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The Hammadid dynasty was a Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152. Its realm was conquered by the Almohad Caliphate. Soon after coming to power, they rejected the Ismaili doctrine of the Fatimid Caliphate, and returned to Maliki Sunnism, acknowledging the Abbasid Caliphate as a rightful caliphate.
The Hammadid dynasty (green), c. 1100.
|Capital||Beni Hammad (until 1090)|
Béjaïa (after 1090)
|Common languages||Berber, Classical Arabic, Andalusi Romance|
|Hammad ibn Buluggin|
|Yahya ibn Abd al-Aziz|
|Today part of||Algeria|
The Hammadid dynasty's first capital was at Qalaat Beni Hammad. It was founded in 1007, and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When the area was sacked by the Banu Hilal tribe, the Hammadids moved their capital to Béjaïa in 1090.
In 1014, Hammad ibn Buluggin, a Berber who had been placed as governor of the central Maghreb, declared himself independent from the Zirid dynasty. The kingdom at the time ruled most of the region from Modern north Algeria to Tunisia. Hammad obtained recognition from the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. The Zirids sent an army, but two years later a peace was signed, although the Zirid recognized the Hammadid legitimacy only in 1018.
Hammad founded a new capital in Qalaat Beni Hammad. With the Banu Hilal menace rising (spurred by the rival Fatimid caliphs of Egypt), they moved it to Béjaïa, which became one of the most prosperous cities in the medieval Mediterranean (1052).