Open main menu

Haplogroup Q-M3 (Y-DNA) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup Q-M3 is a subclade of Haplogroup Q-L54. Haplogroup Q-M3 was previously known as Haplogroup Q3; currently Q-M3 is Q1b1a1a below Q1b-M346[1].

Haplogroup Q-M3
Possible time of origin10,000-15,000 years ago
Possible place of originBeringia: Either East Asia or North America
AncestorQ-L54
DescendantsQ-M19, Q-M194, Q-M199, Q-PAGES104, Q-PAGES131, Q-L663, Q-SA01, Q-L766, Q-L883, and Q-L888
Defining mutationsM3 (rs3894)

In 1996 the research group at Stanford University headed by Dr. Peter Underhill first discovered the SNP that was to become known as M3. At the time, it was called DYS191. Later studies completed the genetic bridge by determining that Q-M3 was related to Q-M242-bearing populations who traveled through Central Asia to East Asia.[2]

Contents

Origin and distributionEdit

Haplogroup Q-M3 is one of the Y-Chromosome haplogroups linked to the indigenous peoples of the Americas (over 90% of indigenous people in Meso & South America). Today, such lineages also include other Q-M242 branches (Q-M346, Q-L54, Q-P89.1, Q-NWT01, and Q-Z780), haplogroup C-M130 branches (C-M217 and C-P39), and R-M207, which are almost exclusively found in the North America. Haplogroup Q-M3 is defined by the presence of the (M3) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Q-M3 occurred on the Q-L54 lineage roughly 10-15 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The AmericasEdit

Populations carrying Q-M3 are widespread throughout the Americas. Since the discovery of Q-M3, several subclades of Q-M3 bearing populations have been discovered in the Americas as well. An example is in South America where some populations have a high prevalence of SNP M19 which defines subclade Q-M19. M19 has been detected in 59% of Amazonian Ticuna men and in 10% of Wayuu men.[3] Subclades Q-M19 and Q-M199 appear to be unique to South American populations and suggests that population isolation and perhaps even the establishment of tribes began soon after migration into the Americas.[4] The Kennewick Man has a Y chromosome that belongs to the most common sub-clade Q1a-M3 while the Anzick’s Y chromosome belongs to the minor Q1b-M971 lineage.[5]

AsiaEdit

Q-M3 is present in some Siberian populations in Asia. It is unclear whether these are remnants of the founding lineage or evidence of back-migrations from Beringia to East Asia.[6]

Population Paper N Percentage SNP Tested
Evens Malyarchuk 2011[6] 2/63 ~3.2% M3

EuropeEdit

The Q-M3 lineage has not been detected in the European population.

Subclade distributionEdit

Q-M19 M19 This lineage is found among Indigenous South Americans, such as the Ticuna and the Wayuu.[7] Origin: South America approximately 5,000 to 10,000 years ago.

Q-M194 It has only been found in South American populations.[7]

Q-M199 This lineage has only been found in South American populations.

Q-PAGES104 This lineage was discovered by the research group at the Whitehead Institute headed by Dr. David C. Page. Only limited demographic information is known.

Q-PAGES131 This lineage was discovered by the research group at the Whitehead Institute headed by Dr. David C. Page. Only limited demographic information is known.

Q-L663 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

Q-SA01 This lineages was discovered by the research group headed by Dr. Theodore G. Schurr.[8]

Q-L766 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists. It may be linked to indigenous populations in the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

Q-L883 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.

Q-L888 This lineage was discovered by citizen scientists.

Associated SNPsEdit

Q-M3 is defined by the SNPs M3 and L341.2.

Q-M3 Phylogeny and SubgroupsEdit

Current status of the polygentic tree for Q-M3 is published by pinotti et. al in the article Y Chromosome Sequences Reveal a Short Beringian Standstill, Rapid Expansion, and early Population structure of Native American Founders (2018). Calibrated phylogeny of Y haplogroup for Q-M3 and its relation to the branches within Q-L54.[9]

  • L54
    • Q-L330
    • Q-MPB001 (18.9 kya)
      • Q-CTS1780
      • Q-M930 (15.0-17.0 kya) Ancient Beringians
        • Q-L804 (Scandinavian)
        • Q-M3 (Native American, 15.0 kya)
          • Q-Y4308
          • Q-M848 (14.9 kya)
            • Q-B48
            • Q-CTS11357
              • Q-M825
            • Q-MPB073
            • Q-MPB015
            • Q-MPB115
            • Q-Z6658
            • Q-Z5906
            • Q-Z19357
            • Q-MPB139
            • Q-MPB138
            • Q-M848*

In 2013 Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's made the following phylogentic Proposed Tree for haplogroup Q-M3.

  • L54
    • M3, L341.2
      • M19
      • M194
      • M199, P106, P292
      • PAGES104, PAGES126
      • PAGES131
      • L663
      • SA01
      • L766, L767
      • L883, L884, L885, L886, L887
      • L888, L889, L890, L891

Popular cultureEdit

Joshua Alba, American actor of Mexican descent is Haplogroup Q-M3. His father partook in Henry Louis Gates' genealogy series Finding Your Roots[10]

See alsoEdit

Y-DNA Q-M242 subcladesEdit

Y-DNA backbone treeEdit

"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1SZQm_n4kakQXMIshSrjNcyV1wh2v3P4hx8b7rghvuGU/edit#gid=0 Y-DNA Haplogroup Q and its Subclades - 2018], ISOGG
  2. ^ Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.
  3. ^ Ruiz-Linares, A.; Ortiz-Barrientos, D.; Figueroa, M.; Mesa, N.; Munera, J. G.; Bedoya, G.; Velez, I. D.; Garcia, L. F.; Perez-Lezaun, A. (1999). "Microsatellites provide evidence for Y chromosome diversity among the founders of the New World". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 96 (11): 6312. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6312. PMC 26878.
  4. ^ Bortolini, M; Salzano, F; Thomas, M; Stuart, S; Nasanen, S; Bau, C; Hutz, M; Layrisse, Z; Petzlerler, M (2003). "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (3): 524–39. doi:10.1086/377588. PMC 1180678. PMID 12900798.
  5. ^ Kivisild, Toomas (2017-03-04). "The study of human Y chromosome variation through ancient DNA". Human Genetics. Springer Nature. 136 (5): 529–546. doi:10.1007/s00439-017-1773-z. ISSN 0340-6717.
  6. ^ a b Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Maksimov, Arkady; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilya (2011). "Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a". Journal of Human Genetics. 56 (8): 583–8. doi:10.1038/jhg.2011.64. PMID 21677663.
  7. ^ a b (2003) "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," (pdf) Maria-Catira Bortolini, Francisco M. Salzano
  8. ^ "Theodore G. Schurr".
  9. ^ Pinotti, Thomaz; Bergström, Anders; Geppert, Maria; Bawn, Matt; Ohasi, Dominique; Shi, Wentao; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Solli, Arne; Norstedt, Jakob; Reed, Kate; Dawtry, Kim; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Paz-y-Miño, Cesar; Revollo, Susana; Cuellar, Cinthia; Jota, Marilza S.; Santos, José E.; Ayub, Qasim; Kivisild, Toomas; Sandoval, José R.; Fujita, Ricardo; Xue, Yali; Roewer, Lutz; Santos, Fabrício R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris (2018). "Y Chromosome Sequences Reveal a Short Beringian Standstill, Rapid Expansion, and early Population structure of Native American Founders". Current Biology. Elsevier BV. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2018.11.029. ISSN 0960-9822.
  10. ^ Stated on Finding Your Roots, PBS, February 5, 2015

External linksEdit