A hagioscope (from Gr. άγιος, holy, and σκοπεῖν, to see) or squint is an architectural term denoting a small splayed opening or tunnel at seated eye-level, through an internal masonry dividing wall of a church in an oblique direction (south-east or north-east), giving worshippers a view of the altar and therefore of the elevation of the host. Where worshippers were separated from the high altar not by a solid wall of masonry but by a transparent parclose screen, a hagioscope was not required as a good view of the high altar was available to all within the sectioned-off area concerned. Where a squint was made in an external wall so that lepers and other non-desirables could see the service without coming into contact with the rest of the populace, they are termed leper windows or lychnoscopes.
Where the congregation of a church is united in the nave there is no use for a hagioscope. However, when parts of the congregation separated themselves for purposes of social distinction, by use of walls or other screens from the chancel, or nave, and from the main congregation, such a need arose. In medieval architecture hagioscopes were often a low window in the chancel wall and were frequently protected by either a wooden shutter or iron bars. Hagioscopes are found on one or both sides of the chancel arch; in some cases a series of openings has been cut in the walls in an oblique line to enable a person standing in the porch (as in Bridgwater church, Somerset) to see the altar; in this case and in other instances such openings were sometimes provided for an attendant, who had to ring the Sanctus bell when the Host was elevated.
Though rarely encountered in continental Europe, they are occasionally found to serve such purposes as allowing a monk in one of the vestries to follow the service and to communicate with the bell-ringers. Sometimes squints were placed to enable nuns to observe the services without having to give up their isolation. The unusual design of the church of St Helen's in Bishopsgate, one of the largest surviving ancient churches of London, arose from its once having been two separate places of worship: a 13th-century parish church and the chapel of a Benedictine convent. On the convent side of St Helen's Church, a "squint" allowed the nuns to observe the parish masses; church records show that the squint in this case was not enough to restrain the nuns, who were eventually admonished to "abstain from kissing secular persons", a practice to which it seems they had become "too prone".
There is only one hagioscope in Finland, at Olavinlinna (St. Olaf's Castle), in the town of Savonlinna. Here, the squint has enabled some congregants to continue gathering at the dark, damp stone church tower through the dead of winter, despite forbidding temperatures and weather conditions.
In France, the hagioscope of Notre-Dame in Dives-sur-Mer, Normandy, has the inscription trou aux lépreux (leper window). Other hagioscopes are known at St. Laurent in Deauville, Normandy and at the old church of St. Maurice in Freyming-Merlebach, Lorraine.
In Germany, a number of hagioscopes still exist or were rediscovered in the 19th and 20th century. They are found mainly in Lower Saxony which had a small population in the Middle Ages and only a few bigger cities. In cities lepers lived together in housing estates which often had their own chapels. In Georgsmarienhütte the hagioscope of church St. Johann belonged to the former Benedictine convent Kloster Oesede, founded in the 12th century and reconstructed in the early 1980s. Nearby in Bad Iburg a hagioscope was rediscovered at St. Clemens, church of former Benedictine monastery in the castle and monastery complex Schloss Iburg. Other hagioscopes in Lower Saxony are found in Bokelesch, Westoverledingen, Dornum, Midlum, Kirchwahlingen (Gemeinde Böhme) and Hankensbüttel.
In Northrhine-Westphalia, St. Antonius-Kapelle in Gescher-Tungerloh-Capellen has a hagioscope. St. Antonius is used as Autobahn chapel at Bundesautobahn 31. Another hagioscope is found in St. Ulricus in Börninghausen. In Rhineland-Palatinate the church of St. Eligius-Hospital in Neuerburg has a hagioscope. In Baden-Württemberg there is a hagioscope in St. Peter und Paul, the Old Cemetery Church of Nusplingen.
- A leper's squint (now blocked up) is visible at St Mary's Cathedral, Limerick.
- Athenry Priory also once had a leper's squint
- Furness Church, 13th century Norman church near Naas
- St Mary's Church, Inis Cealtra has a stone opening believed to be a leper's squint
In Sweden, Bro Church near Visby on Gotland has a cross-shaped hagioscope. Another church on Gotland with a hagioscope is Atlingbo Church. Other hagioscopes are at the church of Vreta Abbey near Linköping, Granhult Kyrka in Uppvidinge and Husaby Kyrka in Götene. The wooden church in Granhult (Småland) has a hagioscope which can be closed.
Churches in England with hagioscopes include:
- St James' in Great Ormside, Cumbria
- St Bees Priory, St Bees, Cumbria (now infilled)
- St Mary's Bridge Chapel, Derby
- St Mary's, Lytchett Matravers, Dorset (a particularly large example)
- St Mary the Virgin & St Chad, Brewood
- St Martin's Church in Wareham, Dorset
- St Mary and St Cuthbert, Chester-le-Street, Durham
- St Mary’s Church, Easington, County Durham
- St Nicholas' Church, Berden, Essex
- St. Laurence and All Saints Church, Eastwood, Essex
- Church of St Mary the Virgin, Gamlingay, Cambridgeshire
- St Andrew and St Bartholomew's Church, Ashleworth, Gloucestershire.
- St Nicholas Church, Westgate Street, Gloucester, Gloucestershire
- Church of the Holy Rood, Holybourne, Hampshire
- St Cuthbert's Church, Aldingham, Lancashire
- St James' The Less, Sulgrave, Northamptonshire.
- St Mary's Church, Grendon, Northamptonshire (see picture in Gallery)
- St Cuthbert’s Church, Beltingham, Northumberland
- St Aidan, Bamburgh, Northumberland
- Church of St Andrew, Grinton
- St Oswald's Church, Sowerby, North Yorkshire
- Holy Trinity Church, Goodramate, York, North Yorkshire
- St Peter's in Upton, Nottinghamshire
- St Nicholas' Church, Old Marston, Oxfordshire
- Orford Castle's chapel, Suffolk
- The Church of St. James, Shere, Surrey
- St Nicholas' Church, Kenilworth, Warwickshire
- St Nicholas Church, Walcot, Lincolnshire
- Holy Trinity Church in Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire
- St Egwin's, Norton and Lenchwick, Worcestershire (now infilled)
- St Mary's Church, Whitby
- St Cuthbert's, Halsall, Lancashire has six purposeful squints or hagioscopes including a double in the chancel arch and a remarkable triple hagioscope which was built for exclusive viewing of the Easter Sepulchre during Holy Week.
St Wilfrid’s church, Ribchester, Lancashire has a squint on the north side permitting the high altar to be viewed from outside the church.
At St Bees Priory a purpose-built squint was included in the wall of the 14th-century chapel to give a view of the high altar. The window was low enough to allow a person to kneel whilst looking through the aperture. The hagioscope at St Mary the Virgin, Lytchett Matravers, is unusually large; although unknown in origin it provides a view to the communion table from the 16th-century north aisle. It is large enough that it is often used as a corridor for access to the chancel.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hagioscope". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 817.
- Kettler, Sarah; Trimble, Carole (2001). The Amateur Historian's Guide to Medieval and Tudor London, 1066-1600. Capital Books. p. 113. ISBN 1892123320.
- Hicks, M., Landscapes of Finland (Helsinki: Otava, 2003), p. 117.
- Kuyper, W., The Triumphant Entry of Renaissance Architecture Into the Netherlands (Alphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto, 1994), pp. 141–142.
- Great Ormside - St James' Church Archived 2010-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
- [St Mary's church website|http://www.stmarys-lytchett.org.uk/page6.html[permanent dead link] StMary's Website]
- "St Mary and St Cuthbert, Ankers House".
- "LEPER'S SQUINT?". Archived from the original on 2005-01-02. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "History Part Two". St Laurence & All Saints, Eastwood, Essex. 2010. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "The hagioscope". St Laurence & All Saints, Eastwood Church. Essex churches. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- Gamlingay - British History Online
- St Andrew and St Bartholomew Church
- Church of The Holy Rood The Holybourne Village Magazine Spring Issue 2009
- What is it? A leper's squint
- THE CHURCH OF ST. JAMES THE LESS, SULGRAVE
- Ridley, Nancy (1966). Portrait of Northumberland. London: Robert Hale. pp. 66–67.
- History of St Oswald and St Oswald's Church, Sowerby
- MR. HARRY GILL Upton (part 1)
- "Church of St Nicholas, Elsfield Road, Old Marston". Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- "St Nicholas & St Barnabas Churches Kenilworth". Archived from the original on 2008-05-30. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hagioscopes.|