Comté de Carleton". www.gnb.ca (in French). Ministère des Transports du Nouveau-Brunswick. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  71. ^ Arbour, Gérald; Caron, Fernand; Lefrançois, Jean (2005). Les ponts couverts du Québec (in French). Les publications du Québec. chapter 21. ISBN 978-2-551-19636-4.
  72. ^ Clusiau 2000, p. 85
  73. ^ Rioux, Rose A. (December 1, 1991). "Driving through New Brunswick, Quebec, Gaspe Peninsula". Telegram & Gazette. New York Times Company. p. F9. ProQuest 268450286. Retrieved June 27, 2024.
  74. ^ Moore, Nick (November 6, 2023). "'Downward bend' repairs to keep vehicles off Hartland Covered Bridge all November". CTV Atlantic. Retrieved June 27, 2024.

Works cited

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  • Clusiau, Éric (2000). Des toits sur nos rivières: Les ponts couverts de l'est du Canada (in French). Montréal: Éditions Hurtubise HMH. ISBN 2-89428-420-9.

Further reading

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  • "Hartland Fire". The Carleton Sentinel. July 19, 1907. in Kennedy, Doris E. (2009). "The Fire Monday July 15, 1907". Hidden History of Hartland. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-9813773-0-8.
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