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In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Z is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Haplogroup Z
Possible time of origin21,661.6 [95% CI 13,280.8 <-> 30,042.4] ybp[1]

24,900 [95% CI 15,900 <-> 34,400] ybp[2]

25,300 (95% CI 20,300 <-> 31,200) ybp[3]
Coalescence age19,800 (95% CI 14,300 <-> 26,700) ybp[3]
Possible place of originCentral Asia
Defining mutations152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260[4]
Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup Z in Eurasia


Haplogroup Z is believed to have arisen in Central Asia, and is a descendant of haplogroup CZ.


The greatest clade diversity of haplogroup Z is found in East Asia and Central Asia. However, its greatest frequency appears in some peoples of Russia, such as Evens from Kamchatka (8/39 Z1a2a, 3/39 Z1a3, 11/39 = 28.2% Z total) and from Berezovka, Srednekolymsky District, Sakha Republic (3/15 Z1a3, 1/15 Z1a2a, 4/15 = 26.7% Z total), and among the Saami people of northern Scandinavia. With the exception of three Khakasses who belong to Z4,[5] two Yakut who belong to Z3a1,[5] two Yakut, a Yakutian Evenk, a Buryat, and an Altai Kizhi who belong to Z3(xZ3a, Z3c),[5] and the presence of the Z3c clade among populations of Altai Republic,[5] nearly all members of haplogroup Z in North Asia and Europe belong to subclades of Z1. The TMRCA of Z1 is 20,400 [95% CI 7,400 <-> 34,000] ybp according to Sukernik et al. 2012,[2] 20,400 [95% CI 7,800 <-> 33,800] ybp according to Fedorova et al. 2013,[5] or 12,500 [95% CI 7,000 <-> 20,500] ybp according to YFull.[3]

Fedorova et al. 2013 have reported finding Z*(xZ1a, Z3, Z4) in 1/388 Turks and 1/491 Kazakhs. These individuals should belong to Z1* (elsewhere observed in a Tofalar), Z2 (observed in Japanese), Z7 (observed in the Himalaya), Z5 (observed in Japanese), or basal Z* (observed in a Blang individual in Northern Thailand).[5]



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup Z subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[4] and subsequent published research.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Doron M. Behar, Mannis van Oven, Saharon Rosset, Mait Metspalu, Eva-Liis Loogväli, Nuno M. Silva, Toomas Kivisild, Antonio Torroni, and Richard Villems (2012). "A ‘‘Copernican’’ Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root." The American Journal of Human Genetics 90, 675–684 (April 6, 2012). DOI 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.002.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rem I. Sukernik, Natalia V. Volodko, Ilya O. Mazunin, Nikolai P. Eltsov, Stanislav V. Dryomov, and Elena B. Starikovskaya, "Mitochondrial Genome Diversity in the Tubalar, Even, and Ulchi: Contribution to Prehistory of Native Siberians and Their Affinities to Native Americans." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148:123–138 (2012). DOI 10.1002/ajpa.22050
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w YFull MTree 1.01.5396 as of April 4, 2019.
  4. ^ a b van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Sardana A Fedorova, Maere Reidla, Ene Metspalu, et al., "Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia." BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:127.
  6. ^ a b c d e Wibhu Kutanan, Jatupol Kampuansai, Metawee Srikummool, Daoroong Kangwanpong, Silvia Ghirotto, Andrea Brunelli, and Mark Stoneking, "Complete mitochondrial genomes of Thai and Lao populations indicate an ancient origin of Austroasiatic groups and demic diffusion in the spread of Tai–Kadai languages." Hum Genet 2016 DOI 10.1007/s00439-016-1742-y.
  7. ^ Elena B. Starikovskaya, Rem I. Sukernik, Olga A. Derbeneva, Natalia V. Volodko, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini, Antonio Torroni, Michael D. Brown, Marie T. Lott, Seyed H. Hosseini, Kirsi Huoponen, and Douglas C. Wallace, "Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups." Annals of Human Genetics (2005) 69, 67–89. doi: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00127.x
  8. ^ a b c d e Max Ingman; Ulf Gyllensten (2007). "A recent genetic link between Sami and the Volga-Ural region of Russia" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (1): 115–120. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201712. PMID 16985502.
  9. ^ Malyarchuk,B., Litvinov,A., Derenko,M., Skonieczna,K., Grzybowski,T., Grosheva,A., Shneider,Y., Rychkov,S. and Zhukova,O., "Mitogenomic diversity in Russians and Poles." Forensic Sci Int Genet 30, 51-56 (2017).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Duggan AT, Whitten M, Wiebe V, Crawford M, Butthof A, et al. (2013), "Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers." PLoS ONE 8(12): e83570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083570
  11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Derenko2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Chandrasekar A, Kumar S, Sreenath J, Sarkar BN, Urade BP, et al. (2009), "Updating Phylogeny of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup M in India: Dispersal of Modern Human in South Asian Corridor. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7447. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007447
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference Lippold2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Kang2016 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Min-Sheng Peng, Weifang Xu, Jiao-Jiao Song, et al. (2017), "Mitochondrial genomes uncover the maternal history of the Pamir populations." European Journal of Human Genetics
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ji2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External linksEdit