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Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: حَمْزَة ابْن عَبْد ٱلْمُطَّلِب‎; c. 570 – 625)[1][2] was a foster brother, companion and paternal uncle of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

Ḥamzah
حَمْزَة
'Asad Allāh (أَسَد ٱلله
Sayyid ash-Shuhadāʾ (سَيِّدُ الشُّهَدَاء)
Hamza Bin Abd Al-Mottalib Name.png
Defence Secretary of Medina
PredecessorNone (first officeholder)
SuccessorKhalid bin Walid
BornHamza ibn Abdul Muttalib
c. 566—570
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
Died22 December 624 (aged 56-57)
Mount Uhud, Medina, Arabia
SpouseSalma bint Umays, Daughter of Al-Milla, Khawla bint Qays
IssueUmama, Amir, Yaala, Umara (possibly more)
HouseBanu Hashim
FatherAbdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
MotherHala
ReligionIslam
OccupationMilitary officer

His kunyas were "Abū ʿUmārah"[2]:2 (أَبُو عُمَارَةَ) and "Abū Yaʿlā"[2]:3 (أَبُو يَعْلَى). He had the by-names Asad Allāh[2]:2 (أَسَد ٱلله, "Lion of God") and Asad al-Jannah (أَسَد ٱلْجَنَّة, "Lion of the Garden"), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid ash-Shuhadāʾ (سَيِّد الشُّهَدَاء).[3]

Early lifeEdit

Ibn Sa'd basing his claim on al-Waqidi states that Hamzah was reportedly four years older than Muhammad.[2]:4 This is disputed by Ibn Sayyid, who argues: "Zubayr narrated that Hamza was four years older than the Prophet. But this does not seem correct, because reliable hadith state that Thuwayba nursed both Hamza and the Prophet". Ibn Sayyid concludes that Hamza was only two years older than Muhammad, though he adds the traditional expression of doubt, "Only God knows".[4] Ibn Hajar writes as a conclusion of Ibn Sayyid's hadiths: "Hamza was born two to four years before Muhammad".[5][page needed]

Hamza was skilled in wrestling, archery and fighting.[3] He was fond of hunting lions, and he is described as "the strongest man of the Quraysh, and the most unyielding".[6]:131

FamilyEdit

ParentsEdit

Hamzah's father was Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy from the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca.[2]:2 His mother was Hala bint Uhayb from the Zuhra clan of Quraysh.[2]:2 Tabari cites two different traaditions. In one, Al-Waqidi states that his parents met when Abdul Muttalib went with his son Abdullah to the house of Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf to seek the hand of Wahb's daughter Aminah. While they were there, Abdul-Muttalib noticed Wahb's niece, Hala bint Uhayb, and he asked for her hand as well. Wahb agreed, and Muhammad's father Abdullah and his grandfather Abdul-Muttalib were both married on the same day, in a double-marriage ceremony. However, this in response to a hadith by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri which doesn't mention any such double marriage.[7] Hence, Hamzah was the younger brother of Muhammad's father.

Marriages and ChildrenEdit

Hamza married three times and had six children.[2]:3

  1. Salma bint Umays ibn Ma'd, the half-sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith.
    1. Umama bint Hamza , wife of Salama ibn Abi Salama
  2. Zaynab bint Al-Milla ibn Malik of the Aws tribe in Medina.
    1. Amir ibn Hamza.
    2. Bakr ibn Hamza. who died in childhood
  3. Khawla bint Qays ibn Amir of the An-Najjar clan of the Khazraj in Medina.
    1. Yaala ibn Hamza. He had issue, but their descendants had died out by the time of Ibn Sa'd.
    2. Umara ibn Hamza. Married Ruqayyah bint Muhammad.[8]
    3. Atika bint Hamza.[9]
    4. Barra bint Hamza.

Conversion to IslamEdit

Hamza took little notice of Islam for the first few years. He did not respond to Muhammad's first appeal to the Hashimite clan in 613.[6]:117-118

He converted in late 615 or early 616.[2]:3 Upon returning to Mecca after a hunting trip in the desert, he heard that Abu Jahl had "attacked the Prophet and abused and insulted him,"[2]:3 "speaking spitefully of his religion and trying to bring him into disrepute". Muhammad had not replied to him.[6]:131 "Filled with rage," Hamza "went out at a run ... meaning to punish Abu Jahl when he met him". He entered the Kaaba, where Abu Jahl was sitting with the elders, stood over him and "struck him a violent blow" with his bow. He said, "Will you insult him, when I am of his religion and say what he says? Hit me back if you can!"[6]:132 He "struck Abu Jahl's head with a blow that cut open his head".[2]:3 Some of Abu Jahl's relatives approached to help him, but he told them, "Leave Abu Umara [Hamza] alone, for, by God, I insulted his nephew deeply".[6]:132

After that incident, Hamza entered the House of Al-Arqam and declared Islam.[2]:3 "Hamza’s Islam was complete, and he followed the Apostle's commands. When he became a Muslim, the Quraysh recognised that the Apostle had become strong, and had found a protector in Hamza, and so they abandoned some of their ways of harassing him".[6]:132 Instead, they tried to strike bargains with him; but he did not accept their offers.[6]:132-133

Hamza once asked Muhammad to show him the angel Jibreel "in his true form". Muhammad told Hamza that he would not be able to see him. Hamza retorted that he would see the angel, so Muhammad told him to sit where he was. They claimed that Jibreel descended before them and that Hamza saw that Jibreel's feet were like emeralds, before falling down unconscious.[2]:6

Hamza joined the emigration to Medina in 622 and lodged with Kulthum ibn al-Hidm[6]:218 or Saad ibn Khaythama. Muhammad made him the brother in Islam of Zayd ibn Harithah.[2]:3[6]:324


Military expeditionsEdit

First expeditionEdit

Muhammad sent Hamza on his first raid against Quraysh. Hamza led an expedition of thirty riders to the coast in Juhayna territory to intercept a merchant-caravan returning from Syria. Hamza met Abu Jahl at the head of the caravan with three hundred riders at the seashore. Majdi ibn Amr al-Juhani intervened between them, "for he was at peace with both parties," and the two parties separated without any fighting.[2]:4[6]:283

There is dispute as to whether Hamza or his second cousin Ubaydah ibn al-Harith was the first Muslim to whom Muhammad gave a flag.[6]:283

Battle of BadrEdit

Hamza fought at the Battle of Badr, where he shared a camel with Zayd ibn Harithah[6]:293 and where his distinctive ostrich feather made him highly visible.[2]:4[6]:303 The Muslims blocked the wells at Badr.[6]:297

Al-Aaswad ibn Abdalasad al-Makhzumi, who was a quarrelsome ill-natured man, stepped forth and said, "I swear to God that I will drink from their cistern or destroy it or die before reaching it". Hamza came forth against him, and when the two met, Hamza smote him and sent his foot and half his shank flying as he was near the cistern. He fell on his back and lay there, blood streaming from his foot towards his comrades. Then he crawled to the cistern and threw himself into it with the purpose of fulfilling his oath, but Hamza followed him and smote him and killed him in the cistern".[6]:299

He then killed Utbah ibn Rabi'ah in single combat and helped Ali to kill Utbah's brother Shayba.[6]:299 It is disputed whether it was Hamza or Ali who killed Tuwayma ibn Adiy.[6]:337

Later Hamza carried Muhammad's banner in the expedition against the Banu Qaynuqa.[2]:4

DeathEdit

 
Grave of Hamza near Mount Uhud

Hamza was killed in the Battle of Uhud on 22 March 625 (3 Shawwal 3 hijri) when he was 59 (lunar) years old. He was standing in front of Muhammad, fighting with two swords and shouting, "I am Allah's lion!"[2]

hind bribed the Abyssinian slave Wahshi ibn Harb with a promise of manumission if he killed Hamza. This was to revenge his uncle, Tuwayma ibn Adiy, whom Hamza had killed in Badr.[6] Hamza, running back and forth, stumbled and fell on his back; and Wahshi said, "who could throw a javelin as the Abyssinians do and seldom missed the mark,"[6] threw it into Hamza's abdomen and martyred him.

Wahshi then slit open his stomach and brought his liver to Hind bint Utbah,[2] whose father Hamza had killed at Badr (see above). Hind chewed Hamza's liver then spat it out. "Then she went and mutilated Hamza and made anklets, necklaces and pendants from his body, and brought them and his liver to Mecca".[2]

Hamza was buried in the same qabr (Arabic: قَـبْـر‎, grave) as his nephew Abdullah ibn Jahsh. Muhammad later said, "I saw the angels washing Hamza because he was in Paradise on that day".[2] Fatima used to go to Hamza's grave and tend it.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Companions of The Prophet", Vol.1, By: Abdul Wahid Hamid
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabair vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b "Prophetmuhammadforall.org" (PDF). www.prophetmuhammadforall.org.
  4. ^ Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, Uyun al-Athar.
  5. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Finding the Truth in Judging the Companions.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rasul al-Maluk. Translated by Watt, W. M., & McDonald, M. V. (1988). Volume VI: Muhammad at Mecca, pp. 5-8. New York: State University of New York Press.
  8. ^ Al-Jibouri, Yasin T. "Descendants of the Prophet's Paternal Uncles". Muhammad, Messenger of Peace and Tolerance. Qum: Ansariyan Publications.[need quotation to verify]
  9. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 288. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.