(by ancestry, 2016 Census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mostly Quebec, with smaller populations in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia|
|Predominantly Roman Catholicism and Protestantism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Haitians, French Canadians, Black Canadians, Haitian Americans|
Citizens from the Francophone Caribbean island nation of Haiti began immigrating to Canada in the 1960s, settling predominantly in Montreal and other parts of Quebec. Though their reasons for leaving Haiti were manifold, their choice to settle in Quebec is mainly due to their fluency in French. The Canada 2016 Census showed a total population of around 200,000 Haitian-Canadians residing in Canada, an increase of 35,565 respondents who identified themselves as Haitian Canadians compared with the Canada 2006 Census, which showed a total population of 102,430 respondents. Of this total, 97% resided in Quebec.
Haitian Migration to QuebecEdit
Immigration from Haiti to Quebec started in 1963. Haitian settlement in the Quebec municipality Montreal increased about 40% between the late 1960's and the early 1970's, rising from 55.1% in 1968 to 92.9% in 1973. The increase in settlement within Montreal coincided with an increase in the number of high school educated immigrants; the percentage of immigrants that finished the eleventh grade of high school increased alongside the growth of Haitian transplants in Montreal. Additionally, 30% of the Haitian immigrant population settled in various towns in Quebec between the years of 1968-1970, such as Trois Rivières and Sherbrooke; immigration to these areas, as well as Montreal was based on the abundance of French spoken. There were numerous shifts in the job occupations of Haitian immigrants after settling in Quebec. The statistics for intended employment among immigrants reveal that the demand for “technical, liberal, or administrative Profession[s]” decreased among Haitian immigrants between 1973 and 1974, falling from 45.9% to 32.1%; however, interest from Haitian immigrants in the industrial sector increased from 52.1% to 63.2% in the same one year time span. The dynamic of Haitian women is integral in understanding Haitian migration through the difference in male/female immigration. During the five year span of 1968 to 1973, there was an incrementally larger number of female Haitian immigrants to Quebec than their male counterparts; statistics show that female immigrants made up 52.2% of the Quebec Haitian population, while male immigrants made up 47.7%. Immigration data from 1968 shows that Haiti placed fifteenth in overall origin countries outputting migrants to Quebec; in addition, Haiti had 1.6% of the total immigration percentage of Quebec in 1968. In the span of five years, Haiti became the 2nd overall source country for Quebec immigration, possessing 8.4% of the total immigration percentage of Quebec in 1973.
The impact of Nationalism and Political Tension in Haiti on ImmigrationEdit
The migration of Haitian immigrants between 1969 and 1974 can be understood through the political institutions in place within Haiti at the time. Haiti was governed by way of a dictatorship, led by Francois Duvalier. Duvalier had been contested by the left-leaning United Party of Haitian Communits, who failed in resisting Duvalier’s authoritarian regime. Duvalier’s death and the subsequent succession of his son Jean-Claude Duvalier led to the notion of “patriotic action”, a declaration of nationalism directed towards Haitian Canadian and Haitian American immigrants, as well as a call to action in assisting their Haitian brethren. Haitian Canadians joined forces with their home country brethren in some cases to assist in the "“resolution of the Haitian crisis” and to attempt to establish greater leftist political power. The idea of “patriotic action” finalized with the potential deportation faced by around 700 Haitian Canadians from 1972 to 1973. These Haitian Québécois joined forces under a protest movement in regards to their rights as citizens; these protests were organized by the Christian community of Haitians of Montreal.
Of all migrant travels from Haiti, 95% of immigrants travel to Quebec; of that population, 95% take up residence in Montreal. In other provinces within Canada, Haitian migrants are shown to possess unique identities; in particular, studies from 2005 show that Haitian immigrants to Ontario are seen as "double minorities", in part for living in a province where English is the primary language. In addition, the Haitian Ontarian "double minority" status is seen through the linguistic discrimination Haitian migrants face by way of their English-speaking counterparts, as well as through institutional racism perpetuated by the government.
|Number of Haitian nationals granted permanent residence in Canada by year|
|Year||Number of Haitian nationals admitted||Total number of permanent residents admitted||Proportion of permanent residents admitted|
Notable Haitian CanadiansEdit
- 2006 Canada Census: Ethnic Origin (National)
- 2011 Canada Census: Quebec Ethnic Origin
- Jadotte, Herard (June 1977). "Haitian Immigration to Quebec". Journal of Black Studies. 7 (4): 485–500. doi:10.1177/002193477700700407. JSTOR 2783949.
- Thérien, Jean-Phillipe; Mace, Gordon (Summer 2013). "Identity and Foreign Polity: Canada as a Nation of the Americas". Latin American Politics and Society. 55 (2): 150–168. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2013.00197.x. JSTOR 43286320.
- Duguay, Annie Laurie (June 2012). ""The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning". TESOL Quarterly. 46 (2): 306–333. doi:10.1002/tesq.23. JSTOR 41576049.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. Retrieved 2013-01-10.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), Facts and figures 2011 — Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents — Permanent residents