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Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (also spelled as Hamengkubuwana X, often abbreviated as HB X) (born BRM Herjuno Darpito, 2 April 1946 in Yogyakarta) is the Sultan of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the Governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta).
Bandara Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X
|3rd Governor of Yogyakarta|
|Assumed office |
3 October 1998
B. J. Habibie
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
|Preceded by||Paku Alam VIII|
|10th Sultan of Yogyakarta|
|Assumed office |
7 March 1989
B. J. Habibie
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
|Preceded by||Hamengkubuwono IX|
2 April 1946
|Residence||The Royal Palace of Yogyakarta|
|Alma mater||Gadjah Mada University|
|Heiress presumptive||Princess Mangkubumi|
|Royal family of Yogyakarta|
Hamengkubuwono X succeeded his father, Hamengkubuwono IX as the Sultan of Yogyakarta when Hamengkubuwono IX died on 3 October 1988. Hamengkubuwono X was formally installed as Sultan on 7 March 1989. However, the position of the Governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region did not go to Hamengkubuwono X. Vice Governor Sri Paku Alam VIII, prince of the subordinate enclave of Paku Alaman within Yogyakarta was instead controversially elevated to the position of governor. This was in contrary to the agreement made at the independence of Indonesia in recognition of Hamengkubuwono IX's support and role in the Indonesian War of Independence. Under the agreement, the Yogyakarta Sultan holds the position of governor in the Yogyakarta Special Region, and the Paku Alam holds the position of vice governor.
After the fall of the Suharto regime in May 1998, and following the death of Sri Paku Alam VIII on 11 September 1998, the central government required an election be held for the post of Yogyakarta Governor. Hamengkubuwono X was democratically elected as the Governor on 3 October 1998.
On 30 August 2012, following a decade of talks between Yogyakarta and the central government, the national legislature of Indonesia formally enshrined in law the convention that the Sultan inherits the position of governor.
Hamengkubuwono X was a graduate of Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. He was active as Chairman DIY KADINDAII (Business Association), Chairman of the DPD Golkar DIY (Golongan Karya Party Yogyakarta), Chairman of the DIY Sports Committee Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction, President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner, and in July 1996 was appointed Chairman of the DIY Expert Counsel to the Governor.
Hamengkubuwono X followed the tradition of his late father Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX in the spirit of Indonesian Nationalism over self-interest by participating in street protests in support of the student demonstrations opposing Suharto's rule on May 14 of 1998, and like his illustrious father, wanted to be a pioneer in the Yogyakarta Reformation Movement albeit in a non-violent manner. He was also one of the four key figures in the early reform period sparked Ciganjur Declaration urging the government to hold elections as soon as possible, because President BJ Habibie had neither Constitutional nor legal right to resume the presidency of Suharto who had just resigned.
Hamengkubuwono X has stated his vision for his region and Sultanate is the development of science and technology, development of agriculture, tourism and world-famous cultural industries and thus provide a fair and prosperous life to all his citizens. He was nominated by popular choice, Golkar Yogyakarta Assembly as a Presidential Candidate for the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election Campaign. Hamengkubuwono X, though widely respected across all parties and nationwide as neutral, honest and uncorrupted was ultimately unsuccessful in garnering support outside Central Java and was unsuccessful to attain first round voting position.
Hamengkubuwono X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese royalty with kings having several wives and possible multiple concubines, as per his late father's wishes to modernize the royal system and thus women's rights, and to lead by example and is married to Ratu Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (GKR) Hemas.
Their five daughters (in birth order) are:
- Crown Princess Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Mangkubumi (heiress presumptive) married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Wironegoro
- Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Condrokirono divorced
- Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Maduretno married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Purbodiningrat
- Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hayu married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Notonegoro
- Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Bendara married to Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Yudonegoro
Hamengkubuwono X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor's mansion solely for political affairs.
|Reference style||His Highness|
|Spoken style||Your Highness|
|Alternative style||Ngarso Dalem|
- From birth until marriage : Bendoro Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito
- Post-nuptial until appointment as Crown Prince : Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Haryo (KGPH) Mangkubumi
- As Heir Apparent Crown Prince : Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (KGPAA) Hamengku Negara Sudibyo Raja Putra Nalendra Mataram.
- As Sultan : Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senapati ing Ngalogo Ngabdurrokhman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang jumeneng kaping X
- Indonesia Departemen Luar Negeri Direktorat (1968). Documenta diplomatica (in Indonesian). Departemen Luar Negeri. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- Overseas Trading. Australia: Department of Commerce and Agriculture. 1971. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- N.O. (6 September 2012). "Yogyakarta's sultans — Carrying on". The Economist. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- YogYes Official Yogyakarta Tourism website
- Official Website for Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X
- Royal Ark on Yogyakarta
- AsiaWeek - The sultan of Yogyakarta is a modern reformer
- In Indonesian
Sri Paku Alam VIII
| Governor of Yogyakarta
3 October 1998 – present
Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX
| Sultan of Yogyakarta
7 March 1989 – present