Asad Allāh (أسد الله)
Sayyid al-Shuhadāʾ (سيد الشهداء)
|Military Commander to Muhammad|
|Succeeded by||Zubayr ibn al-Awwam|
Ali (In Battle of Khaybar)
Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib
c. 568, or 566
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
|Died||22 March 625 (aged 56–57)|
Mount Uhud, Medina, Arabia
|Resting place||Uhud, Medina|
|Known for||Paternal Uncle and Companion of the Prophet|
|Tribe||Quraysh (Banu Hashim)|
|Years of service||623–625|
He was martyred in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri). His kunyas were "Abū ʿUmāra": 2 (أبو عمارة) and "Abū Yaʿlā": 3 (أبو يعلى). He had the by-names Asad Allāh: 2 (أَسَد ٱللَّٰه, "Lion of God") and Asad al-Janna (أسد الجنة, "Lion of Heaven"), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid al-Shuhadāʾ (سيد الشهداء).
Ibn Sa'd basing his claim on al-Waqidi states that Hamza was reportedly four years older than Muhammad.[page needed] This is disputed by Ibn Sayyid, who argues: "Zubayr narrated that Hamza was four years older than the Prophet. But this does not seem correct, because reliable hadith state that Thuwayba nursed both Hamza and the Prophet." Ibn Sayyid concludes that Hamza was only two years older than Muhammad۔ Ibn Hajar writes as a conclusion of Ibn Sayyid's hadiths: "Hamza was born two to four years before Muhammad".[page needed]
Ibn Kathir in Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya cites Abu Nu`aym who traces a hadith to Ibn Abbas, that after Abdul Mutallib went to Yemen, he stayed with a Jewish priest. A monk prophesied that he will have both power and prophethood and advised him to marry a woman of the Banu Zuhra. After returning to Mecca, he did so by marrying Hala, a woman of the tribe, and she birthed Hamza. Later, Abdullah married Amina and the Quraysh said he had won out in terms of marriage.
Hamza's father was Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy from the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca.: 2 His mother was Hala bint Wuhayb from the Zuhra clan of Quraysh.: 2 Tabari cites two different traditions. In one, Al-Waqidi states that his parents met when Abd al-Muttalib went with his son Abdullah to the house of Wahb ibn Abd Manaf to seek the hand of Wahb's daughter Amina. While they were there, Abd al-Muttalib noticed Wahb's niece, Hala bint Wuhayb, and he asked for her hand as well. Wahb agreed, and Muhammad's father Abdullah and his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib were both married on the same day, in a double-marriage ceremony. Hence, Hamza was the younger brother of Muhammad's father.
Marriages and childrenEdit
Hamza married three times and had six children.: 3
- Salma bint Umays ibn Ma'd, the half-sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith.
- Umama bint Hamza, wife of Salama ibn Abi Salama.
- Zaynab bint Al-Milla ibn Malik of the Aws tribe in Medina.
- Amir ibn Hamza.
- Bakr ibn Hamza, who died in childhood.
- Khawla bint Qays ibn Amir of the An-Najjar clan. He had issue, but their descendants had died out by the time of Ibn Sa'd.
- Umar ibn Hamza.
- Atika bint Hamza.
- Barra bint Hamza.
Conversion to IslamEdit
Hamza took little notice of Islam for the first few years. He converted in late 616 AD.: 3 Upon returning to Mecca after a hunting trip in the desert, he heard that Amr ibn Hishām (referred in Islamic scriptures as "Abu Jahl") had "attacked the Prophet and abused and insulted him,": 3 "speaking spitefully of his religion and trying to bring him into disrepute". Muhammad had not replied to him.: 131 "Filled with rage," Hamza "went out at a run ... meaning to punish Abu Hishām when he met him". He entered the Kaaba, where Abu Hishām was sitting with the elders, stood over him and "struck him a violent blow" with his bow. He said, "Will you insult him, when I am of his religion and say what he says? Hit me back if you can!": 132 He "struck Abu Jahl's head with a blow that cut open his head".: 3 Some of Abu Hishām's relatives approached to help him, but he told them, "Leave Abu Umara [Hamza] alone, for, by God, I insulted his nephew deeply".: 132
After that incident, Hamza entered the House of Al-Arqam and declared Islam.: 3 "Hamza’s Islam was complete, and he followed the Apostle's commands. When he became a Muslim, the Quraysh recognised that the Apostle had become strong, and had found a protector in Hamza, and so they abandoned some of their ways of harassing him".: 132 Instead, they tried to strike bargains with him; but he did not accept their offers.: 132–133
Hamza once asked Muhammad to show him the angel Jibreel in his true form. Muhammad told Hamza that he would not be able to see him. Hamza retorted that he would see the angel, so Muhammad told him to sit where he was. They claimed that Jibreel descended before them and that Hamza saw that Jibreel's feet were like emeralds, before falling down unconscious.: 6
Muhammad sent Hamza on his first raid against Quraysh. Hamza led an expedition of thirty riders to the coast in Juhayna territory to intercept a merchant-caravan returning from Syria. Hamza met Abu Hishām at the head of the caravan with three hundred riders at the seashore. Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervened between them, "for he was at peace with both parties," and the two parties separated without any fighting.: 4 : 283
Battle of BadrEdit
Hamza fought at the Battle of Badr, where he shared a camel with Zayd ibn Haritha: 293 and where his distinctive ostrich feather made him highly visible.: 4 : 303 The Muslims blocked the wells at Badr.: 297
Al-Aaswad ibn Abdalasad al-Makhzumi, who was a quarrelsome ill-natured man, stepped forth and said, "I swear to God that I will drink from their cistern or destroy it or die before reaching it". Hamza came forth against him, and when the two met, Hamza smote him and sent his foot and half his shank flying as he was near the cistern. He fell on his back and lay there, blood streaming from his foot towards his comrades. Then he crawled to the cistern and threw himself into it with the purpose of fulfilling his oath, but Hamza followed him and smote him and killed him in the cistern".: 299
Hamza was killed in the Battle of Uhud on Saturday 23 March 625 (7 Shawwal 3 hijri) when he was 57-59 years old. He was standing in front of Muhammad, fighting with two swords and then Abyssinian slave Wahshi ibn Harb with a promise of manumission from Hind bint Utba, if he killed Hamza. This was to revenge her father, Utba ibn Rabi'a, whom Hamza had killed in Badr. Hamza, running back and forth, stumbled and fell on his back; and Wahshi said, "who could throw a javelin as the Abyssinians do and seldom missed the mark," threw it into Hamza's abdomen and martyred him.
Wahshi then slit open his stomach and brought his liver to Hind bint Utba, whose father Hamza had killed at Badr (see above). Hind chewed Hamza's liver then spat it out. "Then she went and mutilated Hamza and made anklets, necklaces and pendants from his body, and brought him and his liver to Mecca".
Hamza was buried in the same grave (Arabic: قَبْر, qabr) as his nephew Abdullah ibn Jahsh. Muhammad later said, "I saw the angels washing Hamza because he was in Paradise on that day". Fatima used to go to Hamza's grave and tend it.
|Kilab ibn Murra||Fatima bint Sa'd|
|Zuhra ibn Kilab|
(progenitor of Banu Zuhra)
|Qusayy ibn Kilab|
|Hubba bint Hulail|
|Abd Manaf ibn Zuhra|
|Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy|
|Atika bint Murra|
|Wahb ibn `Abd Manaf|
|Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf|
(progenitor of Banu Hashim)
|Salma bint `Amr|
|Fatima bint Amr|
|Hala bint Wuhayb|
|6 other sons|
and 6 daughters
|Abd Allah ibn Abbas|
paternal cousin and son-in-law
family tree, descendants
second cousin and son-in-law
|Ali ibn Zainab|
|Umama bint Zaynab|
|`Abd Allah ibn Uthman|
|Rayhana bint Zayd|
|Usama ibn Zayd|
|Muhsin ibn Ali|
|Hasan ibn Ali|
|Husayn ibn Ali|
|Umm Kulthum bint Ali|
|Zaynab bint Ali|
|Abu Bakr |
- * indicates that the marriage order is disputed
- Note that direct lineage is marked in bold.
- Global South Asia: South Asian Literatures and the World. Routledge. 30 December 2021. ISBN 9781000537833.
- "Companions of The Prophet", Vol.1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- "Prophetmuhammadforall.org" (PDF). www.prophetmuhammadforall.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥajr al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba fī Tamyīz al-Ṣaḥāba. 8 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1995), 2:105
- Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Finding the Truth in Judging the Companions.
- Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- However, this in McDonald, M. V. (1988). Volume VI: Muhammad at Mecca, pp. 5-8. New York: State University of New York Press.
- Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 288. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.