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Haplogroup A-P305 also known as A1 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Like its parent haplogroup haplogroup A0-T (A-L1085), A1 includes the vast majority of living human males. It emerged in Africa approximately 161,300 years ago. [1] By comparison, members of its sole sibling subclade, haplogroup A0 – the only other primary subclade of haplogroup A0-T – are found mostly in

Haplogroup A1
Possible time of origin161,300 years BP[1]
Possible place of originAfrica
AncestorA0-T
DescendantsA1a and A1b
Defining mutationsP305

Basal, undivergent A-P305* is largely restricted to populations native to Africa, though a handful of cases have been reported in Europe and Western Asia. A-P305* is found at its highest rates in Bakola Pygmies (South Cameroon) at 8.3% and Berbers from Algeria at 1.5%[2] and in Ghana.[3] The clade also achieves high frequencies in the Bushmen hunter-gatherer populations of Southern Africa, followed closely by many Nilotic groups in Eastern Africa. However, haplogroup A's oldest sub-clades are exclusively found in Central-Northwest Africa, where it, and consequently Y-chromosomal Adam, is believed to have originated about 140,000 years ago.[2] The clade has also been observed at notable frequencies in certain populations in Ethiopia, as well as some Pygmy groups in Central Africa.

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ a b https://www.yfull.com/tree/A1/
  2. ^ a b Cruciani F, Trombetta B, Massaia A, Destro-Bisol G, Sellitto D, Scozzari R (Jun 2011). "A revised root for the human Y chromosomal phylogenetic tree: the origin of patrilineal diversity in Africa". American Journal of Human Genetics. 88 (6): 814–8. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002. PMC 3113241. PMID 21601174.
  3. ^ Scozzari R, Massaia A, D'Atanasio E, et al. (2012). "Molecular dissection of the basal clades in the human Y chromosome phylogenetic tree". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e49170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049170. PMC 3492319. PMID 23145109.
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R