Images of Aboriginal people from a 1914 student textbook.

Half-Caste Act was the common name given to Acts of Parliament passed in Victoria (Half-Caste Act 1886) and Western Australia (Aborigines Protection Act 1886) in 1886.[1] They became the model for legislation to control Aboriginal people throughout Australia, such as the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897 in Queensland.[2]

The Acts allowed the seizure of "half-caste" children (i.e., mixed race children[3]) and their forcible removal from their parents. This was theoretically to provide them with better homes than those afforded by typical Aboriginal people, where they could grow up to work as domestic servants, and also for social engineering.[4][5][6]

The removed children are now known as Stolen Generations.

VictoriaEdit

The Victorian Half-Caste Act 1886 (in full, an Act to amend an Act entitled "An Act to Provide for the Protection and Management of the Aboriginal Natives of Victoria") was an extension and expansion of the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 which gave extensive powers over the lives of Aboriginal people in the colony of Victoria to the Board for the Protection of Aborigines, including regulation of residence, employment and marriage.[7]

In particular, the 1886 Act started to remove Aboriginal people of mixed descent, known as "half-castes", from the Aboriginal reserves to force them to assimilate into European society. These expulsions separated families and communities, causing distress and leading to protest. Nevertheless, the Board refused to assist the expelled people. It was assumed that the expulsions would lead to the decline in the population of the reserves and their eventual closure.

The failure of this policy and its inhumanity led to Victoria's Aborigines Act 1910 and Aboriginal Lands Act 1970, which abandoned this policy.[7]

Western AustraliaEdit

 
Gov. Broome (seated centre) and the last Executive Council before responsible government in Western Australia, c.1890.

The Western Australian Aboriginal Protection Board was established in 1886, with five members and a secretary, all of whom were nominated by the Governor, by the Aborigines Protection Act 1886 (WA), or Half-Caste Act.

The 1886 Act was enacted following the furore over the Fairbairn Report of 1882, which revealed slavery conditions among Aboriginal farm workers, and the work of Rev. John Gribble. The 1886 Act introduced employment contracts between employers and Aboriginal workers over the age of 14. There was no provision in the 1886 Act for contracts to include wages, but employees were to be provided with "substantial, good and sufficient rations", clothing and blankets. The 1886 Act provided a resident magistrate with the power to indenture 'half-caste' and Aboriginal children from a suitable age until they turned 21. An Aboriginal Protection Board, was also established to prevent the abuses reported earlier, but rather than protect Aborigines, it succeeded mainly in putting them under tighter government control. It was intended to enforce contracts, employment of prisoners and apprenticeships, but there was not sufficient power to enforce clauses in the north, and they were openly flouted. The Act defined as "Aboriginal" "every Aboriginal native of Australia, every Aboriginal half-caste, or child of a half-caste". Governor Frederick Broome insisted that the act contain within it a clause permitting traditional owners to continue hunting on their tribal lands.

The effect of the Act was to give increasing power to the Board over Aboriginal people, rather than setting up a system to punish whites for wrongdoing in relation to Aboriginal people. An Aboriginal Department was set up under the office of the Chief Protector of Aborigines. Nearly half of the Legislative Council voted to amend the Act for contract labour as low as 10, but it was defeated. McKenzie Grant, the member for The North, claimed that child labour of 6 or 7 was a necessary commonplace, as "in this way they gradually become domesticated". The Attorney General Septimus Burt, in debate on the second-reading speech, claimed that contracts were being issued not for current work but to hold Aboriginal people as slaves on stations for potential future work to prevent them from being free to leave.

Aboriginal Protection BoardsEdit

Protectors of Aborigines were appointed by the Board under the conditions laid down in the various Acts. In theory, Protectors of Aborigines were empowered to undertake legal proceedings on behalf of Aboriginal people, dictate where Aboriginal people could live or work, and keep all wages earned by employed Aboriginals.

As the Boards had limited funds, Protectors received very limited remuneration and so a range of people were appointed as local Protectors, including Resident Magistrates, Jail Wardens, Justices of the Peace and in some cases ministers of religion, but most were local police inspectors. The minutes of the Board show that they dealt with mostly matters of requests from religious bodies for financial relief and reports from Resident or Police Magistrates pertaining to trials and convictions of Aboriginal people under their jurisdiction.

Aboriginal Protection Boards also issued permits to allow Aboriginals the right to leave their respective missions and enter the mainstream society for a set period of time.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Glossary". abc.net.au. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  2. ^ Kenneth Liberman. The Decline of the Kuwarra People of Australia's Western Desert: A Case Study of Legally Secured Domination. Ethnohistory, Vol. 27, No. 2. (Spring, 1980), pp. 119-133. See page 121 in particular.
  3. ^ Memidex/WordNet
  4. ^ "Aboriginal timeline (1900 - 1969)". Creative Spirits NGO. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  5. ^ Robert van Krieken (June 1999). "The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'". The British Journal of Sociology. 50 (2): 297–315. doi:10.1080/000713199358752. PMID 15260027.
  6. ^ John Hutnyk (2005). "Hybridity" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 28 (1): 79–102. doi:10.1080/0141987042000280021.
  7. ^ a b "Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 (Vic)". Documenting a Democracy. Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 13 February 2020.

Online resourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • A. Grenfell Price. "Australian Native Policy: A Review". Geographical Review, Vol. 34, No. 3. (July 1944), pp. 476–478. Reviewing:
    • Edmund J. B. Foxcroft. Australian Native Policy: Its History, Especially in Victoria
    • Paul Hasluck. Black Australians: A Survey of Native Policy in Western Australia, 1829–1897
    • Norman B. Tindale. Survey of the Half-Caste Problem in South Australia (The Results of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities Anthropological Expedition, 1938–9)