Hakkâri (city)

Hakkâri (Turkish pronunciation: [hacːaːɾi], Kurdish: Colemêrg),[3] formerly known as Julamerk,[4] is a city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey. It is located a few kilometres away from the Iraq–Turkey border. The population of the city at the 2010 census was 57,844.[1]

Hakkâri
Hakkâri is located in Turkey
Hakkâri
Hakkâri
Coordinates: 37°34′35″N 43°44′12″E / 37.57639°N 43.73667°E / 37.57639; 43.73667Coordinates: 37°34′35″N 43°44′12″E / 37.57639°N 43.73667°E / 37.57639; 43.73667
CountryTurkey
ProvinceHakkâri
Government
 • Elected MayorDilek Hatipoğlu (deposed) (BDP)
 • Acting Mayor (Governor of Hakkâri Province)İdris Akbıyık
Area
 • District2,237.19 km2 (863.78 sq mi)
Elevation
1,720 m (5,640 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
58,584
 • District
81,549
 • District density36/km2 (94/sq mi)

EtymologyEdit

Ibn Khallikan wrote in the 13th century that the word Hakkari meant 'belonging to Hakkar', a Kurdish tribe.[5]

HistoryEdit

HubushkiaEdit

Hubushkia was an Iron Age kingdom located between the Urartian and Assyrian sphere of influence. The exact location of Hubushkia is unknown, but scholars suggests that the kingdom of Hubushkia was centred on the headwaters of the Great Zap River, in what is now Hakkâri Province in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.[6][7]

Hakkari kurgan stelaeEdit

Thirteen Kurgan stelae, never before seen in Anatolia or the Near East, were found in 1998 in their original location at the centre of Hakkari. The stelae were carved on upright flagstone-like slabs measuring between 0.7 m to 3.10 m in height. The stones contain only one cut surface, upon which human figures are chiseled. The theme of each stele reveals the foreview of an upper human body. The legs are not represented. Eleven of the stelae depict naked warriors with daggers, spears, and axes—masculine symbols of war. They always hold a drinking vessel made of skin in both hands. Two stelae contain female figures without arms. The stelae may have been carved by different craftsmen using different techniques. Stylistic differences shift from bas relief to a more systematic linearity. The earliest stelae are in the style of bas relief while the latest ones are in a linear style. They were made during a period from the fifteenth century BC to the eleventh century BC in Hakkari. Stelae with this type of relief are not common in the ancient Near East however there are many close parallels between these and those produced by a variety of peoples from the Eurasian steppes between the third millennium BC and the eleventh century AD.[8]

ClimateEdit

Hakkâri is a rare example of a hot-summer, Mediterranean-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa, Trewartha climate classification: Dca). The winters are cold and snowy with an average of −5 °C (23 °F), while summers are hot and dry. The lowest recorded temperature was −22.7 °C (−8.86 °F) on 7 February 1997. The summer are hot and dry with an average of 25 °C (76 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 37 °C (98.6 °F) on 2 August 1991.

Climate data for Hakkâri (1991–2020, extremes 1961–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
19.7
(67.5)
25.0
(77.0)
28.7
(83.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
37.1
(98.8)
29.3
(84.7)
20.8
(69.4)
17.5
(63.5)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
1.3
(34.3)
7.0
(44.6)
13.2
(55.8)
19.6
(67.3)
26.3
(79.3)
31.1
(88.0)
31.5
(88.7)
26.7
(80.1)
19.0
(66.2)
10.0
(50.0)
2.5
(36.5)
15.6
(60.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
2.7
(36.9)
8.6
(47.5)
14.4
(57.9)
20.5
(68.9)
25.0
(77.0)
25.2
(77.4)
20.7
(69.3)
13.6
(56.5)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
10.7
(51.3)
Average low °C (°F) −7.5
(18.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.6
(49.3)
14.7
(58.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
14.5
(58.1)
8.3
(46.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −23.4
(−10.1)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
5.0
(41.0)
10.0
(50.0)
9.7
(49.5)
4.3
(39.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−15.0
(5.0)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−23.4
(−10.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90.8
(3.57)
102.3
(4.03)
119.2
(4.69)
119.0
(4.69)
68.9
(2.71)
14.5
(0.57)
9.3
(0.37)
5.4
(0.21)
10.9
(0.43)
56.2
(2.21)
77.8
(3.06)
102.7
(4.04)
777.0
(30.59)
Average precipitation days 10.27 10.13 12.83 13.03 12.60 4.27 2.00 1.27 2.40 8.70 8.63 10.40 96.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 146.9 179.8 198.0 266.6 345.0 368.9 347.2 294.0 223.2 159.0 114.7 2,764.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.9 5.2 5.8 6.6 8.6 11.5 11.9 11.2 9.8 7.2 5.3 3.7 7.6
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[9]

SportEdit

The women's football club Hakkarigücü Spor was promoted to the Women's First League to take part in the 2018–19 season after finishing the 2017–18 Second League season as runners-up.[10]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 55. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ Coakley, James F. "Hakkari". Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  5. ^ Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary. Vol. 1. Translated by de Slane, William McGuckin. Paris. 1843. p. 286.
  6. ^ Veli Sevin, Mystery Stelae, Archaeology, Volume 53 Number 4, (July/August 2000).
  7. ^ Oscar White Muscarella (7 June 2013). Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the Ancient Near East: Sites, Cultures, and Proveniences. BRILL. pp. 385–. ISBN 978-90-04-23669-1.
  8. ^ Mystery Stelae. Archaeology.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-11.
  9. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Hakkarigücü Spor Kadın Futbol takımı sena hazırlanıyor". Habertürk (in Turkish). 20 August 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.

External linksEdit