Haplogroup T-M184

Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The UEP that defines this clade is the SNP known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184. As a primary branch of haplogroup LT (a.k.a. K1), the basal, undivergent haplogroup T* currently has the alternate phylogenetic name of K1b and is a sibling of haplogroup L* (a.k.a. K1a). (Before 2008, haplogroup T and its subclades were known as haplogroup K2.[2] The name K2 has since been reassigned to a primary subclade of haplogroup K.) It has two primary branches: T1 (T-L206) and T2 (T-PH110).

Haplogroup T-M184
Distribution Haplogroup T Y-DNA II.svg
Possible time of origin39,800-48,500 years BP[1]
Possible place of originWestern Asia
DescendantsT1 (T-L206); T2 (T-PH110)
Defining mutationsM184/PAGES34/USP9Y+3178, M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, L445
Highest frequenciesDir (clan) in the Horn of Africa; Antemoro of Madagascar; Lodha, Bauri, Yerukula, Raju and Mahli of East India; Armenians, from Sasoon, Turkey; Chians and Cretans from Lasithi, Greece; rural Saccensi and Aquilanis, Italy; Fula (Fulbe) of West/Central Africa; Ibizans, Spain; Jews from north-east Portugal; the Lemba of Southern Africa; Bakhtiaris and Kermani Zoroastrians in Iran; Tuareg, Toubou and southern Egyptians in North Africa; Georgians; Tajiks and Kazakhs in Central Asia; and Quechua in South America.

T-M184 is unusual in that it is both geographically widespread and relatively rare. The T-M184 found in the Dir Clan in northern Somalia is entirely independent from the E1B1 haplogroup found in other Somali clans.

T1 (T-L206) – the numerically dominant primary branch of T-M184 – appears to have originated in Western Asia, and possibly spread from there into the East Africa, South Asia, Southern Europe and adjoining regions. T1* may have expanded with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Most males who now belong to haplogroup T-L206 carry the subclade T-M70 (T1a), a primary branch of T-M206. T-M70 appears to have been present in Europe since the neolithic, having possibly arrived there in the Neolithic epoch with the first farmers.[2] This is supported by the discovery of several members of T1a1 (CTS880) at a 7,000 year old settlement, 5800-5400Bc neolithic site in Malak Preslavets, Bulgaria.[3][4] Autosomal analysis of these remains suggest that some were closely related to modern Southwest Asian populations.[3][5]


Subclade structure of Haplogroup T (M184).[6]
  • T1 (L206)
    • T1a (M70/Page46/PF5662)
      • T1a1 (L162/Page21, L454)
        • T1a1a (L208/Page2)
          • T1a1a1 (CTS11451)
          • T1a1a2 (Y16897)
            • T1a1a2a (Z19963)
      • T1a2 (L131)
        • T1a2a (PH141/Y13244)
        • T1a2b (L446)
      • T1a3 (FGC1350/Y11151 )
        • T1a3a (Y11675/Z9798)
        • T1a3b (FGC1340/Y8614)
  • T2 (PH110)



Haplogroup T is found at high levels in isolated pockets as far apart as Central Asia, Northeast and Eastern India, Northern Asia, Central Africa, and South Africa. The clade is borne by a majority of Dir clan Somalis in the Horn of Africa;[7] among Kurru, Bauris and Lodha in South Asia; among Toubou in Chad; and in a significant minority of Rajus and Mahli in South Asia; general Somalis, southern Egyptians and Fula (Fulbe) in north Cameroon; people from the Chian, Aquilani, Saccensi, Ibizan (Eivissenc) and Mirandese regions in Europe; Zoroastrians, Bakhtiaris in the Middle East, and Nenets and Kazakhs (especially Momyns and Argyns) in Siberia/Central Asia.[citation needed]

The maximal worldwide frequency for haplogroup T-M184 is observed among Somalis in the Dire Dawa area[8] and Djibouti,[7] where it accounts for approximately 82% of the Somali male lineages[8] to 100% of the Somali Dir male lineages, respectively.[7] Luis et al. (2004) suggest that the presence of T on the African continent may, like R1* representatives, point to an older introduction from Asia. The Levant rather than the Arabian Peninsula appears to have been the main route of entry, as the Egyptian and Turkish haplotypes are considerably older in age (13,700 BP and 9,000 BP, respectively) than those found in Oman (only 1,600 BP). According to the authors, the spotty modern distribution pattern of haplogroup T-M184 within Africa may therefore represent the traces of a more widespread early local presence of the clade. Later expansions of populations carrying the E1b1b, E1b1a, G and J NRY lineages may have overwhelmed the T-M184 clade-bearers in certain localities.[9]

Prevalence of T-M184 in Armenians from Sasun
Haplogroup T-M184, which is relatively rare in other Near Eastern populations, as well as in three of the Armenian collections tested here, represents the most prominent descent in Sasun, comprising 20.1% of the samples. The presence of this haplogroup in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, by contrast, is more limited, composing only 3.6%, 6.3% and 3.9%, respectively, of the individuals from those collections.[...]Sasun, however, exhibits statistically significant divergence from the remaining Armenian populations, most likely as the result of the prominence in Sasun of lineages (T-M184 and R2a-M124) found at substantially lower frequencies in Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van.

Kristian J Herrera, 2012

In the Caucasus and Anatolia it makes up to 4% of the population in southeast and northwest Caucasus as well as in southeast and western Anatolia, peaking up to 20% in Armenians from Sasun. In Middle East it makes up to 4% of the population around the Zagros Mountains and the Persian Gulf as well as around the Taurus Mountains and the Levant basin, peaking up to 10% in Zoroastrians from Kerman, Bakhtiaris, Assyrians from Azerbaijan, Abudhabians, Armenians from Historical Southwestern Armenia and Druzes from Galilee. In Eastern Africa it makes up to 4% of the population on Upper Egypt peaking up to 10% in Luxor.

Haplogroup T is rare almost everywhere in Europe. According to Mendez et al. (2011), "the occurrence in Europe of lineages belonging to both T1a1 (old T1a) and T1a2 (old T1b) subclades probably reflects multiple episodes of gene flow. T1a1* haplogroups in Europe likely reflect older gene flow".[2] It makes up to 4% of the population on Central Italy, Western Sicily, Northwest Corsica, Northwestern Iberian Peninsula, Western Andalucia, Western Alps, Eastern Crete, and Macedonia, frequencies up to 10% in Ibiza, Miranda de I Douro, Eastern Oviedo, Cádiz, Badajoz, Balagna, Norma and Ragusa, and peaking at 20% in Sciacca, L'Aquila and some German regions[which?]. T-M184 was found in 1.7% (10/591) of a pool of six samples of males from southwestern Russia, but it was completely absent from a pool of eight samples totalling 637 individuals from the northern half of European Russia.[10] The Russians from the southwest were from the following cities: Roslavl, Livny, Pristen, Repyevka, and Belgorod; and Kuban Cossacks from the Republic of Adygea.

T1 (T-L206)Edit

Population Language Location Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Berbers Siwi (Berber) Sejenane 1/47 2.1% [11]
Syrians Unspecified Syria 1/95 1.1% [2]
Macedonians Macedonian
Macedonia 1/201 0.5% [12] Macedonians Orthodox Christians

T1 is the most common descent of T-M184 haplogroup, being the lineage of more than 95% of all Eurasian T-M184 members. One of their descent lineages is found in high frequencies among northern Somali clans. However, it appears to have originated somewhere around the northern Mediterranean Basin, perhaps somewhere between Greece to the Zagros mountains.

The basal T1* subclade appears to have spread from northeastern Anatolia, into the Levant at least, with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Although it is rare in modern populations, T1* has been found in a Berber individual from Tunisia, a male in Syria, and one sequence among ethnic Macedonians in Macedonia.[2][11][12]

Initial research into T1a (T-M70; previously known as K2)
K2-M70 is believed to have originated in Asia after the emergence of the K-M9 polymorphism (45–30 ky) (Underhill et al. 2001a). As deduced from the collective data (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002; Semino et al. 2002; present study), K2-M70 individuals, at some later point, proceeded south to Africa. While these chromosomes are seen in relatively high frequencies in Egypt, Oman, Tanzania, Ethiopia, they are especially prominent in the Fulbe 18%( [Scozzari et al. 1997, 1999])

J. R. Luis et al. 2004, [9]

T1a (M70)Edit

Mendez et al. (2011) points to an ancient presence for T1a-M70 in Europe may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The subclade probably arrived with the very first farmers.[2]


Pityusans: one of three genetically distinct populations in the Balearic Islands
The population of the Pityusic Islands does present a clear genetic divergence in relation to the Mallorcan and Menorcan populations. Neither shows a confluence with the Catalan and Valencian populations like do the Mallorcan and Menorcan. With the comparison of the data provided by the Pityusic population with other circumediterranean populations surprises that practically there is no convergence with any of these populations, not even with the North African populations. The Pityusic case is paradigmatic: for some markers shows affinities with Oriental populations (some mtDNA variables), but diverges from these populations when considering other markers. It is a separate case, an island, not in the geographical sense but genetical.

Misericòrdia Ramon Juanpere et al., 1998-2004

Recent findings of Haak et al. who discovered several T1a1-CTS880 members in a 7000 years old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany.[3][4]

The T1a1 skeletal remains from this settlement were also found to belong to the H mtdna haplogroup, this settlement has the highest frequency of this mtDNA haplogroup 30.4% (7/23) that have been found in any early Neolithic Europe population until now.[3] T1a1 (T-L162/Page21; also known as T-L162(xL208) and T-L454), which emerged 17,400-14,600 BP, is the largest lineage downstream from T1a-M70. An individual with T1a1 was first identified in a paper by Tomas et al. in 2006, among a sample of Ibizans (Eivissencs) from the Balearic Islands of Spain.[13] T-L162(xL208) has also been reported in at least one male with a Pontic Greek background.[citation needed]

The Pityusans of the Pityusic Islands (Ibiza and Formentera) – have been found by three different studies to possess T1a1 at relatively high levels of 6.7–16.7%. Tomàs et al. (2006) found three cases amongst a sample of 45 (6.7%).[13] Zalloua et al. (2008) found nine examples that were L454+ (an SNP equivalent to L162/Page21) from a sample of 54 (i.e. a rate of 16.7%).[14][15] Rodriguez et al. (2009) found seven cases of L454+ in a sample of 96 (7.3%).[16]

The Pontic Greeks of Anatolia are also reported to possess T1a1. In 2009, a male with the surname Metaxopoulos and a Pontic Greek background was reported to be T-L162(xL208) – according to the Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project administered by Adriano Squecco.[citation needed] Greeks from the Fatsa (originally "Φάτσα") reportedly migrated in antiquity from Sinope, which was itself colonised by Ionians (from Miletus). Another ancient Ionian colony in north-west Anatolia, Lámpsakos (Lampsacus), had onomastic links to the Pityusic Islands (see above) – Lámpsakos was originally an Ionian colony known as Pityussa.

T1a1a (L208)Edit

This lineage, formed 14,200-11,000 BP, is the largest branch downstream T1a1-L162. Firstly discovered and reported at August 2009 in a 23andMe customer of Iberian ancestry that participated in the public Squecco's Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Project and appearing there as "Avilés" and as "AlpAstur" in 23andMe. Named as "L208" at November 2009.

T1a1a1a1b1a1* (T-Y3782*)Edit

One Sardinian male from a sample of 187 (a nominal rate of 0.53%) – a resident of the Province of Cagliari (Sardinian: Casteddu) – has been found to have T-Y3782(xY3836), also known T1a1a1a1b1a1(xT1a1a1a1b1a1a).[17]

T1a1a1a1b1a1a (T-Y3836)Edit

T-Y3836 Phylogeny. Using 19 Y-STR markers.

This lineage is mostly found among individuals from the Iberian Peninsula, where the subclade also has its highest diversity. Two subclades can be clearly discriminated. The first, found mainly in post-colonial Puerto Rico, with DYS391=10 and the second, found mainly in Panamá where their Iberian descendants could have the entrance point to America, with DYS439=12.

Some members of Y3836 are found among different communities of the Sephardic diaspora but they are found to be extremely rare in the total percentage of some of these communities as seen in Nogueiro et al. This probably could mean that these members could be integrated by these communities through the contact with other native Iberian populations as seen in Monteiro et al. where this lineage was found among native Astur-Leonese speakers.

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 1/30 3.3% [18]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Caldas 2/75 2.7% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 1/43 2.3% [18]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Castilian (Romance languages) Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/50 2% [19] YHRD Admixed population
Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican Castilian (Romance languages) Southeast Puerto Rico 2/110 1.8% [20]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança, Argozelo, Carção, Mogadouro, and Vilarinho dos Galegos 1/57 1.8% [21][22][23]
Native Mirandese speakers Mirandese Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 1/58 1.7% [24][25]
Dominicans Dominican Castilian (Romance languages) Dominican Republic 4/261 1.5% [26]
Panamanians Panamian Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [18]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 2/200 1% [27]
Mestizos Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Bogotá 2/195 1% YHRD
Mestizos Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Valle del Cauca 1/103 1% YHRD
Mestizos Ecuadorian Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 1/102 1% [28]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 1/111 0.9% [29]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Central Region 1/115 0.9% [30]
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) São Paulo 1/120 0.8 YHRD European descents
Ecuadorians Ecuadorian Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 1/120 0.8% [31]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Antioquia 6/777 0.7% [32]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Mérida 1/159 0.6% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Alhama de Granada, Baza, Huéscar, Loja, Montefrío and Órgiva 1/180 0.6% [33]
Colombians Colombian Castilian (Romance languages) Santander 1/193 0.5% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Chileans Chilean Castilian (Romance languages) Concepción 1/198 0.5% YHRD
Catalans Not reported Metropolitan area of Barcelona 1/224 0.5% [34]
Mexicans Mexican Spanish (Romance languages) Guadalajara 1/246 0.4% YHRD Mestizo individuals
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 1/255 0.4% [35]

T2 (PH110)Edit

 This lineage could have arrived in the Levant through the PPNB expansion from northeastern Anatolia.

A 2014 study found T-PH110 in one ethnic Bhutanese male, out of a sample of 21, possibly implying a rate of 4.8% in Bhutan.[36] Also have been found in a German individual and another two from Caucasus. The Bhutanese and the German haplotypes seems to cluster together.

Possible cases from older researchEdit

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Altaians Altai (Turkic) Kurmach-Baygol 2/11 18.2% [37] K* (xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)
Altaians Altai (Turkic) Turochak 2/19 10.5% [37] K(xT1a-M70, L-M20, N-DYF155S2, O-M175, P-92R7)
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 1/13 7.7% [38][39] K(xT1a-M70, L1-M22, P-92R7)
Ossetian Irons Iron (Iranian) South Ossetia 1/21 4.8% [38][40] No further details available.
Cordobeses Andalusian (Romance) Córdoba 1/27 3.7% [38][41] No further details available.
Leoneses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Leon 2/60 3.3% [38][41] No further details available.
Tharus Tharu (Indo-Aryan) Morang 1/37 2.7% [42] K(xT1a-M70, L-M20, NO-M214, P-M74)
Cherkessians Besleney (Northwest Caucasian) Circassia 2/126 1.6% [38][40] No further details are available.
Bizkaians Bizkaiera (Isolate language) Bizkaia 1/72 1.4% [38][41] No further details are available.
Europeans English (Germanic) Australia 1/1078 0.09% [43] No further details are available.

Geographical distributionEdit

Northern AsiaEdit

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kazakhs Kazakh (Turkic) Southwestern Altai 1/30 3.3% [44] T1a-M70
Evens Even (Tungusic) eastern Siberia 1/61 1.6% [45]
Barghuts Barga (Mongolic) different localities of Hulun Buir Aimak 1/76 1.3% [45] T1a-M70. In the 12–13th centuries, the Barga (Barghuts) Mongols appeared as tribes near Lake Baikal, named Bargujin.


Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Marchigianos Marchigiano dialect (Italian) Arquata del Tronto and Apiro 2/2 100% [46]
Cretans and southern Aegeans Southeastern Greek Crete and southern Aegean 2/6 33.3% [47]
Rural Saccensi Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 6/20 30% [48]
Chians Southeastern Greek Khíos 4/16 25% [49]
Stilfser (Tyrolese) Southern Austro-Bavarian (German) Stilfs, South Tyrol, Italy 4/17 23.5% [50]
Sephardic Levites 7/31 22.6% [51] Among Ashkenazi Levites found at 3.3% but different haplotype.
Venetians Venetian (Romance) Vigasio and Povegliano Veronese 2/9 22.2% [52]
Abruzzesi Neapolitan language (Romance) L'Aquila 6/30 20% [53] macro-haplogroup LT is 30% in L'Aquila population. This was the land of Samnium inhabited by the Caraceni
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 9/50 18% [54] According to Martinez2007 only can belong to T1a-M70
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Sciacca 5/28 17.9% [55]
Urban Ragusani Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 3/19 15.8% [48]
Northeastern Portuguese Jews Judaeo-Portuguese (Romance) Bragança, Argozelo, Carção, Mogadouro, and Vilarinho dos Galegos 9/57 15.7% [21][22][23] T have been found to be the second largest lineage in the Mirandês speaking population of Miranda do Douro too. Haplogroup T was not found in a sample of Belmonte Jews.
Albanians Albanian Brescia (Lombardia) 12/83 14.5% [56] The haplogroup tested is K*(xNOP), is assumed as LT and most probably are members of T
Rural Normensi Italian (Romance) Norma 1/7 14.3% [48]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Balagne (region of Corsica suprana) 3/24 12.5% [57]
Rural Piazzesi Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 3/24 12.5% [48]
Frosinonensis Central Italian language (Romance) Filettino 2/17 11.8% [58] Isolated mountain community
Vellepetrianis Central Italian language (Romance) Vallepietra 2/18 11.1% [58] Isolated mountain community
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 2/18 11.1% [59] All individuals were interviewed in order to assess the geographical origin of their grandparents and their speaking dialect.
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Matelica 1/9 11.1% [46]
Gaditanos Andalusian (Romance) Cádiz 3/28 10.7% [60]
Native Mirandese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Miranda de l Douro 6/58 10.4% [24][25]
Pacenses Astur-Leonese (Romance) Badajoz 3/29 10.3% [39]
Asturianos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Eastern Uviéu 1/10 10% [61]
Murcianos Murcian (Romance) Murcia 1/10 10% [62]
Aquilanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Cappadocia 5/54 9.3% [58] Isolated mountain community
Rural Alcamesi Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/22 9.1% [48]
Cretans Cretan Greek Lasithi 2/23 8.7% [63]
Ligurians and Tuscans Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia / Massa 2/24 8.3% [53]
Lugueses Galician language (Romance) Lugo 1/12 8.3% [39]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) West Campania 7/84 8.3% [64]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Cilento 4/48 8.3% [54]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Alcamo 2/24 8.3% [55]
Lebaniegos Astur-Leonese (Romance) Liébana 3/37 8.1% [65]
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Corte (region of Corsica suprana) 5/62 8.1% [57]
Segovianos Castilian language (Romance) Segovia 2/25 8% [39]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Offida 3/38 7.9% [66]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 9/114 7.9% [55]
Saracinescanis Central Italian language (Romance) Saracinesco 2/18 7.7% [58] Isolated mountain community
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Mljet Island 3/39 7.7% [67]
Northern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Vila Real 3/39 7.7% [68]
Materanis Neapolitan language (Romance) Matera and Policoro 4/52 7.7% [69]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) Campania 8/108 7.4% [70]
Cretans Cretan Greek Oropedio Lasithiou 3/41 7.3% [63]
Latinensis Neapolitan language (Romance) (Romance) Norma and Sezze 3/41 7.3% [69]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Ragusa 2/28 7.1% [55]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Piazza Armerina 2/28 7.1% [55]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Trapani 3/43 7% [57]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 3/43 7% [69]
Leccesis Salentino language (Romance) Vaste and Ugento 3/46 6.5% [69]
Walloons Walloon (Romance) Wallonia 3/47 6.4% [71]
Ascolanis Marchigiano (Romance) Offida and Ascoli Piceno 3/47 6.4% [69]
Asturianos Eonavian (Romance) Navia-Eo 2/31 6.5% [61]
Gagauzes Gagauz (Turkic) Kongaz 3/48 6.3%
Solàndris Solànder (Rhaeto-Romance) Val de Sól 4/65 6.2% [72]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Aveiro 4/66 6.1%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 10/167 6% [33]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/34 5.9%
Corsicans Corsican Corsica 2/34 5.9%
Panteschis Sicilian with Siculo-Arabic influences (Romance) Pantelleria 1/17 5.9% [73]
Extremadurans Astur-Leonese and Castilian (Romance) Extremadura 3/52 5.8%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Unspecified Bulgarian region 4/69 5.8% [74]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) Tuscany 3/53 5.7% [75]
Dutch Hollandic (West Germanic) North Holland 1/18 5.6%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 1/18 5.6% [57]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) Mazara del Vallo 1/18 5.6%
Southern Italians Italian (Romance) South Apulia 4/71 5.6%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 4/74 5.4% [76]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) South Sicily 3/55 5.4%
Lombardians Lombard and Italian (Romance) Lombardia 7/131 5.3%
Hutterites Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) South Tyrol 4/75 5.3% [77]
Peloponnesians Southern Greek Peloponnese 1/19 5.3% [47]
Gutes Gutnish (North Germanic) Gotland 2/40 5%
Alsatians Alsatian (Upper German) Strossburi 4/80 5%
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Asturies 1/20 5%
Italian speakers Italian (Romance) Bozen 3/59 5%
Ladin Stilfser/Tyrolese Ladin (Romance) Stelvio 1/20 5%
Gaditanos Andalusian language (Romance) Cadiz 1/20 5% [39]
Malacitanos Andalusian language (Romance) Málaga 1/20 5% [39]
Macedonians and Thracians Northern Greek East Macedonia and Thrace 1/21 4.8% [47]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Razgrad 1/21 4.8% [74]
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Trás os Montes 3/64 4.7%
Corsicans Gallurese (Romance languages) Tempiu 4/86 4.7% [17]
Sardinians Sassarese (Romance) Sassari 2/43 4.7% [57]
Jennesis Central Italian language (Romance) Jenne 3/65 4.6% [58] Isolated mountain community
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Buccheri 1/22 4.6% [69]
Casteddammaresis Sicilian (Romance) Casteddammari 1/22 4.6% [69]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) East Sicily 4/87 4.6%
Western Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Huelva 1/22 4.5% [60]
West Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Sevilla 7/155 4.5% [60]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Santiago 2/46 4.4%
Palentinos Castilian language (Romance) Palencia 1/23 4.4% [39]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Aragó 1/23 4.4% [78]
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) Central Liguria 2/45 4.4% [66]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Penedès 7/164 4.3% [78]
Greeks Greek Athens 4/92 4.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese Beira Litoral 5/116 4.3%
Ligurians Ligurian (Romance) La Spezia 2/46 4.3% [66]
South Italians Salentino (Romance) North Apulia 2/46 4.3%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/70 4.3% [60]
Cimbrians Cimbrian (West Germanic languages) Lessinia 1/24 4.2% [72]
Pincianos Castilian language (Romance) Valladolid 1/24 4.2% [39]
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Zadar Hinterland 1/25 4% [67]
Macedonians Northern Greek Central Macedonia 1/25 4% [47]
Madrileños Castilian language (Romance) Madrid 2/50 4% [39]
Germans German (West Germanic) Berlin 4/103 3.9%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Braga 2/51 3.9%
Beneventanis Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio la Molara 1/26 3.9% [69]
Tuscans Tuscan (Romance) South Tuscany 3/79 3.8%
Riojans Riojan and Castilian (Romance) La Rioja 2/54 3.7% [59]
Marchigianos Marchigiano (Romance) Apennines Marche 1/27 3.7%
Calabrians Southern Italian (Romance) West Calabria 1/27 3.7% [66]
Urban Biellesi Piedmontese (Romance) Bièla 3/81 3.7% [48]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Kharkiv Oblast 2/55 3.6% [79]
Native Sayaguese speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Sayago 1/28 3.6% [24]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Montes Baixo Miño 1/28 3.6%
Corsicans Corsican (Romance) Ajaccio (region of Corsica sutana) 1/28 3.6% [57]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sassari and Orgosolo 2/56 3.6% [80]
Southern Portugueses Portuguese (Romance) Évora 1/29 3.5%
Cretans Cretan Greek Khania 1/29 3.5% [54]
Canarians Canarian Spanish (Romance) La Palma 3/85 3.5%
Scanians Scanian dialects (South Scandinavian) Malmö 1/29 3.4%
Auvergnats Auvergnat (Romance) Clermont-Ferrand 3/89 3.4%
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Eastern Azores 3/87 3.4% [81]
Asturians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Uviéu 6/182 3.3% [76]
Galicians Galician (Romance) Lugo 2/61 3.3%
Albanians Albanian dialects Albania 1/30 3.3%
Northeastern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Bragança 1/30 3.3% [21]
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Viseu 1/30 3.3%
Northern Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Guarda 1/30 3.3%
Catanzaresis southern Calabrese (Romance) Catanzaro 1/30 3.3% [69]
Sicilians Sicilian (Romance) West Sicily 4/122 3.3%
Leoneses Astur-leonese language (Romance) Leon 7/221 3.2% [39]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) West Aukstaiciai 1/31 3.2%
Euboeans Thessalian (Hellenic) Euboea 3/93 3.2% [69]
Greeks Northern Greek Western Greece 1/31 3.2% [47]
Campanians Neapolitan language (Romance) San Giorgio La Molara 1/31 3.2% [66]
Valencians Catalan and Castilian (Romance) Valencia 1/31 3.2% [60]
Southern Tyroleans Southern Austro-Bavarian (Upper German) Lower Vinschgau 1/32 3.1%
Rhinelanders Ripuarian (Central Franconian) Köln 3/96 3.1%
Swedes Swedish dialects (East Scandinavian) Örebro 1/32 3.1%
Cantabrians Astur-Leonese (Romance) Cantabria 3/98 3.1% [82]
Albaceteño Castilian language (Romance) Albacete 1/32 3.1% [39]
Portuguese Portuguese (Romance) Madeira 4/129 3.1%
Asturianos Astur-Leonese language (Romance) Asturias 1/33 3% [39]
Lentinesi Sicilian (Romance) Lentini 1/33 3% [69]
Shetlanders with Aboriginal surnames Scots language and Norn Language (Germanic) Shetland 1/35 2.9% Shetland Project
Aretuseis Sicilian (Romance) Siracusa 4/138 2.9% [69]
Baslers Basel German (West Germanic) Basel-Stadt 18/643 2.8% [76]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Smolensk Oblast 3/107 2.8% [79]
Gienenses Castilian language (Romance) Jaen 1/36 2.8% [39]
Native Alistano speakers Astur-Leonese (Romance) Aliste 1/36 2.8% [24]
Germans German (Germanic) Germany 1/37 2.7% Karafet15
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 3/110 2.7% [79]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/150 2.7% [83]
Azoreans Portuguese (Romance) Central Azores 2/76 2.6% [81]
Augustanis Sicilian (Romance) Augusta 1/38 2.6% [69]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Vysocina 1/40 2.5% [84]
Fiemmeses Fiamazzo (Romance) Val de Fiem 1/41 2.4% [72]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Turnhout 1/42 2.4% [85] ‘1675’ data set
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Oryol Oblast 1/42 2.4%
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Haskovo 1/41 2.4% [74]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/41 2.4% [86]
Genoese Tabarkini Ligurian (Romance languages) U Pàize 1/48 2.1% [87]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) Tongeren 1/43 2.3% [88] T1a1a-L208
Sardinians Sardinian, Corsican (Romance) Sardinia 28/1204 2.3% [89]
Croats Croatian (West Slavic) Dubrovnik 4/179 2.2% [67]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Kursk Oblast 1/45 2.2% [79]
Sardinians Gallurese (Romance) Gaddùra 1/46 2.2% [57]
Sardinians Sardinian (Romance) Sardinia 27/1204 2.2% [89]
Belvederesi Neapolitan language (Romance) Belvedere Marittimo 1/45 2.2% [69]
Fascians Fascian (Rhaeto-Romance) Fascia 1/47 2.1% [72]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Lipetsk Oblast 1/47 2.1%
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Chernihiv Raion 2/96 2.1% [79]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance) Trexenta 1/47 2.1% [57]
Sardinians Logudorese (Romance languages) Benetuti 1/48 2.1% [87]
Lithuanians Aukštaitian (Baltic) western Aukštaitija 1/50 2% [79]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Sumy Oblast 2/101 2% [79]
Zamoranos Castilian (Romance) Campos - Pan 1/50 2% [24]
Southwestern Almerians Andalusian (Romance) Laujar de Andarax, Ohanes, Berja and Adra 1/50 2% [90]
Alpujarreños Andalusian (Romance) Alpujarra de la Sierra 1/50 2%
Corinthians Ionian-Peloponesian and Albanian (Hellenic) Corinthia 2/104 1.9% [69]
Macedonians Macedonian (Balto-Slavic) Macedonia 4/211 1.9% [91]
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Sòrgono 2/103 1.9% [17]
Catalans Catalan language (Romance language) Camp de Tarragona 4/214 1.9% [78]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Cherkasy Raion 2/114 1.8% [79]
Adigeses Italian (Romance) Val d'Adige 1/56 1.8% [72]
Bosch surname members Catalan language (Romance language) Països Catalans 1/56 1.8% [92]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Southwestern Gipuzkoa 1/57 1.8% [59]
Basques Gipuzkoan (Isolate language) Gipuzkoa 1/58 1.7% [93]
Flemish Dutch (West Germanic) [[North Brabant] 2/119 1.7% [85] ‘1775’ data set
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia 1/59 1.7% [74]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Lovech 1/62 1.6% [74]
Balearics Majorcan (Romance) Majorca 2/129 1.6% [78]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Plzen 1/62 1.6% [84]
Mecklenburgers East Low Saxon (West Germanic) Rostock 3/200 1.5% [27]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Belgorod Oblast 2/143 1.4% [79]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Castelló 2/146 1.4% [78]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Plovdiv 2/159 1.3% [74]
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Montana, Bulgaria 1/80 1.3% [74]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Central Catalonia 3/230 1.3% [78]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Barcelona 3/231 1.3% [78]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Barcelona Periphery 3/235 1.3% [78]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Eastern Belarus 1/86 1.2% [94]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Usti nad Labem 1/86 1.2% [84]
Russians Russian (East Slavic) Penza Oblast 1/81 1.2%
Faroese Faroese (Germanic) Faroe Islands 1/89 1.1% [95] Grandfathers originated from various Faroese islands.
Sardinians Campidanese (Romance languages) Casteddu 2/187 1.1% [17]
Eastern Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) Granada 2/180 1.1% [33]
Moravian Valachs Romanian language (Romance languages) Moravian Wallachia 1/94 1.1% [96]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Eastern Polesie 1/96 1% [94]
Estonians Estonian (Uralic) Estonia 2/209 1% [97]
Austrians Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Salzburg (state) 2/200 1% [98]
Ukrainians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Lviv Oblast 1/101 1% [79]
Aragonese Aragonese and Castilian (Romance) Aragón 2/200 1% [76]
Castellonenses Catalan language (Romance) Castelló 5/515 1% [39]
Bavarians Bavarian (Germanic) Bavaria 2/218 0.9% [99] T1a1a1a1b1-PF7445
Austrian Germans Southern Bavarian (Germanic) Upper Austria 2/225 0.9% [98]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) South Moravia 2/216 0.9% [84]
Croatians Croatian (West Slavic) Zagreb 1/114 0.9%
Catalans Catalan (Romance) Girona 2/219 0.9% [78]
Belarusians Ukrainian (East Slavic) Western Polesie 1/121 0.8% [94]
Mecklenburger Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch (Germanic) Mecklenburg 1/138 0.8% [99] T1a2b-L446(xCTS11984) DYS437=15
Bulgarians Bulgarian language (South Slavic languages) Sofia Province 2/257 0.8% [74]
Andalusians Andalusian (Romance) HuelvaSevilleCórdobaJaénMálagaCadizGranadaAlmeria 1/144 0.7% [100]
Romanians Romanian (Romance) Romania 1/178 0.6% [97]
Catalans Catalan (Romance) València 1/173 0.6% [78]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/164 0.6% [99]
Irish Gaeilge (Celtic) Ireland 1/221 0.5% [101]
Czechs Czech (West Slavic) Prague 3/595 0.5% [84]
Germans German (West Germanic) area of Halle 1/234 0.4% [102]
Individuals living in Catalonia Catalan language (Romance) Barcelona metropolitan area 1/247 0.4% [103]
Slovaks Slovak (West Slavic) Slovakia 1/473 0.2% [104]

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 14% (3/23) of Russians in Yaroslavl,[105] 12.5% (3/24) of Italians in Matera,[54] 10.3% (3/29) of Italians in Avezzano,[54] 10% (3/30) of Tyroleans in Nonstal,[54] 10% (2/20) of Italians in Pescara,[54] 8.7% (4/46) of Italians in Benevento,[54] 7.8% (4/51) of Italians in South Latium,[64] 7.4% (2/27) of Italians in Paola,[54] 7.3% (11/150) of Italians in Central-South Italy,[106] 7.1% (8/113) of Serbs in Serbia,[107] 4.7% (2/42) of Aromanians in Romania,[108] 3.7% (3/82) of Italians in Biella,[109] 3.7% (1/27) of Andalusians in Córdoba,[60] 3.3% (2/60) of Leoneses in León,[60] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Postua,[109] 3.2% (1/31) of Italians in Cavaglià,[109] 3.1% (3/97) of Calabrians in Reggio Calabria,[16] 2.8% (1/36) of Russians in Ryazan Oblast,[110] 2.8% (2/72) of Italians in South Apulia,[111] 2.7% (1/37) of Calabrians in Cosenza,[16] 2.6% (3/114) of Serbs in Belgrade,[112] 2.5% (1/40) of Russians in Pskov,[105] 2.4% (1/42) of Russians in Kaluga,[105] 2.2% (2/89) of Transylvanians in Miercurea Ciuc,[113] 2.2% (2/92) of Italians in Trino Vercellese,[109] 1.9% (2/104) of Italians in Brescia,[114] 1.9% (2/104) of Romanians in Romania,[115] 1.7% (4/237) of Serbs and Montenegrins in Serbia and Montenegro,[116] 1.7% (1/59) of Italians in Marche,[111] 1.7% (1/59) of Calabrians in Catanzaro,[16] 1.6% (3/183) of Greeks in Northern Greece,[117] 1.3% (2/150) of Swiss Germans in Zürich Area,[118] 1.3% (1/79) of Italians in South Tuscany and North Latium,[111] 1.1% (1/92) of Dutch in Leiden,[119] 0.5% (1/185) of Serbs in Novi Sad (Vojvodina),[120] 0.5% (1/186) of Polish in Podlasie[121]

Other parts that have been found to contain a significant proportion of haplogroup T-M184 individuals include Trentino (2/67 or 3%), Mariña Lucense (1/34 or 2.9%), Heraklion (3/104 or 2.9%), Roslavl (3/107 or 2.8%), Ourense (1/37 or 2.7%), Livny (3/110 or 2.7%), Biella (3/114 or 2.6%), Entre Douro (6/228 or 2.6%), Porto (3/118 or 2.5%), Urbino (1/40 or 2.5%), Iberian Peninsula (16/629 or 2.5%), Blekinge/Kristianstad (1/41 or 2.4%), Belarus (1/41 or 2.4%), Modena (3/130 or 2.3%), Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (1/45 or 2.2%), Pristen (1/45 or 2.2%), Cáceres (2/91 or 2.2%), Brac (1/47 or 2.1%), Satakunta (1/48 or 2.1%), Western Croatia (2/101 or 2%), Ukrainia (1/50 or 2%), Greifswald (2/104 or 1.9%), Moldavians in Sofia (1/54 or 1.9%), Uppsala (1/55 or 1.8%), Lublin (2/112 or 1.8%), Pias in Beja (1/54 or 1.8%), Macedonian Greeks (1/57 or 1.8%), Nea Nikomedeia (1/57 or 1.8%), Sesklo/Dimini (1/57 or 1.8%), Lerna/Franchthi (1/57 or 1.8%), Açores (2/121 or 1.7%), Viana do Castelo (1/59 or 1.7%), Toulouse (1/67 or 1.5%), Belgorod (2/143 or 1.4%), Sardinia (1/77 or 1.3%).[122][123][124][125][126][127][64][68][128][95][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][46][90][144][145][146][excessive citations] According to data from commercial testing, 3.9% of Italian males belonging to this haplogroup.[147] Approximately 3% of Sephardi Jews and 2% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup T.[148]

Middle East and CaucasusEdit

Haplogroup T has some significant frequencies in southeast and eastern Anatolia, the Zagros Mountains and both sides of the Persian Gulf.

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Khashuri 1/3 33.3% [149]
Priest Zoroastrians Persian Shiraz, Tehran and Yazd 2/8 25% [150] Not specified if Herbad or Mobad
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 7/32 21.9% [2] 12.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.4% T1a3-Y11151
Armenian Sasuntzis Western Armenian dialect, Kurmanji and Dimli (Northwestern Iranian) languages Sasun 21/104 20.2% [151] T1a1 and T1a2 subclades
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Sighnaghi and Gurjaani 2/10 20% [149]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Kharagauli 1/5 20% [149]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Daghestani lowlands 2/10 20% [152] Reported as K* but according to Karafet16 and Yunusbayev12 only T fits.[citation needed]
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 19/99 19.2% [153]
Kurdish Jews Judeo-Aramaic (Central Semitic) Kurdistan 9/50 18% [2] 10% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 8% T1a1-L162
Druzes Palestinian Arabic (Central Semitic) Galilee 7/40 17.5% [154]
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) refugees in Armenia 16/106 15.1% [155] Reported as K*. Their homeland in the areas around Urmia.
Assyrians Aramaic (Central Semitic) Unknown 4/28 14.3% [156]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Dusheti 1/7 14.3% [149]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 3/22 13.6% [2] 4.5% T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77 and 9.1% T1a3-Y11151
Zoroastrians Persian Kerman 5/37 13.5% [157]
Iraqi Jews Judeo-Iraqi Arabic (Central Semitic) Iraq 13/99 13.1% [158]
Bakhtiaris Bakhtiari (Southwestern Iranian (Perside)) Izeh 13/103 12.6% [159][160]
Mountain Jews Judeo-Tat (Southwestern Iranian) Derbentsky District 2/17 11.8% [156] All belong to T1a1a1a1a1a1-P77
Armenians Western Armenian dialect Historical Southwestern Armenia 11/96 11.5% [161]
Abudhabians Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Abu Dhabi 21/191 11% [Research 1]
Assyrians Assyrian (Central Semitic) West Azerbaijan Province 4/39 10.3% [162]
Iranian Jews Judeo-Iranian (Southwestern Iranian) Iran 5/49 10.2% [158]
Persian Muslims Persian Shiraz 5/51 9.8% [157]
Persian Muslims Persian Kerman 6/66 9.1% [157]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Al-Qadisiyah 6/69 8.7% [163]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 35/413 8.5% [97]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 5/59 8.5% [162]
Omani Arabs Omani Arabic (Semitic) Oman 10/121 8.3% [9]
Kurds Sorani (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdestan 2/25 8% [164]
Azeris Azeri (Oghuz) West Azerbaijan Province 5/63 7.9% [162]
Mazanderanis Mazanderan (Western Iranian) Mazandaran 1/13 7.7% [164]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/41 7.3% [104]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 10/139 7.2% [165]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 3/42 7.1% [128]
Iraqis Iraqi Arabic (Semitic) Iraq 3/43 7% [166]
Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 10/143 7% [167]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Fars 3/44 6.8% [162]
Christian Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 3/44 6.8% [168]
Western Armenians Armenian Eastern Turkey 6/90 6.7% [169]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Yazd 3/46 6.5% [162]
Armenians Armenian Gardman 6/96 6.3% [151]
Yezidis Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) refugees in Armenia 12/196 6.1% [155] Reported as K*. Their homeland in the areas around Laliş.
Muslim Arabs Levantine Arabic Israel and Palestine 7/119 5.9% [168]
Zahedan, Baluchestan, Iran 6/103 5.8% [170]
Northern Armenians Armenian Northern Armenia, southern Georgia (Bolnisi, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe) and northwestern Azerbaijan (around Gyanja) 10/189 5.3% [169]
Armenians Armenian Tehran 2/38 5.3% [157]
Eastern Armenians Armenian Karabakh 11/215 5.1% [169]
Persians Farsi (Southwestern Iranian) Khorasan 3/59 5.1% [162]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 8/157 5.1% [171]
Armenians Armenian Syunik 7/140 5% [169]
Emiratis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) United Arab Emirates 8/164 4.9%
Lebanese Muslims Lebanese Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 28/568 4.9% [172]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Lemesos 6/126 4.8% [173]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Khasavyurtovsky District 1/21 4.8% [156]
Avars Avar (Northeast Caucasian) southeastern Dagestan 2/42 4.8% [40]
Kurds Kurmanji (Northwestern Iranian) Anatolia 12/251 4.8% [174]
Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 6/126 4.8% [Research 2]
Anizes Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 1/21 4.7% [175]
Lebaneses Levantine Arabic (Semitic) Lebanon 43/914 4.7%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Cyprus 3/65 4.6%
Maronites Lebanese Arabic and Syriac (Semitic) Lebanon 24/518 4.6% [172]
Armenians Armenian Ararat 2/44 4.6% [169]
Muslim Kurds Kurdish dialects (Northwestern Iranian) Kurdistan 4/95 4.2% [153]
Qeshmis Qishmi (southwestern Iranian) Qeshm 2/49 4.1% [162]
Lurs Luri (Southwestern Iranian) Lorestan 2/50 4% [162]
Sadats Languages of Iran Different cities of Iran 2/50 4% [176]
Persians Persian Eastern Iran 3/77 3.9% [177]
Armenians Armenian Lake Van 4/103 3.9% [151]
Saudi Arabians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Saudi Arabia 4/106 3.8% [104]
Turkish Cypriots Cypriot Turkish 138 different villages, towns or cities from Cyprus 14/380 3.7% [178] Paternal lineages originating from the traditional Turkish Cypriot settlements throughout the island
Birjand, South Khorasan, Iran 1/27 3.7% [170] All T1a3-Y12871
Armenians Armenian Ararat Valley 4/110 3.6% [151]
Armenians Armenian Armenia 2/57 3.5% [40]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Omalo 1/29 3.5% [149]
Iranians Languages of Iran South Iran 4/117 3.4% [123]
Ionians Greek Phokaia 1/31 3.2% [179]
Bandaris Bandari (Southwestern Iranian) Bandar Abbas 4/131 3.1% [162]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Larnaka 2/67 3% [173]
Alans Karachay-Baksan-Chegem (Turkic) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/69 2.9% [40]
Jordanians Arabic dialects (Semitic) Jordania 8/273 2.9%
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Ammochostos 3/122 2.5% [173]
Lezghins Lezgian (Northeast Caucasian) Southern Dagestan 2/81 2.5% [180]
Turks Turkish Turkey 13/523 2.5%
Persians Persian (Southwestern Iranian) Esfahan 1/13 2.4% [164]
Iranians Languages of Iran Iran 7/324 2.2% [172]
Azerbaijani Muslims Azerbaijani (Turkic) Uromia 2/91 2.2% [157]
Yemenite Jews Hebrew and Arabic Yemen 2/94 2.1% [158]
Andis Andi (Northeast Caucasian) western Dagestan 1/49 2% [40]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Paphos 2/105 1.9% [173]
Cypriots Cypriot Greek Nicosia 3/161 1.9% [173]
Assyrians Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (Semitic) Uromia and Tehran 1/55 1.8% [157]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/58 1.7% [180]
Kuwaitis Gulf Arabic (Semitic) Kuwait 2/117 1.7% [181]
Greek Orthodox Koine Greek Lebanon 2/116 1.7% [172]
Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan, Iran 2/129 1.6% [170] 0.8% T1a3-Y11151 (xY8614)
Aeolians Greek Smyrna 1/68 1.5% [179]
Georgians Georgian (Kartvelian) Georgia 1/66 1.5% [97]
Turkmens Turkmen (Oghuz) Golestan 1/68 1.5% [162]
Kumyks Kumyk (Turkic) Northern Dagestan 1/73 1.4% [40]
Kuban Nogays Nogai (Turkic) north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk 1/87 1.2% [40]
Ossetian Digors Digorian (Scythian) North Ossetia 1/127 0.8% [180]
Yemeni Arabs Sanaani Arabic (Semitic) Sana'a 1/129 0.8% [Research 3]
Syrians Syrian Arabic (Semitic) Syria 4/518 0.8% [172]
Kabardins Kabardian (Northwest Caucasian) Kabardino-Balkaria 1/140 0.7% [40]
Circassians Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) Republic of Adygea 1/142 0.7% [180]
Abkhazians Abkhaz (Northwest Caucasian) Abkhazia 1/162 0.6% [40]

There are also unconfirmed reports of T-M70+ amongst 28% (7/25) of Lezginians in Dagestan,[159] 21.7% (5/23) of Ossetians in Zamankul,[182] 14% (7/50) of Iranians in Isfahan,[159] 13% (3/23) of Ossetians in Zil'ga,[182] 12.6% (11/87) of Kurmanji Kurds in Eastern Turkey,[183] 11.8% (2/17) of Palestinian Arabs in Palestine,[184] 8.3% (1/12) of Iranians in Shiraz,[185] 8.3% (2/24) of Ossetians in Alagir,[182] 8% (2/25) of Kurmanji Kurds in Georgia,[183] 7.5% (6/80) of Iranians in Tehran,[159][186] 7.4% (10/135) of Palestinian Arabs in Israeli Village,[184] 7% (10/143) of Palestinian Arabs in Israel and Palestine,[184] 5% (1/19) of Chechens in Chechenia,[159][186] 4.2% (3/72) of Azerbaijanians in Azerbaijan,[159][186] 4.1% (2/48) of Iranians in Isfahan,[186] 4% (4/100) of Armenians in Armenia,[159][186] 4% (1/24) of Bedouins in Israel[184] and 2.6% (1/39) of Turks in Ankara.[186]


Fossils excavated at the Late Neolithic site of Kelif el Boroud in Morocco, which have been radiocarbon-dated to around 3,000 BCE, have been found to belong to haplogroup T-M184.[187]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Somalis (Dir clan) Somali (East Cushitic) Djibouti 24/24 100% [7] The main sub-clans of the Dir clan in Djibouti are the Issa and Gadabuursi.
Somalis (Dire Dawa) Somali (East Cushitic) Dire Dawa 14/17 82.4% [8] Dir sub-clans of Dire Dawa are Issa, Gurgura and Gadabuursi.
Anteony Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 22/37 59.5% [188] The Anteony are the descendants of aristocrats, from whom the Antemoro king is chosen. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Somalis (Dir clan) and Afars Somali and Afar (East Cushitic) Djibouti 30/54 56.6% [189] Mixed sample of Somali and Afar individuals.[failed verification]
Somalis (Ethiopia) Somali (East Cushitic) Shilavo (woreda) (Ogaden) 5/10 50% [7] The geographic location of this Ethiopia sample as seen in Fig.1.
Toubou Toubou Chad 31% [190] All belonging to the T1a-PF5662 subclade
Afars Afar language (East Cushitic) Djibouti 5/20 25% [7]
Akie Akie people (Nilotic) Tanzania 3/13 23.1% [Hirbo et al.] Akie people have remnants of a Cushitic language
Somalis Somali (East Cushitic) Jijiga (Ogaden) 19/83 22.9% [8] Jijiga Somalis.
Arabs from Somalia Somali (East Cushitic) immigrants in Yemen 7/33 21.2% [191]
Lemba Venda and Shona (Bantu) South Africa 6/34 17.6% [2] Exclusively belong to T1a2* (old T1b*). Possible recent founder effect. Low frequency of T1a2 has been observed in Bulgarian Jews and Turks but is not found in other Jewish communities. Y-str Haplotypes close to some T1a2 Armenians.
Rangi Rangi Language (Bantu) Tanzania 5/32 15.6% [Hirbo et al.]
- Somalia 15/105 14.3% [192][193]
Iraqw Iraqw language (Cushitic) Tanzania 6/47 12.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Wachagga Kichagga (Niger-Congo) Dār as-Salām 3/24 12.5% [154] Mixed with Rift Southern Cushites.
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Norway 12/104 11.5% [194]
Bench Bench(northern Omotic) Bench Maji Zone 14/126 11.4% [8]
Kores (Cushitic) SNNP 2/18 11.1% [8]
Oromo Afaan Oromo language (Cushitic) Oromiyaa 1/9 11.1% [195]
Fulbe Fula northern Cameroon 3/27 11.1% [196][197]
Gorowa Gorowa language (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/19 10.5% [Hirbo et al.]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Denmark 21/201 10.4% [198][199]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Luxor Governorate 3/29 10.3% [14][200]
Kontas Konta language (Omotic) Konta special woreda 11/107 10.3% [8]
Rendille Rendille language (Cushitic) Marsabit County 3/31 9.7% [Hirbo et al.]
Datogs Rendille language (Cushitic) Tanzania 3/31 9.7% [201]
Gewadas Gewada language (east Cushitic) SNNP 11/116 9.5% [8]
Antalaotra Antemoro (Plateau Malagasy) old Antemoro Kingdom 4/43 9.3% [188] The Antalaotra are in charge of the magical and religious domains; they have the ability to read and write Sorabe. Can be grouped into the Silamo, because they have the right to undertake the ritual slaughter of animals (Sombily)
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Aswan Governorate 1/11 9.1% [202]
N’Djamena Mix Mix N’Djamena 5/55 9.1% Marc Haber 2016 All belonging to the T1a-PF5662 subclade
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Assiut Governorate 6/70 8.6% [202]
Konsos (Semitic) Konso special woreda 2/24 8.3% [8]
Somali Somali (Cushitic) immigrants to Sweden 12/147 8.2% [203]
Arabs and Berbers Egyptian Arabic and Siwi Lower Egypt 12/147 8.2% [9]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Sohag Governorate 4/52 7.7% [202]
Egyptians Erythraic (Cushitic) Egypt 7/92 7.6% [193][195] If the K* sample is M184+ then 8.7%
Tigrayans Tigrinya (South Semitic) Tigray Region 2/30 6.7% [8]
Dirashas Dirasha (east Cushitic) Dirashe special woreda 5/79 6.3% [8]
Canarians Canarian Spanish Tenerife 11/178 6.2%
Kordofanians Kordofanian Kurdufan 4/69 5.8% [184]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Qena Governorate 3/52 5.8% [202]
Tuareg Tuareg (Berber) Gorom-Gorom 1/18 5.6% [204]
Afars Afar (East Cushitic) Afar Region 6/111 5.4% [8]
Ethiopians Ethiopian languages Ethiopia 4/74 5.4% [166]
Mashiles Mashile language (Cushitic) SNNP 7/130 5.4% [8]
Gurages Gurage languages (South Semitic) SNNP 6/118 5.1% [8]
Turu Nyaturu (Bantu) Tanzania 1/20 5% [201]
Moroccan Jews Haketia (Romance) Israel 1/20 5% [205]
Gedeos Gedeo (east Cushitic) SNNP 6/122 4.9% [8]
Wairak Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/41 4.9% [9]
Western Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli region 7/142 4.9% [206]


Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sfax 5/105 4.8% [208]
Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Tripoli area 3/63 4.8% [209]
Kanuri Kanuri Cameroon 1/21 4.8% [Hirbo et al.]
Iraqw[210] Iraqw (Cushitic) Tanzania 2/43 4.7%
Yems Yemsa (Omotic) SNNP 5/107 4.7% [8]
Jews (Semitic) Ethiopia 1/22 4.5% [7]
Gobeze Cushitic SNNP 5/113 4.4% [8]
Upper Egyptians Egyptian Arabic Minya Governorate 1/23 4.3% [202]
Konsos Konso language (East Cushitic) Konso special woreda 4/94 4.3% [8]
Kembaatas East Cushitic Kembata Tembaro Zone 4/102 3.9% [8]
Tigrayans Tigrinya (South Semitic) Eritrea 1/28 3.6% [7]
Tigrayans Tigrinya (South Semitic) Eritrea 1/31 3% [189]
Amharas Amharic (Semitic) Ethiopia 1/34 2.9% [7]
Hutus Rwanda-Rundi (Niger-Congo) Rwanda 1/39 2.6% [211]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Mansoura 1/44 2.2% [14][200]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Siwa Oasis 2/93 2.2% [205][212]
Berbers Jerba Berber (Berber) Djerba 1/47 2.1% [213]
Meru Meru (Northeast Bantu) Tanzania 2/99 2% [214]
Itam Ibibio Obong Itam (Southeast Nigeria) 1/50 2% [215][216]
Cape Verdeans Cape Verdean Creole (Portuguese Creole) Windward islands São Nicolau, São Vicente, and Santo Antão 2/101 2% [217]
Ovimbundo Umbundu and Portuguese Angola 1/53 1.9% [218]
Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Tunis 1/54 1.9% [219]
Berbers Shilha (Berber) Asni 1/54 1.9% [205][212]
Eastern Libyans Libyan Arabic (Semitic) Benghazi 4/214 1.9% [220]
Algerians Algerian Arabic (Semitic) Algeria 3/164 1.8% [184]
Baribas Baatonum (Niger–Congo) Benin 1/57 1.8% [221] T1a-M70(xT1a2-L131)
Bokoras Karamojong (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/59 1.7% [207]
Lower Egyptians Egyptian Arabic (Semitic) Cairo 1/63 1.6% [222]
Tumbuka Tumbuka (Niger-Congo) northern Malawi 1/61 1.6% [216]
Mozabites Mozabite (Berber) Ghardaia 1/68 1.5% [223]
Tunisians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) South Tunisia 3/200 1.5% [224]
Soussians Tunisian Arabic (Semitic) Sousse 3/220 1.4% [225]
Chewa Chewa (Niger-Congo) Malawi 1/92 1.1% [216]
Maasai Maasai (Eastern Nilotic) Kinyawa (Mashuru) 1/100 1% YHRD
Bantu Narrow Bantu (Niger-Congo) Pretoria 1/98 1% [216]
Nilotes Ateker (Eastern Nilotic) Karamoja region 1/118 0.8% [207]
Andalusians Andalusian Arabic (Semitic) Testour, El Alia, Gualaat-El-Andalous, Slouguia 1/132 0.8% [219] Refugees from Al-Andalus following the capitulation of the Islamic kingdoms in Valencia and Granada
Bantus Bantu Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/140 0.7% [226] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group
Basothos Sesotho (Niger-Congo) Lesotho 1/181 0.6% [227]
Moroccans Moroccan Arabic (Semitic) Casablanca metropolitan area 1/166 0.6% [228] The industrial capital of Morocco where the urban growth is maintained by immigration from all parts of Morocco
Khoisans Khoisan Botswana, Namibia and Zambia 1/371 0.3% [226] Father and paternal grandfather belonged to the same ethnolinguistic group

South AsiaEdit

Haplogroup T-M184 has been detected at very high levels in some parts of eastern India.

T1a-M70 in India has been considered to be of West Eurasian origin.[229]

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Kurru Yerukala (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 10/18 55.6%
Bauris Bengali (Indo-Aryan) West Bengal 10/19 52.6% K* is found at 6/19, if M70- but M184+, then could be 84.2%. Bauris are thought to be descendants of a native tribe of the Central Highlands before the Aryan invasion, then as Bauris have not been well assimilated and have not participated satisfactorily in the new Aryan society, the Bauris ended up being seen as "low caste". They are at "halfway" between the old Bauri tribal and the new Aryan society lifestyle.
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) West Bengal 2/4 50%
Rajus Telugu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/19 15.9%
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) West Bengal 2/13 15.3%
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/20 15% K* is found at 7/20, if M70- but M184+, then could be 50%
Kare Vokkal Kannada (Dravidian) Uttara Kannada 4/30 13.3% [230] K* is found at 3/30, if M70- but M184+, then could be 23.3%
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/18 11.1%
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) South Uttar Pradesh 4/38 10.6% [231]
Gonds Gondi (Dravidian) Madhya Pradesh 10/139 7.2% [231]
Indians languages of India South India 18/305 5.9%
Maheli Mahali (Kherwari Munda) Jamshedpur from Jharkhand; Purulia, Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/38 5.3% [232] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Chenchus Chenchu (Dravidian) Andhra Pradesh 3/61 4.9% [134] Samples from Trivedi et al. and Kivisild et al.
Banjaras Lambadi (Indo-Aryan) Andhra Pradesh 2/53 3.8% [134] Two samples from different studies grouped together
Indians languages of India East India 14/367 3.8%
Gujaratis Gujarati (Indo-Aryan) Gujarat 1/29 3.4% [134]
Lodha Lodhi (Sora–Juray–Gorum Munda) Midnapore & other location from West Bengal 2/71 2.8% [232][233] Three samples from different studies grouped together
Sahariyas Saharia (Munda) Madhya Pradesh 2/73 2.7% [234]
Tamtas (Indo-Aryan) Bageshwar 1/34 2.9% [229]
Kshatriyas (Indo-Aryan) Pithoragarh 2/79 2.5% [229]
Aryas Arya (Indo-Aryan) Nainital 1/46 2.2% [229]
Laotians Lao (Tai-Kadai) Laos 1/53 1.9% [154]
Maravars Tamil (Dravidian) Ramanathapuram 1/80 1.3% [235] Dry Land Farmers
Garos Garo (Sino-Tibetan) Tangail 1/120 0.8% [236] Likely P77+

With K-M9+, unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 56.6% (30/53) of Kunabhis in Uttar Kannada,[237] 32.5% (13/40) of Kammas in Andhra Pradesh,[238] 26.8% (11/41) of Brahmins in Visakhapatnam,[238] 25% (1/4) of Kattunaiken in South India,[239] 22.4% (11/49) of Telugus in Andhra Pradesh,[240] 20% (1/5) of Ansari in South Asia, (2/20) of Poroja in Andhra Pradesh,[238] 9.8% (5/51) of Kashmiri Pandits in Kashmir,[231] 8.2% (4/49) of Gujars in Kashmir,[231] 7.7% (1/13) of Siddis (migrants from Ethiopia) in Andhra Pradesh,[238] 5.5% (3/55) of Adi in Northeast India,[241] 5.5% (7/128) of Pardhans in Adilabad,[240] 5.3% (2/38) of Brahmins in Bihar,[231] 4.3% (1/23) of Bagata in Andhra Pradesh,[238] 4.2% (1/24) of Valmiki in Andhra Pradesh,[238] (1/32) of Brahmins in Maharashtra,[231] 3.1% (2/64) of Brahmins in Gujarat,[231] 2.9% (1/35) of Rajput in Uttar Pradesh,[242] 2.3% (1/44) of Brahmins in Peruru,[238] and 1.7% (1/59) of Manghi in Maharashtra.[240]

Also in Desasth-Brahmins in Maharashtra (1/19 or 5.3%) and Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (1/21 or 4.8%), Chitpavan-Brahmins in Konkan (2/66 or 3%).

Central Asia & East AsiaEdit

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Momyns Old Basmyl/Kazakh (Turkic) Argyn tribe, Kazakhstan 6/100 6.3% [243] The outlier Babasan subclan is excluded from "sample size" and "percentage". 5 out of 6 Clans and 13 out of 19 Subclans have T-M184 members.
Meyrams Old Basmyl/Kazakh (Turkic) Argyn tribe 1/10 6% [243] 5 out of 5 Clans and 11 out of 16 Subclans have T-M184 members.
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang, China 1/8 12.5% [233][244]
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) Xinjiang 3/32 9.4% [245]
Hans - Ili 3/32 9.4% [246] K* (xNOP)
Bajo sea Nomads Bajaw (Malayo-Polynesian) Sulawesi, Indonesia 2/27 7.4% [247] T1a-M70
Yugurs Eastern Yugur and Western Yugur Sunan Yugur Autonomous County, Gansu, China 2/32 6.3% [245] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Samangan Province, Afghanistan 1/16 6.3% [164]
Khampas Khams Tibetan (Sino-Tibetan) Markham 1/18 5.6% [248] T-M272
Adis Adi (Sino-Tibetan) Arunachal Pradesh, India 3/55 5.5% [249]
Xibes Xibe (Tungusic) (not stated) 2/41 4.9% [246] K* (xNOP)
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia, China 2/45 4.4% [246] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Afghanistan 2/56 3.6% [250]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Sar-e Pol Province, Afghanistan 1/28 3.6% [164]
Sherpas Sherpa (Sino-Tibetan) Khumjung, Namche, Chaurikharka and Lukla 5/157 3.2% [251] K-M9 (xM-P256, NO-M214, P-M45) Parents and grandparents were reported to be Sherpas. Individuals unrelated for at least three generations.
Oroqen Oroqen (Tungusic) (not stated) 1/31 3.2% [246] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Tajik (Southwestern Iranian) Takhar Province, Afghanistan 1/35 2.9% [164] Manchu Manchu (Tungusic) (not stated) 1/35 2.9% [246] K* (xNOP)
Tajiks Darî (Southwestern Iranian) Ferghana 1/35 2.9% [252]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Dromo, Tibet 1/39 2.6% [248] T-M272
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 1/48 (1/4 samples) 2.1% [253]
Tu Monguor (Mongolic) Qinghai, China 1/50 2% [245] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)
Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) Kunduz Province, Afghanistan 1/53 1.9% [164]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Mongolia 1/65 1.5% [246] K* (xNOP)
Kozha Kazakhs (Steppe Clergy) Kazakh (Turkic) Kazakhstan 1/71 1.4% [254] T1a-M70
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Xinjiang 3/284 1.1% [255]
Uzbeks Uzbek (Turkic) Jawzjan Province, Afghanistan 1/94 1.1% [164]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Inner Mongolia, China 1/100 1% [255]
Ethnic Pashtuns Pashto (Eastern Iranian) mainly Kandahar Province, Afghanistan province of 1/141 0.7% [256]
Yousafzai Pashto (Eastern Iranian) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Afghanistan 1/146 0.7% [257]
Uyghur Uyghur (Turkic) Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang, China 3/478 0.6% [258]
Tibetans Dbus (Sino-Tibetan) Qüxü, Tibet 1/203 0.5% [248] T-M272
Han Chinese Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Jilin, China 1/196 0.5% [259]
Mongolians Mongolian (Mongolic) Ordos (city), China 1/258 0.4% [260] Could be 0.8% (2/258)
Han Chinese Mandarin (Sino-Tibetan) Qujing, Yuxi and Honghe County, China 1/320 0.3% [261] K* (xN-M231, O-M175, P-M45)

Unconfirmed but probable T-M70+: 2% (4/204) of Hui in Liaoning (China),[262] and 0.9% (1/113) of Bidayuh in Sarawak.[263]

Americas (post-colonisation)Edit

Population Language Location Members/Sample size Percentage Source Notes
Panchos Castilian (Romance) Panchimalco 3/11 27.3% [264][18] T-M184
Quechuas Quechua Lima Region 3/11 27.3% [154] Predicted but possible convergence with Q markers.
Movimas Movima language (Language isolate) Beni 1/5 20% [265]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 9/51 17.6% [266]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aranzazu, Caldas 22/190 11.6% [266][267]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Los Santos Province 3/30 10% [18]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) San Luis 3/30 10% [19]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Antioquia 6/61 9.8% [267] Antioquia except Marinilla and its zone of influence
Napu runas Kichwa Ecuadorian Amazon 2/21 9.5% [268] Predicted but possible convergence with Q markers.
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Soplaviento 1/11 9.1% [269] T1a-M70
Yanesha Yanesha Yurinaqui (Peruvian Amazon) 1/12 8.3% [270]
Yanesha Yanesha Mayme (Peruvian Amazon) 1/12 8.3% [270]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Huila 3/42 7.1% [271]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Long Island 3/43 7% [272]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Panama Province 3/43 7% [18]
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of San Salvador de Jujuy 6/86 7% [273]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Tucumán 2/29 6.9% [274][275]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Tucumán 2/30 6.7% [19]
Tule Kuna (Chibchan languages) Kuna Yala 1/16 6.3% [18] According to Hamilton 2014, around 2% of Tule people in Kuna Yala are Albinos. This is the highest known frequency in the world
Basques Basque (Isolate language) Nevada 1/16 6.3% [Research 4]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Marinilla, El Peñol, Antioquia, El Santuario, Cocorná, El Carmen de Viboral, Granada, Antioquia and Guatapé 15/246 6.1% [267]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of La Rioja (Capital) 5/87 5.7% [273]
Kolla Quechua, Aymara and Argentinian Spanish Mountainous region of Jujuy 1/18 5.6% [276]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Aburrá Valley and Rionegro (Antioquia) 3/55 5.5% [277]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Tolima 2/41 4.9% [271]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Caracas 3/62 4.8% [29]
Yanesha Yanesha Ñagazu (Peruvian Amazon) 1/21 4.8% [270]
Northeast Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Corrientes 1/21 4.8% [278]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cundinamarca 1/22 4.5% [266]
Mestizos Guatemalan Castilian Guatemala 5/115 4.4% [279][18] T-M184
Northwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Jujuy 2/50 4% [19]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Concepción 8/198 4% [280]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Mountainous region of Mendoza (Capital) 3/75 4% [273]
Mayas Guatemalan Castilian Guatemala 1/110 3.6% [279][18] T-M184
Yanesha Yanesha 7 de Junio - Villa América (Peruvian Amazon) 1/29 3.5% [270]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Serra, Espírito Santo 1/29 3.5% [281]
Ecuadorians Castilian (Romance languages) Quito 4/120 3.3% [31]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) La Pampa 1/30 3.3% [19]
Central Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Córdoba 1/31 3.2% [19]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Temuco 6/194 3.1% [280]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Herrera Province 1/36 2.8% [18]
Venezuelans Venezuelan Castilian (Romance languages) Maracaibo 3/111 2.7% [29]
Chachapoyas Chacha northeastern Peruvian Andes 3/122 2.5% [282]
Nicas Nicaraguan Castilian Nicaragua 4/165 2.4% [283] Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Piendamó, Silvia, Puracé, Jambaló, Páez, Popayán, El Tambo, Sotará, La Vega, Cauca, San Sebastián, Cauca and Bolivar 1/48 2.1% [284] Mix sample of Ethnicities
Europeans Brazilian Portuguese (Romance languages) Rio Grande do Sul 5/255 2% [35]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Santiago de Chile 4/196 2% [280]
Centralwest Argentinians Argentinian Spanish (Romance) Buenos Aires 3/150 2% [278]
Palenques Palenquero (Castilian-Bantu) Palenque de San Basilio (Arriba moiety) 1/52 1.9% [216]
Quechuas Quechua Bolivia 1/55 1.8% [285]
Bahamians Bahamian English (West Germanic) Eleuthera 1/60 1.7% [272]
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Querétaro 2/121 1.7% [286] Mestizo individuals
Mexicans Mexican Castilian (Romance languages) Guanajuato 1/63 1.6% [286] Mestizo individuals
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Peque (Antioquia) 1/62 1.6% [266]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Punta Arenas 3/194 1.6% [280]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cartagena 1/61 1.6% [269] T1a-M70
Salvadorans Castilian (Romance) El Salvador 2/150 1.3% [287]
Jamaicans Jamaican Patois (English creole) Jamaica 2/159 1.3% [288]
Colombians Colombian Spanish (Romance) Cartagena 2/173 1.2% [289]
Panamanians Castilian (Romance languages) Chiriquí Province 1/92 1.1% [18]
Ticos Costa Rican Castilian Costa Rica 1/100 1% [290]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Santa Catarina 1/109 0.9% [291]
Virgin islanders Virgin Islands Creole English (Germanic) Saint Thomas (Virgin Islands) 1/134 0.8% [292]
Hondurans Honduran Castilian Honduras 1/128 0.8% [293] Mestizo individuals
Admixed population - Macapá 1/138 0.7% [294]
Belizeans Belizean Castilian and Belizean Creole Belize 1/157 0.6% [295]
Chileans Chilean Spanish (Romance languages) Iquique 1/207 0.5% [280]
Brazilians Brazilian Portuguese (Romance) Espírito Santo 1/253 0.4% [296]

Ancient DNAEdit

Ancient DNA from 'Ain GhazalEdit

Ain Ghazal PPNB individual Ghazal-I I1707 AG83_5 Poz-81097
Y DNA T1-PF5610 (xT1a1-Z526, T1a1a-CTS9163, T1a1a-CTS2607, T1a2-S11611, T1a2-Y6031, T1a2a1-P322, T1a3a-Y9189)
Population Neolithic Farmers
Inferred cultural
Late Middle PPNB
Date (YBP) 9573 ± 39
House/location Ain Ghazal
Number (sample size) 1/2
Percentage 50%
mtDNA R0a
Isotope Sr
Eye color Likely non-Dark
Hair color Likely non-Dark
Skin pigmentation Light
ABO Blood Group Likely O or B
Diet (d13C%0 or d15N%0)
FADS activity rs174551 (T), rs174553 (G), rs174576 (A)
Likely lactose-intolerant
DNA shared
with Oase-1
DNA shared
with Ostuni1 remains
SDNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.26
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.25
DNA shared
with Neanderthal Vi33.16
components (AC)
Neolithic Anatolia/Southeast Europe: 56.82%, Paleolithic Levant (Natufians): 24.09%, Caucasus Hunter / Early European Farmer: 12.51%, Scandinavian / West European Hunter: 4.16%, Sub Saharan: 2.04%, East European Hunter: 0.37%
puntDNAL K12 Ancient
Dodecad [dv3]
Eurogenes [K=36]
Dodecad [Globe13]
Genetic distance
Age at death
Death position
SNPs 152.234
Read Pairs
Source Lazaridis 2016[297]
Notes Evidence of a northerly origin for this population, possibly indicating an influx from the region of northeastern Anatolia.

Haplogroup T is found among the later middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) inhabitants from the 'Ain Ghazal archaeological site (in modern Jordan). It was not found among the early and middle PPNB populations. It is thought that the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B population is mostly composed of two different populations: members of early Natufian civilisation and a population resulting from immigration from the north, i.e. north-eastern Anatolia. However, Natufians have been found to belong mostly to the E1b1b1b2 lineage – which is found among 60% of the whole PPNB population and 75% of the 'Ain Ghazal population, being present in all three middle PPNB stages.

Later middle PPNB populations in the Southern Levant were already witnessing severe changes in climate that would have been exacerbated by large population demands on local resources. Beginning at 8.9 cal ka BP we see a significant decrease in population in highland Jordan, ultimately leading to the complete abandonment of almost all central settlements in this region.[298]

The 9th millennium Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period in the Levant represents a major transformation in prehistoric lifeways from small bands of mobile hunter–gatherers to large settled farming and herding villages in the Mediterranean zone, the process having been initiated some 2–3 millennia earlier.

'Ain Ghazal (" Spring of the Gazelles") is situated in a relatively rich environmental setting immediately adjacent to the Wadi Zarqa, the longest drainage system in highland Jordan. It is located at an elevation of about 720m within the ecotone between the oak-park woodland to the west and the open steppe-desert to the east.

Evidence recovered from the excavations suggests that much of the surrounding countryside was forested and offered the inhabitants a wide variety of economic resources. Arable land is plentiful within the site's immediate environs. These variables are atypical of many major neolithic sites in the Near East, several of which are located in marginal environments. Yet despite its apparent richness, the area of 'Ain Ghazal is climatically and environmentally sensitive because of its proximity throughout the Holocene to the fluctuating steppe-forest border.

The Ain Ghazal settlement first appear in the middle PPNB, which is split into two phases. Phase 1 starts 10300 yBP and ends 9950 yBP, phase 2 ends 9550 yBP.

The estimated population of the middle PPNB site from ‘Ain Ghazal is of 259-1,349 individuals with an area of 3.01-4.7 ha. Is argued that at its founding at the commencement of the middle PPNB ‘Ain Ghazal was likely 2 ha in size and grew to 5 ha by the end of the middle PPNB. At this point in time their estimated population was 600-750 people or 125-150 people per hectare.

A 2018 study[299] conducted by scholars from Tel-Aviv University, the Israel Antiquities Authority and Harvard University had discovered that 22 out of the 600 people who were buried in Peki'in cave from the Chalcolithic Period were of both local Levantine and Persian and Zagros[300] area ancestries, or as phrased in the paper itself: "Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel reveals the role of population mixture in cultural transformation,” the scientists concluded that the homogeneous community found in the cave could source ~57% of its ancestry from groups related to those of the local Levant Neolithic, ~26% from groups related to those of the Anatolian Neolithic, and ~17% from groups related to those of the Iran Chalcolithic.".[301] The scholars noted that the Zagros genetic material held "Certain characteristics, such as genetic mutations contributing to blue eye color, were not seen in the DNA test results of earlier Levantine human remains MTDNA blue-eyed, fair-skinned community didn't continue, but at least now researchers have an idea why. "These findings suggest that the rise and fall of the Chalcolithic culture are probably due to demographic changes in the region".[301]

We find that the individuals buried in Peqi’in Cave represent a relatively genetically homogenous population. This homogeneity is evident not only in the genome-wide analyses but also in the fact that most of the male individuals (nine out of ten) belong to the Y-chromosome Haplogroup T (Y-DNA), a lineage thought to have diversified in the Near East. This finding contrasts with both earlier (Neolithic and Epipaleolithic) Levantine populations, which were dominated by Haplogroup E (Y-DNA), and later Bronze Age individuals, all of whom belonged to Haplogroup J (Y-DNA). [1]

Ancient city of EblaEdit

In the ancient city of Ebla in Syria in the Bronze age, one individual was found belonging to haplogroup T-L162 (T1a1).[302][303]

Alalakh Amorite city-stateEdit

One individual from Alalakh who lived circa 2014-1781 BC, belonged to haplogroup T-CTS11451 (T1a1a).[304][305][306]

Notable haplogroup membersEdit

Elite endurance runnersEdit

Possible patterns between Y-chromosome and elite endurance runners were studied in an attempt to find a genetic explanation to the Ethiopian endurance running success. Given the superiority of East African athletes in international distance running over the past four decades, it has been speculated that they are genetically advantaged. Elite marathon runners from Ethiopia were analysed for K*(xP) which according to the previously published Ethiopian studies is attributable to the haplogroup T[307]

According to further studies,[2] T1a1a* (L208) was found to be proportionately more frequent in the elite marathon runners sample than in the control samples than any other haplogroup, therefore this y-chromosome could play a significant role in determining Ethiopian endurance running success. Haplogroup T1a1a* was found in 14% of the elite marathon runners sample of whom 43% of this sample are from Arsi province. In addition, haplogroup T1a1a* was found in only 4% of the Ethiopian control sample and only 1% of the Arsi province control sample. T1a1a* is positively associated with aspects of endurance running, whereas E1b1b1 (old E3b1) is negatively associated.[308]

Thomas JeffersonEdit

A notable member of the T-M184 haplogroup is American President Thomas Jefferson (most distant known ancestor "MDKA" is Samuel Jefferson, Born 11 October 1607 in Pettistree, Suffolk, England). The Y-chromosomal complement of the Jefferson male line was studied in 1998 in an attempt to resolve the controversy over whether he had fathered the mixed-race children of his slave Sally Hemings. A 1998 DNA study of the Y chromosome in the Jefferson male line found that it matched that of a descendant of Eston Hemings, Sally Hemings' youngest son. This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood. In addition, the testing conclusively disproved any connection between the Hemings descendant and the Carr male line. Jefferson grandchildren had asserted in the 19th century that a Carr nephew had been the father of Hemings' children, and this had been the basis of historians' denial for 180 years. Jefferson's paternal family traced back Wales, where T is incredibly rare, as it is throughout Britain. A couple of British males with the Jefferson surname have been found with the third president's type of T, reinforcing the idea that his immediate paternal ancestry was British.

Phylogenetic treeEdit

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup T-M184 & closely related macro-lineages (ISOGG 2015)
  (43,900 BP)  
LT* (basal subclade)

 (LTxM184, M20; all cases without M184 or M20.)

  (39,300‑45,100 BP)  

 All cases without L206 or PH110

  (26,600 BP)  
  (19,000-30,000 BP)[2]  
 (xL162, L131, Y11151) 

 All cases without L162, L131 or Y11151

  (15,400 BP)  
  (14,800 BP)  
 (xCTS11451, Y16897) 

 All cases without CTS11451 or Y16897

  (9,500 BP)  
 (xY4119, Y6671) 

 All cases without Y4119 or Y6671

  (9,200 BP)  

 All cases without CTS2214

  (8,900 BP)  
  (8,900 BP)  


  (9,200 BP)  


  (9,500 BP)  


  (15,400 BP)  


  (15,400 BP)  



 (Mostly South Asia and Central Asia.)


 (The highest diversity and incidence of this rare lineage is found in Europe.)

Nomenclatural historyEdit

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012 ISOGG 2013
T-M184 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu16 H5 F K* K T T K2 K2 T T T T T T
K-M70/T-M70 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T T1 K2 K2 T T T T1 T1a T1a
T-P77 26 VIII 1U 25 Eu15 H5 F K2 K2 T2 T1a2 K2 K2 T2 T2 T2a1 T1a1b T1a1a1 T1a1a1

Original research publicationsEdit

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

α Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 and Kaladjieva 2001

β Underhill 2000

γ Hammer 2001

δ Karafet 2001

ε Semino 2000

ζ Su 1999

η Capelli 2001

Y-DNA backbone treeEdit

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2


Original researchEdit

  1. ^ W. Goodwin et al., " Department of Forensic and Investigative Science ," "www.yhrd.org/" (2012),
  2. ^ Carsten Hohoff and Bernd Brinkmann "Institut für Rechtsmedizin"," 'Universität Münster <http://www.yhrd.org>
  3. ^ Uta D. Immel et al., "Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Martin-Luther Universität Haale/Saale," "www.yhrd.org/" (1999),
  4. ^ Laura Valverde Potes et al., "Grupo BIOMICs / BIOMICs Research Group," "www.yhrd.org/" (2011),

Other works citedEdit

  1. ^ "T YTree". www.yfull.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mendez FL, Karafet TM, Krahn T, Ostrer H, Soodyall H, Hammer MF (2011). "Increased resolution of Y chromosome haplogroup T defines relationships among populations of the Near East, Europe, and Africa". Human Biology. 83 (1): 39–53. doi:10.3378/027.083.0103. PMID 21453003. S2CID 207611348.
  3. ^ a b c d Haak W, Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Rohland N, Mallick S, Llamas B, Brandt G, Nordenfelt S, Harney E, Stewardson K, Fu Q, Mittnik A, Bánffy E, Economou C, Francken M, Friederich S, Pena RG, Hallgren F, Khartanovich V, Khokhlov A, Kunst M, Kuznetsov P, Meller H, Mochalov O, Moiseyev V, Nicklisch N, Pichler SL, Risch R, Rojo Guerra MA, Roth C, Szécsényi-Nagy A, Wahl J, Meyer M, Krause J, Brown D, Anthony D, Cooper A, Alt KW, Reich D (2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522 (7555): 207–11. arXiv:1502.02783. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H. doi:10.1038/nature14317. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166.
  4. ^ a b Mathieson, Iain; et al. (2015). "Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe". bioRxiv 10.1101/016477.
  5. ^ Mathiason et al., 2017 "The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe"
  6. ^ ISOGG, 2017, Y-DNA Haplogroup T and its Subclades – 2017 (19 January 2017).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Giuseppe Iacovacci et al., "Forensic data and microvariant sequence characterization of 27 Y-STR loci analyzed in four Eastern African countries," ^Forensic Science International: Genetics, 2016
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Plaster; et al. (2011). "Variation in Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA and labels of identity on Ethiopia" (PDF). UCL Discovery.
  9. ^ a b c d e Luis JR, Rowold DJ, Regueiro M, Caeiro B, Cinnioğlu C, Roseman C, Underhill PA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ (2004). "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: evidence for bidirectional corridors of human migrations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (3): 532–44. doi:10.1086/382286. PMC 1182266. PMID 14973781.
  10. ^ Balanovsky O, Rootsi S, Pshenichnov A, Kivisild T, Churnosov M, Evseeva I, Pocheshkhova E, Boldyreva M, Yankovsky N, Balanovska E, Villems R (2008). "Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context". American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 236–50. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019. PMC 2253976. PMID 18179905.
  11. ^ a b Frigi S, Pereira F, Pereira L, Yacoubi B, Gusmão L, Alves C, Khodjet el Khil H, Cherni L, Amorim A, El Gaaied A (2006). "Data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by 17 STRs (AmpFLSTR Yfiler) in two Tunisian Berber communities". Forensic Science International. 160 (1): 80–3. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.05.007. PMID 16005592.
  12. ^ a b Jakovski Z, Nikolova K, Jankova-Ajanovska R, Marjanovic D, Pojskic N, Janeska B (2011). "Genetic data for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Macedonians in the Republic of Macedonia". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 5 (4): e108–11. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.04.005. PMID 21549657.
  13. ^ a b Tomàs C, Jiménez G, Picornell A, Castro JA, Ramon MM (2006). "Differential maternal and paternal contributions to the genetic pool of Ibiza Island, Balearic Archipelago". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 129 (2): 268–78. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20273. PMID 16323196.
  14. ^ a b c Zalloua PA, Platt DE, El Sibai M, Khalife J, Makhoul N, Haber M, Xue Y, Izaabel H, Bosch E, Adams SM, Arroyo E, López-Parra AM, Aler M, Picornell A, Ramon M, Jobling MA, Comas D, Bertranpetit J, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C (2008). "Identifying genetic traces of historical expansions: Phoenician footprints in the Mediterranean". American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (5): 633–42. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012. PMC 2668035. PMID 18976729.
  15. ^ Adams SM, et al. (2008). "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982.
  16. ^ a b c d Rodríguez V, Tomàs C, Sánchez JJ, Castro JA, Ramon MM, Barbaro A, Morling N, Picornell A (2009). "Genetic sub-structure in western Mediterranean populations revealed by 12 Y-chromosome STR loci". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 123 (2): 137–41. doi:10.1007/s00414-008-0302-y. PMID 19066931. S2CID 20576072.
  17. ^ a b c d Contu D, Morelli L, Santoni F, Foster JW, Francalacci P, Cucca F (2008). "Y-chromosome based evidence for pre-neolithic origin of the genetically homogeneous but diverse Sardinian population: inference for association scans". PLOS ONE. 3 (1): e1430. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.1430C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001430. PMC 2174525. PMID 18183308.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Grugni V, Battaglia V, Perego UA, Raveane A, Lancioni H, Olivieri A, Ferretti L, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, Myres N, Motta J, Torroni A, Achilli A, Semino O (2015). "Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e0144223. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1044223G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144223. PMC 4670172. PMID 26636572.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Toscanini U, Vullo C, Berardi G, Llull C, Borosky A, Gómez A, Pardo-Seco J, Salas A (2016). "A comprehensive Y-STR portrait of Argentinean populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 20: 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.09.002. PMID 26433179.
  20. ^ Vilar MG, Melendez C, Sanders AB, Walia A, Gaieski JB, Owings AC, Schurr TG (2014). "Genetic diversity in Puerto Rico and its implications for the peopling of the Island and the West Indies". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 155 (3): 352–68. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22569. PMID 25043798. S2CID 205334949.
  21. ^ a b c Nogueiro I, Manco L, Gomes V, Amorim A, Gusmão L (March 2010). "Phylogeographic analysis of paternal lineages in NE Portuguese Jewish communities". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 141 (3): 373–81. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21154. PMID 19918998.
  22. ^ a b Nogueiro I, Teixeira JC, Amorim A, Gusmão L, Alvarez L (2015). "Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history". Frontiers in Genetics. 6: 12. doi:10.3389/fgene.2015.00012. PMC 4313780. PMID 25699075.
  23. ^ a b Marcus AW, Ebel ER, Friedman DA (2015). "Commentary: Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history". Frontiers in Genetics. 6: 261. doi:10.3389/fgene.2015.00261. PMC 4528994. PMID 26300912.
  24. ^ a b c d e Monteiro, Sofia Lucília Monteiro Marques (2012). Leonese dialects in Portugal: linguistic-genetic relationships through Y chromosome analysis (PhD Thesis). Universidade do Porto. hdl:10216/65272.
  25. ^ a b Marques SL, Gusmão L, Amorim A, Prata MJ, Alvarez L (2016). "Y chromosome diversity in a linguistic isolate (Mirandese, NE Portugal)". American Journal of Human Biology. 28 (5): 671–80. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22849. PMID 26990174. S2CID 45119004.
  26. ^ Díaz V, Carracedo A (2008). "The distribution of Y-chromosome STRs in Dominican population". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 1 (1): 195–7. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.163.
  27. ^ a b Seiberling, Susann (2005). Allelverteilung Y-chromosomaler Short Tandem Repeats in Vorpommern (PhD Thesis). Greifswald Universitätsbibliothek. OCLC 846027643.
  28. ^ González-Andrade F, Roewer L, Willuweit S, Sánchez D, Martínez-Jarreta B (2009). "Y-STR variation among ethnic groups from Ecuador: Mestizos, Kichwas, Afro-Ecuadorians and Waoranis". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 3 (3): e83–91. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.08.003. PMID 19414158.
  29. ^ a b c Borjas L, Bernal LP, Chiurillo MA, Tovar F, Zabala W, Lander N, Ramírez JL (2008). "Usefulness of 12 Y-STRs for forensic genetics evaluation in two populations from Venezuela". Legal Medicine. 10 (2): 107–12. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.08.005. PMID 17981491.
  30. ^ Alvarez M, Marrero C, Dictamen A, Figuera M, Marrero M, Borjas L, Ferreira R (2009). "Y-chromosome haplotype database in Venezuelan central region and its comparison with other Venezuelan populations". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 2 (1): 407–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.08.100.
  31. ^ a b Baeza C, Guzmán R, Tirado M, López-Parra AM, Rodríguez T, Mesa MS, Fernández E, Arroyo-Pardo E (2007). "Population data for 15 Y-chromosome STRs in a population sample from Quito (Ecuador)". Forensic Science International. 173 (2–3): 214–9. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.09.011. PMID 17320323.
  32. ^ Builes JJ, Bravo ML, Gómez C, Espinal C, Aguirre D, Gómez A, Rodríguez J, Castañeda P, Montoya A, Moreno M, Amorim A, Gusmão L (2006). "Y-chromosome STRs in an Antioquian (Colombia) population sample". Forensic Science International. 164 (1): 79–86. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.10.005. PMID 16289613.
  33. ^ a b c Ambrosio B, Novelletto A, Hernandez C, Dugoujon JM, Fortes-Lima C, Rodriguez JN, Calderon R (2012). "Y-STR genetic diversity in autochthonous Andalusians from Huelva and Granada provinces (Spain)". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 6 (2): e66–71. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.05.007. PMID 21664894.
  34. ^ Gené M, Borrego N, Xifró A, Piqué E, Moreno P, Huguet E (1999). "Haplotype frequencies of eight Y-chromosome STR loci in Barcelona (North-East Spain)". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 112 (6): 403–5. doi:10.1007/s004140050025. PMID 10550606. S2CID 29850287.
  35. ^ a b Schwengber SP, Kommers T, Matte CH, Raimann PE, Carvalho BA, Leite FP, Medeiros MA, Souza LF, Castro CS, Chassot FG, Bonatto SL (2009). "Population data of 17 Y-STR loci from Rio Grande do Sul state (South Brazil)". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 4 (1): e31–3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.02.001. PMID 19948319.
  36. ^ Hallast P, Batini C, Zadik D, Maisano Delser P, Wetton JH, Arroyo-Pardo E, Cavalleri GL, de Knijff P, Destro Bisol G, Dupuy BM, Eriksen HA, Jorde LB, King TE, Larmuseau MH, López de Munain A, López-Parra AM, Loutradis A, Milasin J, Novelletto A, Pamjav H, Sajantila A, Schempp W, Sears M, Tolun A, Tyler-Smith C, Van Geystelen A, Watkins S, Winney B, Jobling MA (2015). "The Y-chromosome tree bursts into leaf: 13,000 high-confidence SNPs covering the majority of known clades". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32 (3): 661–73. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu327. PMC 4327154. PMID 25468874.
  37. ^ a b Khar'kov VN, Stepanov VA, Medvedeva OF, Spiridonova MG, Voevoda MI, Tadinova VN, Puzyrev VP (2007). "[Gene pool differences between northern and southern Altaians inferred from the data on Y-chromosomal haplogroups]". Genetika (in Russian). 43 (5): 675–87. doi:10.1134/S1022795407050110. PMID 17633562. S2CID 566825.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Bekada A, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Pestano J, Benhamamouch S, González AM (2013). "Introducing the Algerian mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome profiles into the North African landscape". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e56775. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856775B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056775. PMC 3576335. PMID 23431392.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Martinez-Cadenas C, Blanco-Verea A, Hernando B, Busby GB, Brion M, Carracedo A, Salas A, Capelli C (2016). "The relationship between surname frequency and Y chromosome variation in Spain". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (1): 120–8. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.75. PMC 4795233. PMID 25898922.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yunusbayev B, Metspalu M, Järve M, Kutuev I, Rootsi S, Metspalu E, Behar DM, Varendi K, Sahakyan H, Khusainova R, Yepiskoposyan L, Khusnutdinova EK, Underhill PA, Kivisild T, Villems R (2012). "The Caucasus as an asymmetric semipermeable barrier to ancient human migrations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (1): 359–65. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr221. PMID 21917723.
  41. ^ a b c López-Parra AM, Gusmão L, Tavares L, Baeza C, Amorim A, Mesa MS, Prata MJ, Arroyo-Pardo E (2009). "In search of the pre- and post-neolithic genetic substrates in Iberia: evidence from Y-chromosome in Pyrenean populations". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (1): 42–53. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00478.x. PMID 18803634. S2CID 43273988.
  42. ^ Fornarino S, Pala M, Battaglia V, Maranta R, Achilli A, Modiano G, Torroni A, Semino O, Santachiara-Benerecetti SA (2009). "Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 154. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-154. PMC 2720951. PMID 19573232.
  43. ^ Taylor DA, Henry JM (2012). "Haplotype data for 16 Y-chromosome STR loci in Aboriginal and Caucasian populations in South Australia". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 6 (6): e187–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.05.005. PMID 22673611.
  44. ^ Dulik MC, Osipova LP, Schurr TG (2011). "Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongolian expansions". PLOS ONE. 6 (3): e17548. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617548D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017548. PMC 3055870. PMID 21412412.
  45. ^ a b Malyarchuk BA, Derenko M, Denisova G, Woźniak M, Rogalla U, Dambueva I, Grzybowski T (2016). "Y chromosome haplotype diversity in Mongolic-speaking populations and gene conversion at the duplicated STR DYS385a,b in haplogroup C3-M407". Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (6): 491–6. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.14. PMID 26911356. S2CID 13217444.
  46. ^ a b c Onofri V, Alessandrini F, Turchi C, Fraternale B, Buscemi L, Pesaresi M, Tagliabracci A (2007). "Y-chromosome genetic structure in sub-Apennine populations of Central Italy by SNP and STR analysis". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 121 (3): 234–7. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0153-y. PMID 17287987. S2CID 206976345.
  47. ^ a b c d e Katsaloulis P, Tsekoura K, Vouropoulou M, Miniati P (2013). "Genetic population study of 11 Y chromosome STR loci in Greece". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 7 (3): e56–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2013.02.001. PMID 23582698.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Robino C, Ralf A, Pasino S, De Marchi MR, Ballantyne KN, Barbaro A, Bini C, Carnevali E, Casarino L, Di Gaetano C, Fabbri M, Ferri G, Giardina E, Gonzalez A, Matullo G, Nutini AL, Onofri V, Piccinini A, Piglionica M, Ponzano E, Previderè C, Resta N, Scarnicci F, Seidita G, Sorçaburu-Cigliero S, Turrina S, Verzeletti A, Kayser M (2015). "Development of an Italian RM Y-STR haplotype database: Results of the 2013 GEFI collaborative exercise". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 15: 56–63. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.10.008. hdl:2318/154001. PMID 25457630.
  49. ^ Robino C, Varacalli S, Gino S, Chatzikyriakidou A, Kouvatsi A, Triantaphyllidis C, Di Gaetano C, Crobu F, Matullo G, Piazza A, Torre C (2004). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a population sample from continental Greece, and the islands of Crete and Chios". Forensic Science International. 145 (1): 61–4. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.026. PMID 15374596.
  50. ^ Pichler I, Mueller JC, Stefanov SA, De Grandi A, Volpato CB, Pinggera GK, Mayr A, Ogriseg M, Ploner F, Meitinger T, Pramstaller PP (2006). "Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms". Human Biology. 78 (4): 441–64. doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0057. PMID 17278620. S2CID 20205296.
  51. ^ Behar DM, Thomas MG, Skorecki K, Hammer MF, Bulygina E, Rosengarten D, Jones AL, Held K, Moses V, Goldstein D, Bradman N, Weale ME (2003). "Multiple origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y chromosome evidence for both Near Eastern and European ancestries". American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (4): 768–79. doi:10.1086/378506. PMC 1180600. PMID 13680527.
  52. ^ Turrina S, Atzei R, De Leo D (2006). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Northeast Italian population sample using 17plex loci PCR assay". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 120 (1): 56–9. doi:10.1007/s00414-005-0054-x. PMID 16328424. S2CID 237262.
  53. ^ a b Boattini A, Martinez-Cruz B, Sarno S, Harmant C, Useli A, Sanz P, Yang-Yao D, Manry J, Ciani G, Luiselli D, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D, Pettener D (2013). "Uniparental markers in Italy reveal a sex-biased genetic structure and different historical strata". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e65441. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...865441B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065441. PMC 3666984. PMID 23734255.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i F. Di Giacomo (2003). "Clinal patterns of human Y chromosomal diversity in continental Italy and Greece are dominated by drift and founder effects". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (3): 387–95. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00016-2. PMID 12927125.
  55. ^ a b c d e Di Gaetano C, Cerutti N, Crobu F, Robino C, Inturri S, Gino S, Guarrera S, Underhill PA, King RJ, Romano V, Cali F, Gasparini M, Matullo G, Salerno A, Torre C, Piazza A (2009). "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (1): 91–9. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.120. PMC 2985948. PMID 18685561.
  56. ^ Cortellini V, Verzeletti A, Cerri N, Marino A, De Ferrari F (2013). "Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group - a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy". Croatian Medical Journal. 54 (3): 279–85. doi:10.3325/cmj.2013.54.279. PMC 3692336. PMID 23771759.
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Pangrazio A, Santolamazza P, Vona G, Moral P, Latini V, Varesi L, Memmi MM, Romano V, De Leo G, Gennarelli M, Jaruzelska J, Villems R, Parik J, Macaulay V, Torroni A (2001). "Human Y-chromosome variation in the western Mediterranean area: implications for the peopling of the region". Human Immunology. 62 (9): 871–84. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00286-5. PMID 11543889.
  58. ^ a b c d e Messina F, Finocchio A, Rolfo MF, De Angelis F, Rapone C, Coletta M, Martínez-Labarga C, Biondi G, Berti A, Rickards O (2015). "Traces of forgotten historical events in mountain communities in Central Italy: A genetic insight". American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (4): 508–19. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22677. PMID 25728801. S2CID 30111156.
  59. ^ a b c Martínez-Cruz B, Harmant C, Platt DE, Haak W, Manry J, Ramos-Luis E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Bauduer F, Salaberria J, Oyharçabal B, Quintana-Murci L, Comas D (2012). "Evidence of pre-Roman tribal genetic structure in Basques from uniparentally inherited markers". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (9): 2211–22. doi:10.1093/molbev/mss091. PMID 22411853.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, González AM, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Pérez JA, Rojas A, Larruga JM, Underhill PA (2004). "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography". European Journal of Human Genetics. 12 (10): 855–63. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201225. PMID 15280900.
  61. ^ a b Pardiñas AF, Roca A, García-Vazquez E, López B (2012). "Assessing the genetic influence of ancient sociopolitical structure: micro-differentiation patterns in the population of Asturias (Northern Spain)". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e50206. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...750206P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050206. PMC 3507697. PMID 23209673.
  62. ^ Santos C, Fregel R, Cabrera VM, Alvarez L, Larruga JM, Ramos A, López MA, Pilar Aluja M, González AM (2014). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome structure at the Mediterranean and Atlantic façades of the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (2): 130–41. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22497. PMID 24375863. S2CID 205303141.
  63. ^ a b Martinez L, Underhill PA, Zhivotovsky LA, Gayden T, Moschonas NK, Chow CE, Conti S, Mamolini E, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Herrera RJ (2007). "Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (4): 485–93. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201769. PMID 17264870.
  64. ^ a b c Capelli C, Brisighelli F, Scarnicci F, Arredi B, Caglia' A, Vetrugno G, Tofanelli S, Onofri V, Tagliabracci A, Paoli G, Pascali VL (2007). "Y chromosome genetic variation in the Italian peninsula is clinal and supports an admixture model for the Mesolithic-Neolithic encounter". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 44 (1): 228–39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.11.030. PMID 17275346.
  65. ^ Maca-Meyer, N.; Sánchez-Velasco, P.; Flores, C.; Larruga, J.-M.; Gonzalez, A.-M.; Oterino, A.; Leyva-Cobian, F. (2003). "Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Characterization of Pasiegos, a Human Isolate from Cantabria (Spain)". Annals of Human Genetics. 67 (4): 329–339. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00045.x. PMID 12914567. S2CID 40355653.
  66. ^ a b c d e Brisighelli F, Blanco-Verea A, Boschi I, Garagnani P, Pascali VL, Carracedo A, Capelli C, Salas A (2012). "Patterns of Y-STR variation in Italy". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 6 (6): 834–9. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2012.03.003. PMID 22487686.
  67. ^ a b c Šarac J, Šarić T, Havaš Auguštin D, Novokmet N, Vekarić N, Mustać M, Grahovac B, Kapović M, Nevajda B, Glasnović A, Missoni S, Rootsi S, Rudan P (2016). "Genetic heritage of Croatians in the Southeastern European gene pool-Y chromosome analysis of the Croatian continental and Island population". American Journal of Human Biology. 28 (6): 837–845. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22876. PMID 27279290. S2CID 25873634.
  68. ^ a b Beleza S, Gusmão L, Lopes A, Alves C, Gomes I, Giouzeli M, Calafell F, Carracedo A, Amorim A (2006). "Micro-phylogeographic and demographic history of Portuguese male lineages". Annals of Human Genetics. 70 (Pt 2): 181–94. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x. PMID 16626329. S2CID 4652154.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tofanelli, Sergio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Anagnostou, Paolo; Busby, George B. J.; Ferri, Gianmarco; Thomas, Mark G.; Taglioli, Luca; Rudan, Igor; Zemunik, Tatijana; Hayward, Caroline; Bolnick, Deborah; Romano, Valentino; Cali, Francesco; Luiselli, Donata; Shepherd, Gillian B.; Tusa, Sebastiano; Facella, Antonino; Capelli, Cristian (2015). "The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily". European Journal of Human Genetics. 24 (3): 429–436. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.124. PMC 4757772. PMID 26173964.
  70. ^ Calcagno G, Labruna G, Sacchetti L (2005). "Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in a Campania population sample". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 43 (2): 163–6. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2005.027. PMID 15843210. S2CID 43323602.
  71. ^ Decorte R. et al., "'YHRD
  72. ^ a b c d e Coia V, Capocasa M, Anagnostou P, Pascali V, Scarnicci F, Boschi I, Battaggia C, Crivellaro F, Ferri G, Alù M, Brisighelli F, Busby GB, Capelli C, Maixner F, Cipollini G, Viazzo PP, Zink A, Destro Bisol G (2013). "Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups". PLOS ONE. 8 (12): e81704. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...881704C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081704. PMC 3847036. PMID 24312576.
  73. ^ Robino C, Gino S, Ricci U, Grignani P, Previdere C, Torre C (2002). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Albanian population sample". Forensic Science International. 129 (2): 128–30. doi:10.1016/S0379-0738(02)00224-4. PMID 12243882.
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h Karachanak S, Grugni V, Fornarino S, Nesheva D, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, Carossa V, Yordanov Y, Torroni A, Galabov AS, Toncheva D, Semino O (2013). "Y-chromosome diversity in modern Bulgarians: new clues about their ancestry". PLOS ONE. 8 (3): e56779. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...856779K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056779. PMC 3590186. PMID 23483890.
  75. ^ Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, Willems TF, Massaia A, Wilson Sayres MA, Ayub Q, McCarthy SA, Narechania A, Kashin S, Chen Y, Banerjee R, Rodriguez-Flores JL, Cerezo M, Shao H, Gymrek M, Malhotra A, Louzada S, Desalle R, Ritchie GR, Cerveira E, Fitzgerald TW, Garrison E, Marcketta A, Mittelman D, Romanovitch M, Zhang C, Zheng-Bradley X, Abecasis GR, McCarroll SA, Flicek P, Underhill PA, Coin L, Zerbino DR, Yang F, Lee C, Clarke L, Auton A, Erlich Y, Handsaker RE, Bustamante CD, Tyler-Smith C (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. doi:10.1038/ng.3559. PMC 4884158. PMID 27111036.
  76. ^ a b c d Purps J, Siegert S, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Salazar R, Angustia SM, Santos LH, Anslinger K, Bayer B, Ayub Q, Wei W, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Bafalluy MB, Martínez-Jarreta B, Egyed B, Balitzki B, Tschumi S, Ballard D, Court DS, Barrantes X, Bäßler G, Wiest T, Berger B, Niederstätter H, Parson W, Davis C, Budowle B, Burri H, Borer U, Koller C, Carvalho EF, Domingues PM, Chamoun WT, Coble MD, Hill CR, Corach D, Caputo M, D'Amato ME, Davison S, Decorte R, Larmuseau MH, Ottoni C, Rickards O, Lu D, Jiang C, Dobosz T, Jonkisz A, Frank WE, Furac I, Gehrig C, Castella V, Grskovic B, Haas C, Wobst J, Hadzic G, Drobnic K, Honda K, Hou Y, Zhou D, Li Y, Hu S, Chen S, Immel UD, Lessig R, Jakovski Z, Ilievska T, Klann AE, García CC, de Knijff P, Kraaijenbrink T, Kondili A, Miniati P, Vouropoulou M, Kovacevic L, Marjanovic D, Lindner I, Mansour I, Al-Azem M, Andari AE, Marino M, Furfuro S, Locarno L, Martín P, Luque GM, Alonso A, Miranda LS, Moreira H, Mizuno N, Iwashima Y, Neto RS, Nogueira TL, Silva R, Nastainczyk-Wulf M, Edelmann J, Kohl M, Nie S, Wang X, Cheng B, Núñez C, Pancorbo MM, Olofsson JK, Morling N, Onofri V, Tagliabracci A, Pamjav H, Volgyi A, Barany G, Pawlowski R, Maciejewska A, Pelotti S, Pepinski W, Abreu-Glowacka M, Phillips C, Cárdenas J, Rey-Gonzalez D, Salas A, Brisighelli F, Capelli C, Toscanini U, Piccinini A, Piglionica M, Baldassarra SL, Ploski R, Konarzewska M, Jastrzebska E, Robino C, Sajantila A, Palo JU, Guevara E, Salvador J, Ungria MC, Rodriguez JJ, Schmidt U, Schlauderer N, Saukko P, Schneider PM, Sirker M, Shin KJ, Oh YN, Skitsa I, Ampati A, Smith TG, Calvit LS, Stenzl V, Capal T, Tillmar A, Nilsson H, Turrina S, De Leo D, Verzeletti A, Cortellini V, Wetton JH, Gwynne GM, Jobling MA, Whittle MR, Sumita DR, Wolańska-Nowak P, Yong RY, Krawczak M, Nothnagel M, Roewer L (2014). "A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 12: 12–23. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.04.008. PMC 4127773. PMID 24854874.
  77. ^ Pichler I, Fuchsberger C, Platzer C, Calişkan M, Marroni F, Pramstaller PP, Ober C (2010). "Drawing the history of the Hutterite population on a genetic landscape: inference from Y-chromosome and mtDNA genotypes". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (4): 463–70. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.172. PMC 2987252. PMID 19844259.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Solé-Morata N, Bertranpetit J, Comas D, Calafell F (2015). "Y-chromosome diversity in Catalan surname samples: insights into surname origin and frequency". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23 (11): 1549–57. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.14. PMC 4613475. PMID 25689924.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kushniarevich A, Utevska O, Chuhryaeva M, Agdzhoyan A, Dibirova K, Uktveryte I, Möls M, Mulahasanovic L, Pshenichnov A, Frolova S, Shanko A, Metspalu E, Reidla M, Tambets K, Tamm E, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, Atramentova L, Kučinskas V, Davydenko O, Goncharova O, Evseeva I, Churnosov M, Pocheshchova E, Yunusbayev B, Khusnutdinova E, Marjanović D, Rudan P, Rootsi S, Yankovsky N, Endicott P, Kassian A, Dybo A, Tyler-Smith C, Balanovska E, Metspalu M, Kivisild T, Villems R, Balanovsky O (2015). "Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0135820. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1035820K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135820. PMC 4558026. PMID 26332464.
  80. ^ Verzeletti A, Cerri N, Gasparini F, Poglio A, Mazzeo E, De Ferrari F (2009). "Population data for 15 autosomal STRs loci and 12 Y chromosome STRs loci in a population sample from the Sardinia island (Italy)". Legal Medicine. 11 (1): 37–40. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2008.06.003. PMID 18723383.
  81. ^ a b Montiel R, Bettencourt C, Silva C, Santos C, Prata MJ, Lima M (2005). "Analysis of Y-chromosome variability and its comparison with mtDNA variability reveals different demographic histories between islands in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal)". Annals of Human Genetics. 69 (Pt 2): 135–44. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00146.x. hdl:10316/8064. PMID 15720295. S2CID 26096151.
  82. ^ Carolina Nuñez et al., Highly discriminatory capacity of the PowerPlex® Y23 System for the study of isolated populations 2015.
  83. ^ Spiroski M, Arsov T, Krüger C, Willuweit S, Roewer L (2005). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Macedonian population samples". Forensic Science International. 148 (1): 69–73. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.04.067. PMID 15607593.
  84. ^ a b c d e Zastera J, Roewer L, Willuweit S, Sekerka P, Benesova L, Minarik M (2010). "Assembly of a large Y-STR haplotype database for the Czech population and investigation of its substructure". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 4 (3): e75–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.06.005. PMID 20215022.
  85. ^ a b Larmuseau MH, Ottoni C, Raeymaekers JA, Vanderheyden N, Larmuseau HF, Decorte R (2012). "Temporal differentiation across a West-European Y-chromosomal cline: genealogy as a tool in human population genetics". European Journal of Human Genetics. 20 (4): 434–40. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.218. PMC 3306861. PMID 22126748.
  86. ^ Robledo R, Corrias L, Bachis V, Puddu N, Mameli A, Vona G, Calò CM (2012). "Analysis of a genetic isolate: the case of Carloforte (Italy)". Human Biology. 84 (6): 735–54. doi:10.3378/027.084.0602. PMID 23959646. S2CID 6609913.
  87. ^ a b Robledo R, Mameli A, Scudiero CM, Vona G, Corrias L, Bachis V, Culigioni C, Calò CM (2015). "Non-random distribution of 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in different areas of Sardinia". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 16: 26–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.11.019. PMID 25498479.
  88. ^ Larmuseau MH, Boon N, Vanderheyden N, Van Geystelen A, Larmuseau HF, Matthys K, De Clercq W, Decorte R (2015). "High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment". Heredity. 115 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1038/hdy.2015.5. PMC 4815499. PMID 25873146.
  89. ^ a b Francalacci P, Morelli L, Angius A, Berutti R, Reinier F, Atzeni R, Pilu R, Busonero F, Maschio A, Zara I, Sanna D, Useli A, Urru MF, Marcelli M, Cusano R, Oppo M, Zoledziewska M, Pitzalis M, Deidda F, Porcu E, Poddie F, Kang HM, Lyons R, Tarrier B, Gresham JB, Li B, Tofanelli S, Alonso S, Dei M, Lai S, Mulas A, Whalen MB, Uzzau S, Jones C, Schlessinger D, Abecasis GR, Sanna S, Sidore C, Cucca F (2013). "Low-pass DNA sequencing of 1200 Sardinians reconstructs European Y-chromosome phylogeny". Science. 341 (6145): 565–9. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..565F. doi:10.1126/science.1237947. PMC 5500864. PMID 23908240.
  90. ^ a b Gaibar M, Esteban E, Moral P, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Bandrés F, Luna F, Fernández-Santander A (2010). "STR genetic diversity in a Mediterranean population from the south of the Iberian Peninsula". Annals of Human Biology. 37 (2): 253–66. doi:10.3109/03014460903341851. PMID 19961347. S2CID 19323185.
  91. ^ Noveski P, Trivodalieva S, Efremov G, Plaseska-Karanfilska D (2010). "Y Chromosome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Typing by SNaPshot MINISEQUENCING". Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics. 13 (1): 9–16. doi:10.2478/v10034-010-0013-9.
  92. ^ Calafell, Francesc; et al. (2013). "Estudi genètic dels cognoms catalans, valencians i balears". Csic-Upf.[unreliable source?]
  93. ^ Young, Kristin L.; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Crawford, Michael H. (2011). "Paternal Genetic History of the Basque Population of Spain". Human Biology. 83 (4): 455–475. doi:10.3378/027.083.0402. hdl:1808/16387. PMID 21846204. S2CID 3191418.
  94. ^ a b c Kushniarevich A, Sivitskaya L, Danilenko N, Novogrodskii T, Tsybovsky I, Kiseleva A, Kotova S, Chaubey G, Metspalu E, Sahakyan H, Bahmanimehr A, Reidla M, Rootsi S, Parik J, Reisberg T, Achilli A, Hooshiar Kashani B, Gandini F, Olivieri A, Behar DM, Torroni A, Davydenko O, Villems R (2013). "Uniparental genetic heritage of belarusians: encounter of rare middle eastern matrilineages with a central European mitochondrial DNA pool". PLOS ONE. 8 (6): e66499. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...866499K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066499. PMC 3681942. PMID 23785503.
  95. ^ a b Jorgensen TH, Buttenschön HN, Wang AG, Als TD, Børglum AD, Ewald H (2004). "The origin of the isolated population of the Faroe Islands investigated using Y chromosomal markers". Human Genetics. 115 (1): 19–28. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1117-7. PMID 15083358. S2CID 6040039.
  96. ^ Ehler E, Vane D, Stenzl V, Vancata V (2011). "Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe". Croatian Medical Journal. 52 (3): 358–67. doi:10.3325/cmj.2011.52.358. PMC 3131682. PMID 21674832.
  97. ^ a b c d Pavel Flegontov et al., "Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry," " Scientific Reports (2016)|doi=10.1038/srep20768
  98. ^ a b Pickrahn I, Müller E, Zahrer W, Dunkelmann B, Cemper-Kiesslich J, Kreindl G, Neuhuber F (2016). "Yfiler® Plus amplification kit validation and calculation of forensic parameters for two Austrian populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 21: 90–4. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.12.014. PMID 26741856.
  99. ^ a b c Rębała K, Martínez-Cruz B, Tönjes A, Kovacs P, Stumvoll M, Lindner I, Büttner A, Wichmann HE, Siváková D, Soták M, Quintana-Murci L, Szczerkowska Z, Comas D (2013). "Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements". European Journal of Human Genetics. 21 (4): 415–22. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.190. PMC 3598329. PMID 22968131.
  100. ^ Rey-González D (2017). "Micro and macro geographical analysis of Y-chromosome lineages in South Iberia". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 29: e9–e15. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2017.04.021. PMID 28487219.
  101. ^ Hill EW, et al. (2000). "Y-chromosome variation and Irish origins". Nature. 404 (6776): 351–2. Bibcode:2000Natur.404..351H. doi:10.1038/35006158. PMID 10746711. S2CID 4414538.
  102. ^ Immel UD, Kleiber M, Klintschar M (2005). "Y chromosome polymorphisms and haplotypes in South Saxony-Anhalt (Germany)". Forensic Science International. 155 (2–3): 211–5. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.01.004. PMID 16226160.
  103. ^ Sánchez C, Barrot C, Xifró A, Ortega M, de Aranda IG, Huguet E, Corbella J, Gené M (2007). "Haplotype frequencies of 16 Y-chromosome STR loci in the Barcelona metropolitan area population using Y-Filer kit". Forensic Science International. 172 (2–3): 211–7. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.01.007. PMID 17320328.
  104. ^ a b c Badro DA, Douaihy B, Haber M, Youhanna SC, Salloum A, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Johnsrud B, Khazen G, Matisoo-Smith E, Soria-Hernanz DF, Wells RS, Tyler-Smith C, Platt DE, Zalloua PA (2013). "Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations". PLOS ONE. 8 (1): e54616. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...854616B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054616. PMC 3559847. PMID 23382925.
  105. ^ a b c Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Grzybowski T, Lunkina A, Czarny J, Rychkov S, Morozova I, Denisova G, Miścicka-Sliwka D (2004). "Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations". Human Biology. 76 (6): 877–900. doi:10.1353/hub.2005.0021. PMID 15974299. S2CID 17385503.
  106. ^ Rapone C, Geraci A, Capelli C, De Meo A, D'Errico G, Barni F, Berti A, Lago G (2007). "Y chromosome haplotypes in Central-South Italy: implication for reference database". Forensic Science International. 172 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.06.072. PMID 16884881.
  107. ^ Pericić M, Lauc LB, Klarić IM, Rootsi S, Janićijevic B, Rudan I, Terzić R, Colak I, Kvesić A, Popović D, Sijacki A, Behluli I, Dordevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec DD, Stefanović BD, Villems R, Rudan P (2005). "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (10): 1964–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185. PMID 15944443.
  108. ^ Mendizabal I, Sandoval K, Berniell-Lee G, Calafell F, Salas A, Martínez-Fuentes A, Comas D (2008). "Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 213. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-213. PMC 2492877. PMID 18644108.
  109. ^ a b c d Cerutti N, Marin A, Di Gaetano C, Pappi P, Crobu F, Riccardino F, Matullo G, Piazza A (2006). "Population data for Y-chromosome STR haplotypes from Piedmont (Italy)". Forensic Science International. 158 (2–3): 238–43. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.07.002. PMID 16111847.
  110. ^ Fechner A, Quinque D, Rychkov S, Morozowa I, Naumova O, Schneider Y, Willuweit S, Zhukova O, Roewer L, Stoneking M, Nasidze I (2008). "Boundaries and clines in the West Eurasian Y-chromosome landscape: insights from the European part of Russia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 137 (1): 41–7. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20838. PMID 18470899.
  111. ^ a b c Capelli C, Arredi B, Baldassari L, Boschi I, Brisighelli F, Caglià A, Dobosz M, Scarnicci F, Vetrugno G, Pascali VL (2006). "A 9-loci Y chromosome haplotype in three Italian populations". Forensic Science International. 159 (1): 64–70. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.05.026. PMID 15998574.
  112. ^ Lauc LB, Pericić M, Klarić IM, Sijacki A, Popović D, Janićijević B, Rudan P (2005). "Y chromosome STR polymorphisms in a Serbian population sample". Forensic Science International. 150 (1): 97–101. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.07.022. PMID 15837014.
  113. ^ Egyed B, Füredi S, Padar Z (2006). "Population genetic study in two Transylvanian populations using forensically informative autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR markers". Forensic Science International. 164 (2–3): 257–65. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.10.020. PMID 16314060.
  114. ^ Cerri N, Verzeletti A, Bandera B, De Ferrari F (2005). "Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STRs in a sample from Brescia (northern Italy)". Forensic Science International. 152 (1): 83–7. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.02.006. PMID 15939179.
  115. ^ Barbarii LE, Rolf B, Dermengiu D (2003). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Romanian population sample". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 117 (5): 312–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-003-0397-0. PMID 12904972. S2CID 44447191.
  116. ^ Stevanović M, Dobricić V, Keckarević D, Perović A, Savić-Pavićević D, Keckarević-Marković M, Jovanović A, Romac S (2007). "Human Y-specific STR haplotypes in population of Serbia and Montenegro". Forensic Science International. 171 (2–3): 216–21. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.05.038. PMID 16806776.
  117. ^ Kovatsi L, Saunier JL, Irwin JA (2009). "Population genetics of Y-chromosome STRs in a population of Northern Greeks". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 4 (1): e21–2. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.01.001. PMID 19948315.
  118. ^ Haas C, Wangensteen T, Giezendanner N, Kratzer A, Bär W (2006). "Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a population sample from Switzerland (Zurich area)". Forensic Science International. 158 (2–3): 213–8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.04.036. PMID 15964729.
  119. ^ Rodig H, Roewer L, Gross A, Richter T, de Knijff P, Kayser M, Brabetz W (2008). "Evaluation of haplotype discrimination capacity of 35 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci". Forensic Science International. 174 (2–3): 182–8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.04.223. PMID 17543484.
  120. ^ Veselinovic IS, Zgonjanin DM, Maletin MP, Stojkovic O, Djurendic-Brenesel M, Vukovic RM, Tasic MM (2008). "Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in a Serbian population sample from Vojvodina province". Forensic Science International. 176 (2–3): e23–8. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.04.003. PMID 17482396.
  121. ^ Pepinski W, Niemcunowicz-Janica A, Ptaszynska-Sarosiek I, Skawronska M, Koc-Zorawska E, Janica J, Soltyszewski I (2004). "Population genetics of Y-chromosome STRs in a population of Podlasie, Northeastern Poland". Forensic Science International. 144 (1): 77–82. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.02.024. PMID 15240025.
  122. ^ Cadenas AM, Zhivotovsky LA, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2008). "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (3): 374–86. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934. PMID 17928816.
  123. ^ a b Regueiro, M.; Cadenas, A.M.; Gayden, T.; Underhill, P.A.; Herrera, R.J. (2006). "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration". Human Heredity. 61 (3): 132–43. doi:10.1159/000093774. PMID 16770078. S2CID 7017701.
  124. ^ Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL, Lillie AS, Roseman CC, Lin AA, Prince K, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Semino O, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2004). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia". Human Genetics. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639. S2CID 10763736.
  125. ^ Sahoo S, Singh A, Himabindu G, Banerjee J, Sitalaximi T, Gaikwad S, Trivedi R, Endicott P, Kivisild T, Metspalu M, Villems R, Kashyap VK (2006). "A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103 (4): 843–8. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103..843S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507714103. PMC 1347984. PMID 16415161.
  126. ^ Zalloua PA, Xue Y, Khalife J, Makhoul N, Debiane L, Platt DE, Royyuru AK, Herrera RJ, Hernanz DF, Blue-Smith J, Wells RS, Comas D, Bertranpetit J, Tyler-Smith C (2008). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Lebanon is structured by recent historical events". American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (4): 873–82. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020. PMC 2427286. PMID 18374297.
  127. ^ Firasat S, Khaliq S, Mohyuddin A, Papaioannou M, Tyler-Smith C, Underhill PA, Ayub Q (2007). "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan". European Journal of Human Genetics. 15 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726. PMC 2588664. PMID 17047675.
  128. ^ a b El-Sibai M, Platt DE, Haber M, Xue Y, Youhanna SC, Wells RS, Izaabel H, Sanyoura MF, Harmanani H, Bonab MA, Behbehani J, Hashwa F, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA (2009). "Geographical structure of the Y-chromosomal genetic landscape of the Levant: a coastal-inland contrast". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (Pt 6): 568–81. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x. PMC 3312577. PMID 19686289.
  129. ^ Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, Olivieri A, Pala M, Myres NM, King RJ, Rootsi S, Marjanovic D, Primorac D, Hadziselimovic R, Vidovic S, Drobnic K, Durmishi N, Torroni A, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Underhill PA, Semino O (2009). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in Southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149.
  130. ^ Gonçalves R, Freitas A, Branco M, Rosa A, Fernandes AT, Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, Kivisild T, Brehm A (2005). "Y-chromosome lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores record elements of Sephardim and Berber ancestry". Annals of Human Genetics. 69 (Pt 4): 443–54. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00161.x. PMID 15996172. S2CID 3229760.
  131. ^ Karlsson AO, Wallerström T, Götherström A, Holmlund G (2006). "Y-chromosome diversity in Sweden - a long-time perspective". European Journal of Human Genetics. 14 (8): 963–70. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201651. PMID 16724001.
  132. ^ Varzari A, Kharkov V, Stephan W, Dergachev V, Puzyrev V, Weiss EH, Stepanov V (2009). "Searching for the origin of Gagauzes: inferences from Y-chromosome analysis". American Journal of Human Biology. 21 (3): 326–36. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20863. PMID 19107901. S2CID 13952729.
  133. ^ Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000). "The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective". Science. 290 (5494): 1155–9. Bibcode:2000Sci...290.1155S. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453.
  134. ^ a b c d Kivisild T, Rootsi S, Metspalu M, Mastana S, Kaldma K, Parik J, Metspalu E, Adojaan M, Tolk HV, Stepanov V, Gölge M, Usanga E, Papiha SS, Cinnioğlu C, King R, Cavalli-Sforza L, Underhill PA, Villems R (2003). "The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (2): 313–32. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225. PMID 12536373.
  135. ^ Gomes V, Gusmão L, Portugal L, Piçarra A, Amorim A, Prata MJ (2008). "Refining the analysis of Y-chromosomal diversity in Alentejo (Portugal)". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 1 (1): 208–9. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.081.
  136. ^ Marin A, Achilli A, Gaetano C, Di Guarrera S, Rengo C, Torroni A, Piazza A, Boëtsch G, Sella G, Rabino Massa E (2005). "Biodemographic and molecular analysis of an isolated Alpine population (Postua)". International Journal of Anthropology. 20 (3–4): 259–75. doi:10.1007/bf02443062. S2CID 85042096.
  137. ^ Brion M, Sobrino B, Blanco-Verea A, Lareu MV, Carracedo A (2005). "Hierarchical analysis of 30 Y-chromosome SNPs in European populations". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 119 (1): 10–5. doi:10.1007/s00414-004-0439-2. PMID 15095093. S2CID 12248548.
  138. ^ Ferri G, Alù M, Corradini B, Radheshi E, Beduschi G (2009). "Slow and fast evolving markers typing in Modena males (North Italy)". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 3 (2): e31–3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.05.004. hdl:11380/596414. PMID 19215863.
  139. ^ King RJ, Ozcan SS, Carter T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Triantaphyllidis C, Kouvatsi A, Lin AA, Chow CE, Zhivotovsky LA, Michalodimitrakis M, Underhill PA (2008). "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic". Annals of Human Genetics. 72 (Pt 2): 205–14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x. PMID 18269686. S2CID 22406638.
  140. ^ Kasperaviciūte D, Kucinskas V, Stoneking M (2004). "Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuanians". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 5): 438–52. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.00119.x. PMID 15469421. S2CID 26562505.
  141. ^ Lappalainen T, Hannelius U, Salmela E, von Döbeln U, Lindgren CM, Huoponen K, Savontaus ML, Kere J, Lahermo P (2009). "Population structure in contemporary Sweden--a Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analysis". Annals of Human Genetics. 73 (1): 61–73. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00487.x. PMID 19040656. S2CID 205598345.
  142. ^ Grignani P, Peloso G, Fattorini P, Previderè C (2000). "Highly informative Y-chromosomal haplotypes by the addition of three new STRs DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114 (1–2): 125–9. doi:10.1007/s004140000153. PMID 11197619. S2CID 21124063.
  143. ^ Gaikwad S, Kashyap VK (2005). "Molecular insight into the genesis of ranked caste populations of western India based upon polymorphisms across non-recombinant and recombinant regions in genome". Genome Biology. 6 (8): P10. doi:10.1186/gb-2005-6-8-p10.
  144. ^ Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Côrte-Real HB, de Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Gölge M, Hill EW, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenko SA, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar AV, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Nørby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previderé C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (2000). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (6): 1526–43. doi:10.1086/316890. PMC 1287948. PMID 11078479.
  145. ^ Thomas MG, Barnes I, Weale ME, Jones AL, Forster P, Bradman N, Pramstaller PP (2008). "New genetic evidence supports isolation and drift in the Ladin communities of the South Tyrolean Alps but not an ancient origin in the Middle East". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (1): 124–34. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201906. PMID 17712356.
  146. ^ Ramos-Luis E, Blanco-Verea A, Brión M, Van Huffel V, Carracedo A, Sánchez-Diz P (2009). "Phylogeography of French male lineages". Forensic Science International. 2 (1): 439–41. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.09.026.
  147. ^ Italy DNA Project blog, "What a difference a year makes" (posted Tuesday, September 04, 2007), based on data from the Italy DNA Project at Family Tree DNA
  148. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Study Raises Possibility of Jewish Tie for Jefferson," The New York Times (February 28, 2007)
  149. ^ a b c d e Tarkhnishvili D, Gavashelishvili A, Murtskhvaladze M, Gabelaia M, Tevzadze G (2014). "Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus". Human Biology. 86 (2): 113–30. doi:10.3378/027.086.0205. PMID 25397702. S2CID 7733899.
  150. ^ Lopez S, et al. (2017). "The Genetic Legacy of Zoroastrianism in Iran and India: Insights into Population Structure, Gene Flow, and Selection". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 101 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.07.013. PMC 5590844. PMID 28844488.
  151. ^ a b c d Herrera KJ, Lowery RK, Hadden L, Calderon S, Chiou C, Yepiskoposyan L, Regueiro M, Underhill PA, Herrera RJ (2012). "Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists". European Journal of Human Genetics. 20 (3): 313–20. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.192. PMC 3286660. PMID 22085901.
  152. ^ Marchani EE, Watkins WS, Bulayeva K, Harpending HC, Jorde LB (2008). "Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan". BMC Genetics. 9: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-47. PMC 2488347. PMID 18637195.
  153. ^ a b Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (2001). "The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East". American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (5): 1095–112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163.
  154. ^ a b c d Xu H, Wang CC, Shrestha R, Wang LX, Zhang M, He Y, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Jin L, Li H (2015). "Inferring population structure and demographic history using Y-STR data from worldwide populations". Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 290 (1): 141–50. doi:10.1007/s00438-014-0903-8. PMID 25159112. S2CID 15972847.
  155. ^ a b Yepiskoposian L, Khudoyan A, Harutyunian A (2006). "Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia". Iran and the Caucasus. 10 (2): 191–208. doi:10.1163/157338406780345899. JSTOR 4030922. S2CID 162345193.
  156. ^ a b c Karafet TM, Bulayeva KB, Nichols J, Bulayev OA, Gurgenova F, Omarova J, Yepiskoposyan L, Savina OV, Rodrigue BH, Hammer MF (2016). "Coevolution of genes and languages and high levels of population structure among the highland populations of Daghestan". Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (3): 181–91. doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.132. PMID 26607180. S2CID 6641494.
  157. ^ a b c d e f Lashgary Z, Khodadadi A, Singh Y, Houshmand SM, Mahjoubi F, Sharma P, Singh S, Seyedin M, Srivastava A, Ataee M, Mohammadi ZS, Rezaei N, Bamezai RN, Sanati MH (2011). "Y chromosome diversity among the Iranian religious groups: a reservoir of genetic variation". Annals of Human Biology. 38 (3): 364–71. doi:10.3109/03014460.2010.535562. PMID 21329477. S2CID 207460555.
  158. ^ a b c Zoossmann-Diskin A (2010). "The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms". Biology Direct. 5: 57. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-5-57. PMC 2964539. PMID 20925954.
  159. ^ a b c d e f g Nasidze I, Ling EY, Quinque D, Dupanloup I, Cordaux R, Rychkov S, Naumova O, Zhukova O, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Naderi GA, Asgary S, Sardas S, Farhud DD, Sarkisian T, Asadov C, Kerimov A, Stoneking M (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome variation in the caucasus". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 3): 205–21. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00092.x. PMID 15180701. S2CID 27204150.
  160. ^ Roewer L, Willuweit S, Stoneking M, Nasidze I (2009). "A Y-STR database of Iranian and Azerbaijanian minority populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 4 (1): e53–5. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.002. PMID 19948326.
  161. ^ Margaryan A, Harutyunyan A, Khachatryan Z, Khudoyan A, Yepiskoposyan L (2012). "Paternal lineage analysis supports an Armenian rather than a Central Asian genetic origin of the Hamshenis". Human Biology. 84 (4): 405–22. doi:10.3378/027.084.0404. PMID 23249315. S2CID 22742392.
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Grugni V, Battaglia V, Hooshiar Kashani B, Parolo S, Al-Zahery N, Achilli A, Olivieri A, Gandini F, Houshmand M, Sanati MH, Torroni A, Semino O (2012). "Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...741252G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981.
  163. ^ Yonan et al., "Y-chromosome diversity in the Assyrian Christians," (2009)
  164. ^ a b c d e f g h Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazières S, Myres NM, Lin AA, Temori SA, Metspalu M, Metspalu E, Witzel M, King RJ, Underhill PA, Villems R, Chiaroni J (2013). "Afghan Hindu Kush: where Eurasian sub-continent gene flows converge". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e76748. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...876748D. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748. PMC 3799995. PMID 24204668.
  165. ^ Al-Zahery N, Semino O, Benuzzi G, Magri C, Passarino G, Torroni A, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (2003). "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 28 (3): 458–72. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(03)00039-3. PMID 12927131.
  166. ^ a b Quintana-Murci L, Semino O, Poloni ES, Liu A, Van Gijn M, Passarino G, Brega A, Nasidze IS, Maccioni L, Cossu G, al-Zahery N, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (1999). "Y-chromosome specific YCAII, DYS19 and YAP polymorphisms in human populations: a comparative study". Annals of Human Genetics. 63 (Pt 2): 153–66. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.1999.6320153.x. PMID 10738527. S2CID 19675208.
  167. ^ Mukherjee N, Nebel A, Oppenheim A, Majumder PP (2001). "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India". Journal of Genetics. 80 (3): 125–35. doi:10.1007/bf02717908. PMID 11988631. S2CID 13267463.
  168. ^ a b Fernandes AT, Gonçalves R, Gomes S, Filon D, Nebel A, Faerman M, Brehm A (2011). "Y-chromosomal STRs in two populations from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area: Christian and Muslim Arabs". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 5 (5): 561–2. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.08.005. PMID 20843760.
  169. ^ a b c d e Weale ME, Yepiskoposyan L, Jager RF, Hovhannisyan N, Khudoyan A, Burbage-Hall O, Bradman N, Thomas MG (2001). "Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group". Human Genetics. 109 (6): 659–74. doi:10.1007/s00439-001-0627-9. PMID 11810279. S2CID 23113666.
  170. ^ a b c Tabrizi AA, Hedjazi A, Kerachian MA, Honarvar Z, Dadgarmoghaddam M, Raoofian R (2015). "Genetic profile of 17 Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in East of Iran". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 14: e6–7. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.10.010. PMID 25458927.
  171. ^ Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali; González, Ana M; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Underhill, Peter A (2009). "Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions". BMC Genetics. 10: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-59. PMC 2759955. PMID 19772609.
  172. ^ a b c d e Marc Haber et al., "Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon," European Journal of Human Genetics 2010
  173. ^ a b c d e Voskarides K, Mazières S, Hadjipanagi D, Di Cristofaro J, Ignatiou A, Stefanou C, King RJ, Underhill PA, Chiaroni J, Deltas C (2016). "Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements". Investigative Genetics. 7: 1. doi:10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8. PMC 4750176. PMID 26870315.
  174. ^ Flores C, Maca-Meyer N, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, Karadsheh N, Gonzalez AM (2005). "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan". Journal of Human Genetics. 50 (9): 435–41. doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4. PMID 16142507.
  175. ^ Mohammad T, Xue Y, Evison M, Tyler-Smith C (2009). "Genetic structure of nomadic Bedouin from Kuwait". Heredity. 103 (5): 425–33. doi:10.1038/hdy.2009.72. PMC 2869035. PMID 19639002.
  176. ^ Rafiee MR, Sokhansanj A, Naghizadeh MA, Farazmand A (2009). "Analysis of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism in an Iranian Sadat population". Russian Journal of Genetics. 45 (8): 969–73. doi:10.1134/S1022795409080110. PMID 19769300. S2CID 24234321.
  177. ^ Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Wozniak M, Grzybowski T (2013). "Y-chromosome variation in Tajiks and Iranians". Annals of Human Biology. 40 (1): 48–54. doi:10.3109/03014460.2012.747628. PMID 23198991. S2CID 2752490.
  178. ^ Gurkan C, Sevay H, Demirdov DK, Hossoz S, Ceker D, Teralı K, Erol AS (2017). "Turkish Cypriot paternal lineages bear an autochthonous character and closest resemblance to those from neighbouring Near Eastern populations". Annals of Human Biology. 44 (2): 164–174. doi:10.1080/03014460.2016.1207805. PMID 27356680. S2CID 24596494.
  179. ^ a b King, Roy J; Dicristofaro, Julie; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Scheidel, Walter; Myres, Natalie M; Lin, Alice A; Eissautier, Alexandre; Mitchell, Michael; Binder, Didier; Semino, Ornella; Novelletto, Andrea; Underhill, Peter A; Chiaroni, Jacques (2011). "The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 69. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-69. PMC 3068964. PMID 21401952.
  180. ^ a b c d Oleg Balanovsky et al., "Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region," Molecular Biology and Evolution 2011
  181. ^ Triki-Fendri S, Sánchez-Diz P, Rey-González D, Alfadhli S, Ayadi I, Ben Marzoug R, Carracedo Á, Rebai A (2016). "Genetic structure of the Kuwaiti population revealed by paternal lineages". American Journal of Human Biology. 28 (2): 203–12. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22773. PMID 26293354. S2CID 25725954.
  182. ^ a b c Nasidze I, Quinque D, Dupanloup I, Rychkov S, Naumova O, Zhukova O, Stoneking M (2004). "Genetic evidence concerning the origins of South and North Ossetians". Annals of Human Genetics. 68 (Pt 6): 588–99. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2004.00131.x. PMID 15598217. S2CID 1717933.
  183. ^ a b Nasidze I, Quinque D, Ozturk M, Bendukidze N, Stoneking M (2005). "MtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in Kurdish groups". Annals of Human Genetics. 69 (Pt 4): 401–12. doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.2005.00174.x. PMID 15996169. S2CID 23771698.
  184. ^ a b c d e f Belle EM, Shah S, Parfitt T, Thomas MG (2010). "Y chromosomes of self-identified Syeds from the Indian subcontinent show evidence of elevated Arab ancestry but not of a recent common patrilineal origin". Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2 (3): 217–24. doi:10.1007/s12520-010-0040-1. S2CID 16195047. INIST:23053415.
  185. ^ R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," The National Academy of Sciences, 2001
  186. ^ a b c d e f Nasidze I, Schädlich H, Stoneking M (2003). "Haplotypes from the Caucasus, Turkey and Iran for nine Y-STR loci". Forensic Science International. 137 (1): 85–93. doi:10.1016/s0379-0738(03)00272-x. PMID 14550619.
  187. ^ Fregel; et al. (2018). "Ancient genomes from North Africa evidence prehistoric migrations to the Maghreb from both the Levant and Europe". bioRxiv 10.1101/191569. Unknown parameter |url= ignored (help)
  188. ^ a b Mélanie Capredon et al., "Tracing Arab-Islamic Inheritance in Madagascar: Study of the Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro," ^PLOS ONE, 2013
  189. ^ a b Andrea Berti et al., "YHRD Contribution," ^YHRD, 2016
  190. ^ Haber, Marc; et al. (2016). "Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 99 (6): 1316–1324. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.10.012. PMC 5142112. PMID 27889059. - Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies on Table S.4
  191. ^ Immel UD, Kleiber M (2009). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Arab population from Somalia". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 2 (1): 409–10. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.08.034.
  192. ^ Brión M, Sanchez JJ, Balogh K, Thacker C, Blanco-Verea A, Børsting C, Stradmann-Bellinghausen B, Bogus M, Syndercombe-Court D, Schneider PM, Carracedo A, Morling N (2005). "Introduction of an single nucleodite polymorphism-based 'Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit' suitable for predicting the geographical origin of male lineages". Electrophoresis. 26 (23): 4411–20. doi:10.1002/elps.200500293. PMID 16273584. S2CID 25951019.
  193. ^ a b Stefflova K, Dulik MC, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Pai AA, Walker AH, Rebbeck TR (2011). "Dissecting the within-Africa ancestry of populations of African descent in the Americas". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e14495. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...614495S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014495. PMC 3017210. PMID 21253579.
  194. ^ Stenersen M, Perchla D, Søvik E, Flønes AG, Dupuy BM (2004). "Kurdish (Iraq) and Somalian population data for 15 autosomal and 9 Y-chromosomal STR loci". International Congress Series. 1261: 185–7. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(03)01823-5.
  195. ^ a b Wood ET, Stover DA, Ehret C, Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G, McLeod H, Louie L, Bamshad M, Strassmann BI, Soodyall H, Hammer MF (2005). "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 867–76. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201408. PMID 15856073.
  196. ^ Coia V, Brisighelli F, Donati F, Pascali V, Boschi I, Luiselli D, Battaggia C, Batini C, Taglioli L, Cruciani F, Paoli G, Capelli C, Spedini G, Destro-Bisol G (2009). "A multi-perspective view of genetic variation in Cameroon". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 140 (3): 454–64. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21088. PMID 19425092.
  197. ^ Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P, Macaulay V, Moral P, Olckers A, Modiano D, Holmes S, Destro-Bisol G, Coia V, Wallace DC, Oefner PJ, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Scozzari R, Underhill PA (2002). "A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes". American Journal of Human Genetics. 70 (5): 1197–214. doi:10.1086/340257. PMC 447595. PMID 11910562.
  198. ^ Hallenberg C, Simonsen B, Sanchez J, Morling N (2005). "Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Somalis". Forensic Science International. 151 (2–3): 317–21. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.01.011. PMID 15939170.
  199. ^ Sanchez JJ, Hallenberg C, Børsting C, Hernandez A, Morling N (2005). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 856–66. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. PMID 15756297.
  200. ^ a b Arredi B, Poloni ES, Paracchini S, Zerjal T, Fathallah DM, Makrelouf M, Pascali VL, Novelletto A, Tyler-Smith C (2004). "A predominantly neolithic origin for Y-chromosomal DNA variation in North Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (2): 338–45. doi:10.1086/423147. PMC 1216069. PMID 15202071.
  201. ^ a b Tishkoff SA, Gonder MK, Henn BM, Mortensen H, Knight A, Gignoux C, Fernandopulle N, Lema G, Nyambo TB, Ramakrishnan U, Reed FA, Mountain JL (2007). "History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (10): 2180–95. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm155. PMID 17656633.
  202. ^ a b c d e Ghada A. Omran et al., "Diversity of 17-locus Y-STR haplotypes in Upper (Southern) Egyptians," Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series2007
  203. ^ Andreas O. Tillmar et al. "Population data of 12 Y-STR loci from a Somali population (2009)
  204. ^ Pereira L, Cerný V, Cerezo M, Silva NM, Hájek M, Vasíková A, Kujanová M, Brdicka R, Salas A (2010). "Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel". European Journal of Human Genetics. 18 (8): 915–23. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21. PMC 2987384. PMID 20234393.
  205. ^ a b c Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Trombetta B, Santolamazza P, Sellitto D, Colomb EB, Dugoujon JM, Crivellaro F, Benincasa T, Pascone R, Moral P, Watson E, Melegh B, Barbujani G, Fuselli S, Vona G, Zagradisnik B, Assum G, Brdicka R, Kozlov AI, Efremov GD, Coppa A, Novelletto A, Scozzari R (2007). "Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia: new clues from Y-chromosomal haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (6): 1300–11. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049. PMID 17351267.
  206. ^ Triki-Fendri S, Sánchez-Diz P, Rey-González D, Ayadi I, Alfadhli S, Rebai A, Carracedo Á (2013). "Population genetics of 17 Y-STR markers in West Libya (Tripoli region)". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 7 (3): e59–61. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2013.02.002. PMID 23473875.
  207. ^ a b c Gomes V, Sánchez-Diz P, Amorim A, Carracedo A, Gusmão L (2010). "Digging deeper into East African human Y chromosome lineages". Human Genetics. 127 (5): 603–13. doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0808-5. PMID 20213473. S2CID 23503728.
  208. ^ Ayadi I, Ammar-Keskes L, Rebai A (2006). "Haplotypes for 13 Y-chromosomal STR loci in South Tunisian population (Sfax region)". Forensic Science International. 164 (2–3): 249–53. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.10.006. PMID 16293385.
  209. ^ Immel UD, Erhuma M, Mustafa T, Kleiber M, Klintschar M (2006). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in an Arab population from Libya". International Congress Series. 1288: 156–8. doi:10.1016/j.ics.2005.09.011.
  210. ^ Called "Wairak" and misidentified as Bantu in the studies.
  211. ^ Caglià A, Tofanelli S, Coia V, Boschi I, Pescarmona M, Spedini G, Pascali V, Paoli G, Destro-Bisol G (2003). "A study of Y-chromosome microsatellite variation in sub-Saharan Africa: a comparison between F(ST) and R(ST) genetic distances". Human Biology. 75 (3): 313–30. doi:10.1353/hub.2003.0041. JSTOR 41466150. PMID 14527196. S2CID 36209595.
  212. ^ a b Dugoujon JM, Coudray C, Torroni A, Cruciani F, Scozzari R, Moral P, Louali N, Kossman M (2009). "The Berber and the Berbers: Genetic and linguistic diversities". In D'Errico F, Hombart JM (eds.). Becoming Eloquent: Advances in the Emergence of Language, Human Cognition, and Modern Cultures. John Benjamins. pp. 123–45. ISBN 978-90-272-3269-4.
  213. ^ Ennafaa H, Fregel R, Khodjet-El-Khil H, González AM, Mahmoudi HA, Cabrera VM, Larruga JM, Benammar-Elgaaïed A (2011). "Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome microstructure in Tunisia". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (10): 734–41. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.92. PMID 21833004.
  214. ^ Charoenchote, Wanwalai (2004). AmpFℓSTR Identifiler STR Allele Frequencies and PowerPlex Y-STR Haplotype Frequencies of the Meru Population of Northern Tanzania (Thesis). University of Nevada. OCLC 368708609.
  215. ^ Veeramah KR, Connell BA, Ansari Pour N, Powell A, Plaster CA, Zeitlyn D, Mendell NR, Weale ME, Bradman N, Thomas MG (2010). "Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 92. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-92. PMC 2867817. PMID 20356404.
  216. ^ a b c d e Ansari-Pour N, Moñino Y, Duque C, Gallego N, Bedoya G, Thomas MG, Bradman N (2016). "Palenque de San Basilio in Colombia: genetic data support an oral history of a paternal ancestry in Congo". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 283 (1827): 20152980. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2980. PMC 4822459. PMID 27030413.
  217. ^ Gonçalves R, Rosa A, Freitas A, Fernandes A, Kivisild T, Villems R, Brehm A (2003). "Y-chromosome lineages in Cabo Verde Islands witness the diverse geographic origin of its first male settlers". Human Genetics. 113 (6): 467–72. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1007-4. hdl:10400.13/3047. PMID 12942365. S2CID 63381583.
  218. ^ Melo MM, Carvalho M, Lopes V, Anjos MJ, Serra A, Vieira DN, Sequeiros J, Corte-Real F (2011). "Y-STR haplotypes in three ethnic linguistic groups of Angola population". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 5 (3): e83–8. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.08.002. PMID 20801729.
  219. ^ a b Cherni L, Pereira L, Goios A, Loueslati BY, Khodjet el Khil H, Gomes I, Gusmão L, Alves C, Slama A, Amorim A, Elgaaied AB (2005). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in three ethnic groups and one cosmopolitan population from Tunisia". Forensic Science International. 152 (1): 95–9. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.02.007. PMID 15939181.
  220. ^ Elmrghni S, Coulson-Thomas YM, Kaddura M, Dixon RA, Williams DR (2012). "Population genetic data for 17 Y STR markers from Benghazi (East Libya)" (PDF). Forensic Science International. Genetics. 6 (2): 224–7. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.05.001. PMID 21640679.
  221. ^ Fortes-Lima C, Brucato N, Croze M, Bellis G, Schiavinato S, Massougbodji A, Migot-Nabias F, Dugoujon JM (2015). "Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 19: 232–7. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.07.021. PMID 26275614.
  222. ^ Manni F, Leonardi P, Barakat A, Rouba H, Heyer E, Klintschar M, McElreavey K, Quintana-Murci L (2002). "Y-chromosome analysis in Egypt suggests a genetic regional continuity in Northeastern Africa". Human Biology. 74 (5): 645–58. doi:10.1353/hub.2002.0054. PMID 12495079. S2CID 26741827.
  223. ^ Bosch E, Calafell F, Pérez-Lezaun A, Comas D, Izaabel H, Akhayat O, Sefiani A, Hariti G, Dugoujon JM, Bertranpetit J (2000). "Y chromosome STR haplotypes in four populations from northwest Africa". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114 (1–2): 36–40. doi:10.1007/s004140000136. PMID 11197625. S2CID 24279528.
  224. ^ Makki-Rmida F, Kammoun A, Mahfoudh N, Ayadi A, Gibriel AA, Mallek B, Maalej L, Hammami Z, Maatoug S, Makni H, Masmoudi S (2015). "Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 21 Y-STRs, including nine noncore loci, in South Tunisian Population: Forensic relevance". Electrophoresis. 36 (23): 2908–13. doi:10.1002/elps.201500204. PMID 26331800. S2CID 866382.
  225. ^ Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Garcia-Bertrand R, Alfonso-Sánchez MA, Zemni R, Benammar-Elgaaied A, Herrera RJ (2015). "Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa". Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (1): 41–9. doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.99. PMID 25471516. S2CID 25186140.
  226. ^ a b Barbieri C, Hübner A, Macholdt E, Ni S, Lippold S, Schröder R, Mpoloka SW, Purps J, Roewer L, Stoneking M, Pakendorf B (2016). "Refining the Y chromosome phylogeny with southern African sequences". Human Genetics. 135 (5): 541–53. doi:10.1007/s00439-016-1651-0. PMC 4835522. PMID 27043341.
  227. ^ Montinaro F, Davies J, Capelli C (2016). "Group membership, geography and shared ancestry: Genetic variation in the Basotho of Lesotho". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 160 (1): 156–61. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22933. PMID 26779678.
  228. ^ Laouina A, El Houate B, Yahia H, Azeddoug H, Boulouiz R, Chbel F (2011). "Allele frequencies and population data for 17 Y-STR loci (The AmpFlSTR® Y-filer™) in Casablanca resident population". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 5 (1): e1–3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2010.10.016. PMID 21126935.
  229. ^ a b c d Negi N, Tamang R, Pande V, Sharma A, Shah A, Reddy AG, Vishnupriya S, Singh L, Chaubey G, Thangaraj K (2016). "The paternal ancestry of Uttarakhand does not imitate the classical caste system of India". Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (2): 167–72. doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.121. PMID 26511066. S2CID 547784.
  230. ^ Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy (2011). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.
  231. ^ a b c d e f g Sharma S, Rai E, Sharma P, Jena M, Singh S, Darvishi K, Bhat AK, Bhanwer AJ, Tiwari PK, Bamezai RN (2009). "The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system". Journal of Human Genetics. 54 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1038/jhg.2008.2. PMID 19158816.
  232. ^ a b Kumar V, Reddy AN, Babu JP, Rao TN, Langstieh BT, Thangaraj K, Reddy AG, Singh L, Reddy BM (2007). "Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 47. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-47. PMC 1851701. PMID 17389048.
  233. ^ a b Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow CE, Lin AA, Mitra M, Sil SK, Ramesh A, Usha Rani MV, Thakur CM, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Majumder PP, Underhill PA (2006). "Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists". American Journal of Human Genetics. 78 (2): 202–21. doi:10.1086/499411. PMC 1380230. PMID 16400607.
  234. ^ Sharma G, Tamang R, Chaudhary R, Singh VK, Shah AM, Anugula S, Rani DS, Reddy AG, Eaaswarkhanth M, Chaubey G, Singh L, Thangaraj K (2012). "Genetic affinities of the central Indian tribal populations". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e32546. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...732546S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032546. PMC 3290590. PMID 22393414.
  235. ^ Arunkumar G, Soria-Hernanz DF, Kavitha VJ, Arun VS, Syama A, Ashokan KS, Gandhirajan KT, Vijayakumar K, Narayanan M, Jayalakshmi M, Ziegle JS, Royyuru AK, Parida L, Wells RS, Renfrew C, Schurr TG, Smith CT, Platt DE, Pitchappan R (2012). "Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e50269. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...750269A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050269. PMC 3508930. PMID 23209694.
  236. ^ Hasan M, Momtaz P, Hosen I, Das SA, Akhteruzzaman S (2015). "Population genetics of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci in Garo and Santal tribal populations in Bangladesh". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 129 (2): 251–2. doi:10.1007/s00414-014-0981-5. PMID 24577712. S2CID 23031408.
  237. ^ Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Singh VK, Reddy AG, Chauhan P, Malvee R, Pavate PP, Singh L (2007). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in two endogamous tribal populations of Karnataka, India". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 52 (3): 751–3. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00443.x. PMID 17456116. S2CID 20805905.
  238. ^ a b c d e f g Ramana GV, Su B, Jin L, Singh L, Wang N, Underhill P, Chakraborty R (2001). "Y-chromosome SNP haplotypes suggest evidence of gene flow among caste, tribe, and the migrant Siddi populations of Andhra Pradesh, South India". European Journal of Human Genetics. 9 (9): 695–700. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200708. PMID 11571559.
  239. ^ R. Cordaux et al. "Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages"
  240. ^ a b c Thanseem I, Thangaraj K, Chaubey G, Singh VK, Bhaskar LV, Reddy BM, Reddy AG, Singh L (2006). "Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics. 7: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-42. PMC 1569435. PMID 16893451.
  241. ^ Cordaux R, Weiss G, Saha N, Stoneking M (August 2004). "The northeast Indian passageway: a barrier or corridor for human migrations?". Mol. Biol. Evol. 21 (8): 1525–33. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh151. PMID 15128876.
  242. ^ Majumder PP (2001). "Ethnic populations of India as seen from an evolutionary perspective". Journal of Biosciences. 26 (4 Suppl): 533–45. doi:10.1007/bf02704750. PMID 11779963. S2CID 15692537.
  243. ^ a b А. Х. Маргулана, "Первые результаты работы Лаборатории популяционной генетики," "ИНСТИТУТ ОБЩЕЙ ГЕНЕТИКИ И ЦИТОЛОГИИ" (2016), http://iggc.kz/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Rezultaty-raboty-Lab-Pop-Gen-noyab-2016.pdf
  244. ^ Cann HM, de Toma C, Cazes L, Legrand MF, Morel V, Piouffre L, Bodmer J, Bodmer WF, Bonne-Tamir B, Cambon-Thomsen A, Chen Z, Chu J, Carcassi C, Contu L, Du R, Excoffier L, Ferrara GB, Friedlaender JS, Groot H, Gurwitz D, Jenkins T, Herrera RJ, Huang X, Kidd J, Kidd KK, Langaney A, Lin AA, Mehdi SQ, Parham P, Piazza A, Pistillo MP, Qian Y, Shu Q, Xu J, Zhu S, Weber JL, Greely HT, Feldman MW, Thomas G, Dausset J, Cavalli-Sforza LL (2002). "A human genome diversity cell line panel". Science. 296 (5566): 261–2. doi:10.1126/science.296.5566.261b. PMID 11954565. S2CID 41595131.
  245. ^ a b c Shou WH, Qiao EF, Wei CY, Dong YL, Tan SJ, Shi H, Tang WR, Xiao CJ (2010). "Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians". Journal of Human Genetics. 55 (5): 314–22. doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.30. PMID 20414255.
  246. ^ a b c d e f Xue Y, Zerjal T, Bao W, Zhu S, Shu Q, Xu J, Du R, Fu S, Li P, Hurles ME, Yang H, Tyler-Smith C (2006). "Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times". Genetics. 172 (4): 2431–9. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. PMC 1456369. PMID 16489223.
  247. ^ Kusuma P, Cox MP, Pierron D, Razafindrazaka H, Brucato N, Tonasso L, Suryadi HL, Letellier T, Sudoyo H, Ricaut FX (2015). "Mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome suggest the settlement of Madagascar by Indonesian sea nomad populations". BMC Genomics. 16: 191. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1394-7. PMC 4373124. PMID 25880430.
  248. ^ a b c Qi X, Cui C, Peng Y, Zhang X, Yang Z, Zhong H, Zhang H, Xiang K, Cao X, Wang Y, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Wu T, Chen H, Shi H, Su B (2013). "Genetic evidence of paleolithic colonization and neolithic expansion of modern humans on the tibetan plateau". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 30 (8): 1761–78. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst093. PMID 23682168.
  249. ^ Cordaux R, Weiss G, Saha N, Stoneking M (2004). "The northeast Indian passageway: a barrier or corridor for human migrations?". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (8): 1525–33. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh151. PMID 15128876.
  250. ^ Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; et al. (2012). Kayser, Manfred (ed.). "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
  251. ^ Bhandari S, Zhang X, Cui C, Bianba, Liao S, Peng Y, Zhang H, Xiang K, Shi H, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Ouzhuluobu, Liu S, Gengdeng, Wu T, Qi X, Su B (2015). "Genetic evidence of a recent Tibetan ancestry to Sherpas in the Himalayan region". Scientific Reports. 5: 16249. Bibcode:2015NatSR...516249B. doi:10.1038/srep16249. PMC 4633682. PMID 26538459.
  252. ^ Balaresque P, Poulet N, Cussat-Blanc S, Gerard P, Quintana-Murci L, Heyer E, Jobling MA (2015). "Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations". European Journal of Human Genetics. 23 (10): 1413–22. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.285. PMC 4430317. PMID 25585703.
  253. ^ Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, Duan ZY, Tan PP, Jin L, Su B, Ma RZ (2011). "Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (1): 717–27. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq247. PMID 20837606.
  254. ^ М.К. Жабагин et al., "The relation between the Y-chromosomal variation and the clan structure: the gene pool of the steppe aristocracy and the steppe clergy of the Kazakhs," "Russian Journal of Genetics," (2014),
  255. ^ a b Ou X, Wang Y, Liu C, Yang D, Zhang C, Deng S, Sun H (2015). "Haplotype analysis of the polymorphic 40 Y-STR markers in Chinese populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 19: 255–62. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.08.007. PMID 26344901.
  256. ^ Niaz M. Achakzai et al., "Y-chromosomal STR analysis in the Pashtun population of Southern Afghanistan," Molecular Biology and Evolution 2011
  257. ^ Sadia Tabassum et al., "A comprehensive Y-STR portrait of Yousafzai’s population," International Journal of Legal Medicine 2017
  258. ^ TuErXun; NiYaZiBiLiGai (2011). Polymorphisms of Y-STRs in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic in Xinjiang (Thesis). Xinjiang Medical University.
  259. ^ Han Y, Li L, Liu X, Chen W, Yang S, Wei L, Xia M, Ma T, Jin L, Li S (2016). "Genetic analysis of 17 Y-STR loci in Han and Korean populations from Jilin Province, Northeast China". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 22: 8–10. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2016.01.003. PMID 26799315.
  260. ^ Gao T, Yun L, Gao S, Gu Y, He W, Luo H, Hou Y (2016). "Population genetics of 23 Y-STR loci in the Mongolian minority population in Inner Mongolia of China". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 130 (6): 1509–1511. doi:10.1007/s00414-016-1433-1. PMID 27515831. S2CID 19999648.
  261. ^ Yanmei Y, Tao G, Yubao Z, Chunjie X, Bifeng C, Shi L, Bingying X, Qiang J, Qinyong Z, Wen Z, Shengjun L, Shengjie N (2010). "Genetic polymorphism of 11 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Yunnan Han Chinese". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 4 (2): e67–9. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.06.002. PMID 20129460.
  262. ^ Bai R, Shi M, Yu X, Chang L (2008). "Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes in Chinese Hui ethnic group samples". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 3 (1): e17–9. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.03.004. PMID 19083856.
  263. ^ Chang YM, Swaran Y, Phoon YK, Sothirasan K, Sim HT, Lim KB, Kuehn D (2009). "Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in three native Sarawak populations (Iban, Bidayuh and Melanau) in East Malaysia". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 3 (3): e77–80. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.07.007. PMID 19414156.
  264. ^ Lovo-Gómez J, Blanco-Verea A, Lareu MV, Brión M, Carracedo A (2007). "The genetic male legacy from El Salvador". Forensic Science International. 171 (2–3): 198–203. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.07.005. PMID 16916590.
  265. ^ Tirado M, López-Parra AM, Baeza C, Bert F, Corella A, Pérez-Pérez A, Turbón D, Arroyo-Pardo E (2009). "Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by 17 STRs included in AmpFlSTR Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit in a multi ethnical population from El Beni Department (North Bolivia)". Legal Medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 11 (2): 101–3. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2008.09.002. PMID 18974018.
  266. ^ a b c d Rojas W, Parra MV, Campo O, Caro MA, Lopera JG, Arias W, Duque C, Naranjo A, García J, Vergara C, Lopera J, Hernandez E, Valencia A, Caicedo Y, Cuartas M, Gutiérrez J, López S, Ruiz-Linares A, Bedoya G (2010). "Genetic make up and structure of Colombian populations by means of uniparental and biparental DNA markers". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 143 (1): 13–20. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21270. PMID 20734436.
  267. ^ a b c Rojas W, Campo O, García J, Soto I, Duque C, Bedoya G, Ruiz-Linares A (2012). "CoanCestría de apellidos y linajes del. Cromosoma y en el noroeste de Colombia: una herramienta útil para establecer migración entre poblaciones" [Surnames and Y Chromosome Coancestry in northwest Colombia: A useful tool to establish migration between populations]. Revista Colombiana de Antropología. 48 (1): 49–79. doi:10.22380/2539472X.890.
  268. ^ González-Andrade F, Sánchez D, Martínez-Jarreta B, Budowle B (2008). "Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in three different population groups from Ecuador (South America)". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 53 (2): 512–4. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00692.x. PMID 18366595. S2CID 205767262.
  269. ^ a b Noguera, María; et al. (2013). "Colombia's racial crucible: Y chromosome evidence from six admixed communities in the Department of Bolivar". Annals of Human Biology. 41 (5): 453–459. doi:10.3109/03014460.2013.852244. PMID 24215508. S2CID 5210893.
  270. ^ a b c d Barbieri C, Heggarty P, Yang Yao D, Ferri G, De Fanti S, Sarno S, Ciani G, Boattini A, Luiselli D, Pettener D (2014). "Between Andes and Amazon: the genetic profile of the Arawak-speaking Yanesha". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 155 (4): 600–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22616. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0024-9E45-D. PMID 25229359. S2CID 5621046.
  271. ^ a b Luz Angela Alonso Morales (2013). Caracterización de la población humana de los departamentos de Tolima y Huila. Perspectivas: demográficas, genéticas y socioculturales (Master's thesis). Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
  272. ^ a b Simms TM, Martinez E, Herrera KJ, Wright MR, Perez OA, Hernandez M, Ramirez EC, McCartney Q, Herrera RJ (2011). "Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 146 (4): 594–608. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21616. PMID 21989964.
  273. ^ a b c Ramallo V, Mucci JM, García A, Muzzio M, Motti JM, Santos MR, Pérez ME, Alfaro EL, Dipierri JE, Demarchi DA, Bravi CM, Bailliet G (2009). "Comparison of Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies in eight Provinces of Argentina". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 2 (1): 431–2. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.08.047.
  274. ^ Toscanini U, Gusmão L, Berardi G, Gomes V, Amorim A, Salas A, Raimondi E (2011). "Male lineages in South American native groups: evidence of M19 traveling south". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 146 (2): 188–96. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21562. PMID 21826635.
  275. ^ Toscanini U, Gusmão L, Berardi G, Amorim A, Carracedo A, Salas A, Raimondi E (2008). "Y chromosome microsatellite genetic variation in two Native American populations from Argentina: population stratification and mutation data". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 2 (4): 274–80. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.03.001. PMID 19083836.
  276. ^ Blanco-Verea, A.; Jaime, J.C.; Brión, M.; Carracedo, A. (2010). "Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population". Forensic Science International: Genetics. 4 (3): 187–193. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.08.008. PMID 20215030.
  277. ^ Carvajal-Carmona LG, Soto ID, Pineda N, Ortíz-Barrientos D, Duque C, Ospina-Duque J, McCarthy M, Montoya P, Alvarez VM, Bedoya G, Ruiz-Linares A (2000). "Strong Amerind/white sex bias and a possible Sephardic contribution among the founders of a population in northwest Colombia". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (5): 1287–95. doi:10.1016/S0002-9297(07)62956-5. PMC 1288568. PMID 11032790.
  278. ^ a b Corach D, Lao O, Bobillo C, van Der Gaag K, Zuniga S, Vermeulen M, van Duijn K, Goedbloed M, Vallone PM, Parson W, de Knijff P, Kayser M (2010). "Inferring continental ancestry of argentineans from Autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473. S2CID 5908692.
  279. ^ a b Martínez-González LJ, Saiz M, Alvarez-Cubero MJ, Gómez-Martín A, Alvarez JC, Martínez-Labarga C, Lorente JA (2012). "Distribution of Y chromosomal STRs loci in Mayan and Mestizo populations from Guatemala". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 6 (1): 136–42. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2011.04.003. PMID 21565570.
  280. ^ a b c d e Toscanini U, Brisighelli F, Moreno F, Pantoja-Astudillo JA, Morales EA, Bustos P, Pardo-Seco J, Salas A (2016). "Analysis of Y-chromosome STRs in Chile confirms an extensive introgression of European male lineages in urban populations". Forensic Science International. Genetics. 21: 76–80. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2015.12.005. PMID 26736138.
  281. ^ Raquel; Figueiredo, F.; et al. (2015). "Male-specific contributions to the Brazilian population of Espirito Santo". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 130 (3): 679–681. doi:10.1007/s00414-015-1214-2. PMID 26076592. S2CID 31546021.
  282. ^ Guevara, Evelyn K.; et al. (2016). "MtDNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in the Chachapoya, a population from the northeast Peruvian Andes-Amazon divide". American Journal of Human Biology. 28 (6): 857–867. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22878. PMID 27265853. S2CID 9663568.
  283. ^ Nuñez C, Baeta M, Sosa C, Casalod Y, Ge J, Budowle B, Martínez-Jarreta B (2010). "Reconstructing the population history of Nicaragua by means of mtDNA, Y-chromosome STRs, and autosomal STR markers". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 143 (4): 591–600. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21355. PMID 20721944. S2CID 24849262.
  284. ^ Xavier, Catarina; et al. (2015). "Admixture and Genetic Diversity Distribution Patterns of Non-Recombining Lineages of Native American Ancestry in Colombian Populations". PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0120155. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1020155X. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120155. PMC 4361580. PMID 25775361.
  285. ^ Gayà-Vidal M, Moral P, Saenz-Ruales N, Gerbault P, Tonasso L, Villena M, Vasquez R, Bravi CM, Dugoujon JM (2011). "mtDNA and Y-chromosome diversity in Aymaras and Quechuas from Bolivia: different stories and special genetic traits of the Andean Altiplano populations". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 145 (2): 215–30. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21487. PMID 21469069.
  286. ^ a b Santana; Carla; et al. (2014). "Genetic Analysis of 17 Y-STRs in a Mestizo Population from the Central Valley of Mexico". Human Biology.
  287. ^ Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; et al. (2010). "Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador". Legal Medicine. 12 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.10.003. PMID 19962926.
  288. ^ Simms TM, Wright MR, Hernandez M, Perez OA, Ramirez EC, Martinez E, Herrera RJ (2012). "Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 148 (4): 618–31. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22090. PMID 22576450.
  289. ^ Builes JJ, Martínez B, Gómez A, Caraballo L, Espinal C, Aguirre D, Montoya A, Moreno M, Amorim A, Gusmão L, Bravo ML (2007). "Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the Caribbean city of Cartagena (Colombia)". Forensic Science International. 167 (1): 62–9. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.12.015. PMID 16455219.
  290. ^ Villalta, M.; et al. (2008). "Haplotype data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci from Costa Rica". Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series. 1: 252–254. doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.101.
  291. ^ Cainé, Laura M.; et al. (2010). "Y-chromosomal STR haplotype diversity in males from Santa Catarina, Brazil". Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 17 (2): 92–95. doi:10.1016/j.jflm.2009.07.023. PMID 20129429.
  292. ^ Benn Torres J, Kittles RA, Stone AC (2007). "Mitochondrial and Y chromosome diversity in the English-speaking Caribbean". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (Pt 6): 782–90. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00380.x. PMID 17596204. S2CID 8723477.
  293. ^ Matamoros, Mireya; et al. (2009). "Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from Honduras". Legal Medicine. 11 (5): 251–255. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.06.001. PMID 19628418.
  294. ^ Abdon da Costa Francez, Pablo; et al. (2012). "Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon". Genetics and Molecular Biology. 35 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1590/s1415-47572011005000061. PMC 3313515. PMID 22481873.
  295. ^ Flores, Shahida; et al. (2015). "Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STR loci and haplotype data for 17 Y-STR loci in a population from Belize". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 129 (6): 1217–1218. doi:10.1007/s00414-014-1082-1. PMID 25193820. S2CID 149715.
  296. ^ Figueiredo, Raquel de F.; et al. (2016). "Male-specific contributions to the Brazilian population of Espirito Santo". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 130 (3): 679–681. doi:10.1007/s00414-015-1214-2. PMID 26076592. S2CID 31546021.
  297. ^ Lazaridis, Iosif; et al. (2016). "Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East". Nature. 536 (7617): 419–424. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. bioRxiv 10.1101/059311. doi:10.1038/nature19310. PMC 5003663. PMID 27459054.
  298. ^ Zielhofer, Christoph; et al. (2012). "The decline of the early Neolithic population center of 'Ain Ghazal and corresponding earth-surface processes, Jordan Rift Valley". Quaternary Research. 78 (3): 427–441. Bibcode:2012QuRes..78..427Z. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2012.08.006.
  299. ^ Ancient DNA from Chalcolithic Israel reveals the role of population mixture in cultural transformation
  301. ^ a b Anomalous blue-eyed people came to Israel 6,500 years ago from Iran, DNA shows
  302. ^ https://yfull.com/tree/T-L162/
  303. ^ Skourtanioti, Eirini; Erdal, Yilmaz S.; Frangipane, Marcella; Balossi Restelli, Francesca; Yener, K. Aslıhan; Pinnock, Frances; Matthiae, Paolo; Özbal, Rana; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich; Guliyev, Farhad; Akhundov, Tufan; Lyonnet, Bertille; Hammer, Emily L.; Nugent, Selin E.; Burri, Marta; Neumann, Gunnar U.; Penske, Sandra; Ingman, Tara; Akar, Murat; Shafiq, Rula; Palumbi, Giulio; Eisenmann, Stefanie; d'Andrea, Marta; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Warinner, Christina; Jeong, Choongwon; Stockhammer, Philipp W.; Haak, Wolfgang; Krause, Johannes (2020). "Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus". Cell. 181 (5): 1158–1175.e28. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.044. PMID 32470401. S2CID 219105572.
  304. ^ https://www.yfull.com/tree/T-CTS11451/
  305. ^