Haplogroup D-M55 (M64.1/Page44.1) also known as Haplogroup D1a2a is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is one of two branches of Haplogroup D1a. The other is D1a1, which is found with high frequency in Tibet and also distributed sparsely in Central Asia, East Asia, and Mainland Southeast Asia.
|Possible time of origin||35,000-40,000YBP|
44,600 [95% CI 41,400 <-> 47,800] ybp
|Coalescence age||21,100 [95% CI 19,000 <-> 23,300] ybp|
|Possible place of origin||possibly Japanese archipelago|
|Defining mutations||M55, M57, M64.1, M179, P37.1, P41.1, P190, 12f2b|
|Highest frequencies||Jōmon people;|
today: Ainu people、Ryukyuan people
Haplogroup D-M55 is found in about 33% of present-day Japanese males. It has been found in fourteen of a sample of sixteen or 87.5% of a sample of Ainu males in one study published in 2004 and in three of a sample of four or 75% of a sample of Ainu males in another study published in 2005 in which some individuals from the 2004 study may have been retested. It is currently the most common Y-DNA haplogroup in Japan if O1-F265 and O2-M122 (TMRCA approx. 30,000 ~ 35,000 ybp) are considered as separate haplogroups. It is considered that Haplogroup D-M55 was born in Japan 38,000-37,000 years before present. One sample of D1a2a was also found among ancient samples of the Koban culture between Russia and Georgia.
Recently it was confirmed that the Japanese branch of haplogroup D-M55 is distinct and isolated from other D-branches since more than 53,000 years ago. The split in D1a probably happened in Central Asia, while some others suggest an instant split during the origin of haplogroup D itself, as the Japanese branch has five unique mutations not found in any other D-branch.
Among the subgroups of Haplogroup D, the ancestor of D-M55 went eastward to reach the Japanese archipelago. Michael F. Hammer of the University of Arizona said: "The ancestors of the Jōmon people were in Central Asia about 50,000 years ago. They continued to migrate eastwards and arrived in Japan by the southern Korean and Ryukyuan route and the northern Okhotsk route (Sakhalin and Hokkaido) about 30,000 ago, and D1a2a was born in the Japanese archipelago. "Mitsuru Sakitani said that Haplogroup D1 came from Central Asia to northern Kyushu via the Altai Mountains and the Korean Peninsula more than 40,000 years before present, and Haplogroup D-M55 (D1a2a) was born in the Japanese archipelago.
- Asahikawa (Hokkaido): 63.7% (estimated from Y-STR haplotypes)
- Kanto region: 48.2%
- Okinawa: 40.2% (estimated from Y-STR haplotypes)
- Kanto region: 37.6%
- Nagoya: 34.3% (estimated from Y-STR haplotypes)
- Tokushima：25.7%（Hammer et al. 2006）
A Jōmon man excavated from Funadomari remains (about 3,800 - 3,500 YBP) in Rebun Island in Hokkaido belongs to Haplogroup D1a2a2a(D-CTS220). This discovery proved the hypothesis that Haplogroup D-M55 is a Jōmon lineage.
A study published in the “Journal for archeological science” by Boulygina et al. 2020 analyzed ancient Koban burials and found one sample of haplogroup D1a2a (D-M55) which is common among the Ainu people.
By ISOGG tree（Version: 14.151）.
- DE (YAP)
- D (CTS3946)
- D1 (M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355, Haplogroup D-M174)
- D2 (A5580.2) Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Syria
- D (CTS3946)
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- YFull Haplogroup YTree v7.02.01 as of March 15, 2019.
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- Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014
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|Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]|
|A00||A0-T [χ 3]|
|A0||A1 [χ 4]|
|I||J||LT [χ 5]||K2 [χ 6]|
|L||T||K2a [χ 7]||K2b [χ 8]||K2c||K2d||K2e [χ 9]|
|K-M2313 [χ 10]||K2b1 [χ 11]||P [χ 12]|
|NO||S [χ 13]||M [χ 14]||P1||P2|