Hamengkubuwono X

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (also spelled as Hamengkubuwana X, often abbreviated as HB X) (born BRM Herjuno Darpito, 2 April 1946 in Yogyakarta) is the Sultan of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the Governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta).

His Highness
Bandara Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X
Hamengkubuwono x.jpg
3rd Governor of Yogyakarta
Assumed office
3 October 1998
MonarchYogyakarta Sultanate
PresidentB. J. Habibie
Abdurrahman Wahid
Megawati Sukarnoputri
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Joko Widodo
Preceded byPaku Alam VIII
10th Sultan of Yogyakarta
Assumed office
7 March 1989
MonarchYogyakarta Sultanate
B. J. Habibie
Abdurrahman Wahid
Megawati Sukarnoputri
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
Joko Widodo
Preceded byHamengkubuwono IX
Personal details
Herjuno Darpito

(1946-04-02) 2 April 1946 (age 74)
Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Spouse(s)Ratu Hemas
ChildrenPrincess Mangkubumi
Princess Candrakirana
Princess Maduretno
Princess Hayu
Princess Bendara
ResidenceThe Royal Palace of Yogyakarta
Alma materGadjah Mada University
Heiress presumptivePrincess Mangkubumi
Royal family of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta Sultanate Hamengkubhuwono X Emblem.svg

HH The Sultan[1][2]
HH Ratu Hemas

  • Princess Condrokirono
    • R. M. Marrel Suryokusumo
  • Princess Maduretno
    Prince Purbodiningrat
  • Princess Bendoro
    Prince Yudhonegoro
    • R. A. Irdina Yudhonegoro

Hamengkubuwono X succeeded his father, Hamengkubuwono IX as the Sultan of Yogyakarta when Hamengkubuwono IX died on 3 October 1988. Hamengkubuwono X was formally installed as Sultan on 7 March 1989. However, the position of the Governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region did not go to Hamengkubuwono X. Vice Governor Sri Paku Alam VIII, prince of the subordinate enclave of Paku Alaman within Yogyakarta was instead controversially elevated to the position of governor. This was contrary to the agreement made at the independence of Indonesia in recognition of Hamengkubuwono IX's support and role in the Indonesian War of Independence. Under the agreement, the Yogyakarta Sultan holds the position of governor in the Yogyakarta Special Region, and the Paku Alam holds the position of vice governor.

After the fall of the Suharto regime in May 1998, and following the death of Sri Paku Alam VIII on 11 September 1998, the central government required an election be held for the post of Yogyakarta Governor. Hamengkubuwono X was democratically elected as the Governor on 3 October 1998.[citation needed]

On 30 August 2012, following a decade of talks between Yogyakarta and the central government, the national legislature of Indonesia formally enshrined in law the convention that the Sultan inherits the position of governor.[3]


Hamengkubuwono X was a graduate of Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. He was active as Chairman DIY KADINDAII (Business Association), Chairman of the DPD Golkar DIY (Golongan Karya Party Yogyakarta), Chairman of the DIY Sports Committee Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction, President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner, and in July 1996 was appointed Chairman of the DIY Expert Counsel to the Governor.

Hamengkubuwono X followed the tradition of his late father Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX in the spirit of Indonesian Nationalism over self-interest by participating in street protests in support of the student demonstrations opposing Suharto's rule on 14 May 1998, and like his illustrious father, wanted to be a pioneer in the Yogyakarta Reformation Movement albeit in a non-violent manner. He was also one of the four key figures in the early reform period that sparked the Ciganjur Declaration urging the government to hold elections as soon as possible, because President BJ Habibie had neither Constitutional nor legal rights to take over the presidency of Suharto who had just resigned.

Hamengkubuwono X has stated his vision for his region and the Sultanate are the development of science and technology, development of agriculture, tourism and world-famous cultural industries and thus provide a fair and prosperous life to all his citizens. He was nominated by popular choice, to the Golkar Yogyakarta Assembly as a Presidential Candidate for the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election Campaign. Hamengkubuwono X, though widely respected across all parties and nationwide as neutral, honest and uncorrupted was ultimately unsuccessful in garnering support outside Central Java and was unsuccessful to attain a first round voting position.

Personal lifeEdit

Hamengkubuwono X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese monarchs having several wives and possibly multiple concubines, as per his late father's wishes to modernize the royal system. He is married to Ratu Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (GKR) Hemas.

Their five daughters (in birth order) are:

Coronation of Hamengkubuwono X and Hemas in 1989

Hamengkubuwono X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor's mansion solely for political affairs.


Styles of
Hamengkubuwono X
Reference styleHis Highness
Spoken styleYour Highness
Alternative styleNgarso Dalem

In Javanese Kraton (palaces) names of individuals change with respect to change in status:

  • From birth until marriage : Bendoro Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito
  • Post-nuptial until appointment as Crown Prince : Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Haryo (KGPH) Mangkubumi
  • As Heir Apparent Crown Prince : Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Raja Putra Nalendra Mataram.
  • As Sultan : Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senapati ing Ngalogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping X

His style and title in full English : His Highness Sultan Hamengkubuwono the Tenth, Commander-in-chief in war, Servant of the Most Gracious, Cleric and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion[1][2]

Swearing HB X as Governor of DIY (1998)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Indonesia Departemen Luar Negeri Direktorat (1968). Documenta diplomatica (in Indonesian). Departemen Luar Negeri. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b Overseas Trading. Australia: Department of Commerce and Agriculture. 1971. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  3. ^ N.O. (6 September 2012). "Yogyakarta's sultans – Carrying on". The Economist. Retrieved 8 December 2014.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Sri Paku Alam VIII
Governor of Yogyakarta
3 October 1998 – present
Succeeded by
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX
Sultan of Yogyakarta
7 March 1989 – present
Succeeded by