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Haluza (Arabic: الخلصة‎; Hebrew: חלוצה), also known as Halasa, Chellous (Χελλοὺς in Greek, although in the 6th-century Madaba Map the town appears as ΕΛΟΥϹΑ), Elusa, al-Khalasa and al-Khalūṣ (Arabic), is a city in the Negev, Israel, that was once part of the Nabataean Incense Route. Due to its historic importance, UNESCO declared Haluza a World Heritage Site along with Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta.

Haluza
חלוצה - الخلصة
Bldg-haluza.jpg
Haluza is located in Israel
Haluza
Shown within Israel
Alternative nameHalasa
Chellous
al-Khalasa
Elusa
LocationSouthern District, Israel
RegionNegev
Coordinates31°05′49″N 34°39′07″E / 31.097°N 34.652°E / 31.097; 34.652Coordinates: 31°05′49″N 34°39′07″E / 31.097°N 34.652°E / 31.097; 34.652
TypeSettlement
History
CulturesNabataean, Roman
Site notes
ConditionIn ruins
Official nameIncense Route - Desert Cities in the Negev (Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta)
TypeCultural
Criteriaiii, v
Designated2005 (29th session)
Reference no.1107
State PartyIsrael
RegionEurope and North America

Contents

NameEdit

In Saadia Gaon's Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch, the biblical town of Gerar is associated with Haluza (Judeo-Arabic: 'אלכ'לוץ = al-Khalūṣ).[1]

The city is called 'Chellous' (Χελλοὺς) in the Greek text of Judith, i, 9. It is also mentioned by Ptolemy[2] as being in Idumaea, Peutinger's Table, Stephanus Byzantius (as being formerly in the province of Arabia Petraea, now in Palaestina Tertia), Jerome,[3] the pilgrim Theodosius, Antoninus of Piacenza, and Joannes Moschus.[4]

Jerome's life of St. Hilarion mentions a great temple of Aphrodite in Elusa in the 4th century.[5] Hilarion is supposed to have introduced Christianity to Elusa in the fourth century.[6]Early in the following century, a Bishop of Elusa, after redeeming the son of Nilus of Sinai, who had been carried off from Mount Sinai by the Arabs, ordained both him and his father.[7] Other bishops known are Theodulus, 431; Aretas, 451; Peter, 518; and Zenobius, 536.[8]

ArchaeologyEdit

The ruins of Halusa are located in a large plain nineteen miles southwest of Beersheba, Israel. Many inscriptions have been found there.[9] In the vicinity, according to the Targums, was the desert of Sur with the well at which the angel found Hagar (Genesis 16:7). (See Revue Biblique, 1906, 597).

In 2014, two archaeological survey-excavations were conducted at Haluza on behalf of the University of Cologne in Germany and Haifa University.[10] Archaeological surveys of the area are partly hampered by the presence of shifting sands. However, Nabataean streets have been found, along with two churches, a theatre, wine press and tower.[11]

 
Isometric view of Elusa Cathedral (East Church), 1980 Dig, Mississippi State University - Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The bishopric of Elusa is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[12]

In March 2019, a team of German and Israeli archaeologists announced the discovery of a 1,700-year-old Greek inscription, bearing the name of the city of Elusa.[13]

By analysing rubbish removed from the city, it has been determined that it underwent a major decline around the middle of the sixth century, about a century before the Islamic conquest.[14] The excavators propose that their findings call for a reevaluation of the settlement history of the Negev region in the late Byzantine period.[14] One possible cause for the crisis is raised as the Late Antique Little Ice Age, a cold snap believed to have been caused by "volcanic winter".[15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rabbi Saadia Gaon's Judeo-Arabic Translation of the Pentateuch (Tafsir), s.v. Genesis 10:19, Genesis 20:2, Genesis 26:17, 20. On Haluza's proximity to Gerar, see: M. Naor, Gerar — Tell el Far'a, Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society (1955), pp. 99–102 (Hebrew)
  2. ^ V:xv:10
  3. ^ In Isaiam V:xv, 4
  4. ^ Pratum Spirituale, clxiv
  5. ^ "Vita Sancti Hilarionis", 25, in Patrologia Latina, XXIII, col.41
  6. ^ Jerome, loc.cit.
  7. ^ Patrologia Graeca LXXIX:373-93
  8. ^ Lequien, Oriens Christianus III, 735
  9. ^ Revue Biblique, 1905, 246-48, 253-55
  10. ^ Israel Antiquities Authority, Excavators and Excavations Permit for Year 2014, Survey Permits # G-67 and # G-69.
  11. ^ The Incense Route (Israel) UNESCO
  12. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 888
  13. ^ "Unique 1,700-year-old Greek inscription unearthed at Incense Route city in Negev". The Times of Israel. 13 March 2019.
  14. ^ a b Guy Bar-Oz and 21 others (2019). "Ancient trash mounds unravel urban collapse a century before the end of Byzantine hegemony in the southern Levant". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900233116.
  15. ^ [1]

External linksEdit