Hackney carriage

A hackney or hackney carriage (also called a cab, black cab, hack or London taxi) is a carriage or car for hire.[1] A hackney of a more expensive or high class was called a remise.[2]

LTI TX2 cab
LTI FX4 cab
The Beardmore was an alternative taxi design used in London during the 1960s and 1970s.
Until the late 1950s, vehicles licensed as London taxis were required to be provided with an open-access luggage platform in place of the front passenger seat found on other passenger cars (including taxis licensed for use in other British cities).

In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage today refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office, local authority (non-metropolitan district councils, unitary authorities) or the Department of the Environment depending on region of the country.[citation needed]

In the United States, the police department of the city of Boston has a Hackney Carriage Unit, analogous to taxicab regulators in other cities, that issues Hackney Carriage medallions to its taxi operators.[3]


The origins of the word hackney in connection with horses and carriages are very mixed. The London borough of Hackney, to which the name of the carriage and the horse is often attributed claims that its name comes from the old English 'Haken's Island, anarchy area near the River Lea. The American Hackney Horse Society (the Hackney Horse being distinct breed of carriage horse) says that the name comes from the French word Hacquenee, which is derived from the Latin word for horse, Equus and was brought to England following the Norman Conquest and became fully assimilated into the English language by the start of the 14th century. It became associated with an ambling horse, usually for hire. Is the name derived from the former village of Hackney, Middlesex (now absorbed into London)? Whether Hackney supplied horses from its surrounding meadows.[4] The word was once thought to be an anglicized derivative of French haquenée—a horse of medium size recommended for lady riders.[5]

The place-name, through its fame for its horses and horse-drawn carriages, is also the root of the Spanish word jaca, a term used for a small breed of horse[6] and the Sardinian achetta horse. The first documented hackney coach—the name later extended to the newer and smaller carriages—operated in London in 1621.

The New York City colloquial terms "hack" (taxi or taxi-driver), hackstand (taxi stand), and hack license (taxi licence) are probably derived from hackney carriage. Such cabs are now regulated by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.[citation needed]


"An Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent" was approved by Parliament in 1654, to remedy what it described as the "many Inconveniences [that] do daily arise by reason of the late increase and great irregularity of Hackney Coaches and Hackney Coachmen in London, Westminster and the places thereabouts".[7] The first hackney-carriage licences date from a 1662 Act of Parliament establishing the Commissioners of Scotland Yard to regulate them. Licences applied literally to horse-drawn carriages, later modernised as hansom cabs (1834), that operated as vehicles for hire. The 1662 act limited the licences to 400; when it expired in 1679, extra licences were created until a 1694 act imposed a limit of 700,[8] which was increased by later acts and abolished in 1832.[9]

There was a distinction between a general hackney carriage and a hackney coach, a hireable vehicle with specifically four wheels, two horses and six seats, and driven by a Jarvey (also spelled jarvie).

In 19th century London, private carriages were commonly sold off for use as hackney carriages, often displaying painted-over traces of the previous owner's coat of arms on the doors.

London growler circa 1900

The Clarence or growler was a type of four-wheel, enclosed carriage drawn by two horses[10] used as a hackney carriage, that is, as a vehicle for hire with a coachman. It is distinguished from a cab, hansom cab or cabriolet, in that those had only two wheels. It is distinguished from most coaches by being of slightly smaller size, nominally holding four passengers,[11] and being much less ostentatious.

A small, usually two-wheeled, one-horse hackney vehicle called a noddy once plied the roads in Ireland and Scotland. The French had a small hackney coach called a fiacre.


Electric hackney carriages appeared before the introduction of the internal combustion engine to vehicles for hire in 1897. In fact there was even London Electrical Cab Company: the cabs were informally called Berseys after the manager who designed them, Walter Bersey. Another nickname was Hummingbirds from the sound that they made.[12] In August 1897, 25 were introduced, and by 1898, there were 50 more. During the early 20th century, cars generally replaced horse-drawn models. In 1910, the number of motor cabs on London streets outnumbered horse-drawn growlers and hansoms for the first time. At the time of the outbreak of World War I, the ratio was seven to one in favor of motorized cabs.[13] The last horse-drawn hackney carriage ceased service in London in 1947.[citation needed]

UK regulations define a hackney carriage as a taxicab allowed to ply the streets looking for passengers to pick up, as opposed to private hire vehicles (sometimes called minicabs), which may pick up only passengers who have previously booked or who visit the taxi operator's office. In 1999, the first of a series of fuel cell powered taxis were tried out in London. The "Millennium Cab" built by ZeTek gained television coverage and great interest when driven in the Sheraton Hotel ballroom in New York by Judd Hirsch, the star of the television series Taxi. ZeTek built three cabs but ceased activities in 2001.[citation needed]

Continuing horse-drawn cab servicesEdit

Horse-drawn hackney services continue to operate in parts of the UK, for example in Cockington, Torquay.[14] The town of Windsor, Berkshire, is believed to be the last remaining town with a continuous lineage of horse-drawn hackney carriages, currently run by Orchard Poyle Carriages, the licence having been passed down from driver to driver since 1830.

The Royal Borough now licences the carriage for rides around Windsor Castle and the Great Park; however, the original hackney licence is in place, allowing for passenger travel under the same law that was originally passed in 1662. The city of Bath has an occasional horse-drawn Hackney, principally for tourists, but still carrying hackney plates.

Black cabsEdit

Illuminated for hire signage is a distinguishing feature of the hackney carriage
A TX4 hackney carriage at Heathrow Airport Terminal 5

Though there has never been law requiring London's taxis to be black, they were, since the end of the Second World War, sold in a standard colour of black. This, in the 1970s gave rise within the minicab trade to the nickname 'black cab' and it has become common currency. However, before Second World War, London's cabs were seen in a variety of colours. They are produced in a variety of colours, sometimes in advertising brand liveries (see below). Fifty golden cabs were produced for the Queen's Golden Jubilee celebrations in 2002.[15]

Vehicle designEdit

In Edwardian times, French-manufactured automobiles represented the overwhelming majority of London's motor cab trade, with Renault and Unic being the most common. Not only Renault and Unic, but also smaller players like Charron and Darracq were to be found.[13] Fiat was also a presence, with their importer d'Arcy Baker running a fleet of 400 cars of the brand. In the 1920s, Beardmore cabs were introduced and became for a while the most popular. They were nicknamed 'the Rolls-Royce of cabs' for their comfort and robustness. The American Yellow Cabs also appeared, though only in small numbers. Maxwell Monson introduced Citroën cabs, which were cheaper, but crude in comparison to the Beardmore. In 1930 dealers Mann and Overton struck a deal with the Austin to bring modified version of the Austin 12/4 car to the London taxi market. This established the Austin make as dominant until the end of the 1970s and Mann and Overton until 2012. Morrises cabs were also seen, in small numbers, but after the Second World War, produced the Oxford, made by Wolseleys, [13]

Outside of London, the regulations governing the hackney cab trade are different. Four-door saloon cars have been highly popular as hackney carriages, but with disability regulations growing in strength and some councils offering free licensing for disabled-friendly vehicles, many operators are now opting for wheelchair-adapted taxis such as the LEVC TX of London Electric Vehicle Company (LEVC). London taxis have broad rear doors that open very wide (or slide), and an electrically controlled ramp that is extended for access.[16] Other models of specialist taxis include the Peugeot E7 and rivals from Fiat, Ford, Volkswagen, and Mercedes-Benz. These vehicles normally allow six or seven passengers, although some models can accommodate eight. Some of these minibus taxis include a front passenger seat next to the driver, while others reserve this space solely for luggage.

London taxis must have a turning circle not greater than 8.535 m (28 ft). One reason for this is the configuration of the famed Savoy Hotel: the hotel entrance's small roundabout meant that vehicles needed the small turning circle in order to navigate it. That requirement became the legally required turning circles for all London cabs, while the custom of a passenger's sitting on the right, behind the driver, provided a reason for the right-hand traffic in Savoy Court, allowing hotel patrons to board and alight from the driver's side.[17]

The design standards for London taxis are set out in the Conditions of Fitness, which are now published by Transport for London. The first edition was published in May 1906, by the Public Carriage Office, which was then part of the Metropolitan Police. These regulations set out the conditions under which a taxi may operate and have been updated over the years to keep pace with motor car development and legislation. Changes include regulating the taximeter (made compulsory in 1907), advertisements and the turning circle of 8.535 m (28 ft).[12][18] Until the beginning of the 1980s, London Taxis were not allowed to carry any advertisements.[13]

As part of the Transported by Design programme of activities,[19] on 15 October 2015, after two months of public voting, the black cab was elected by Londoners as their favourite transport design icon.[20][21]

Driver qualificationEdit

In London, hackney-carriage drivers have to pass a test called The Knowledge to demonstrate that they have an intimate knowledge of the geography of London streets, important buildings, etc. Learning The Knowledge allows the driver to become a member of the Worshipful Company of Hackney Carriage Drivers. There are two types of badge, a yellow one for the suburban areas and a green one for all of London. The latter is considered far more difficult. Drivers who own their cabs as opposed to renting from a garage are known as "mushers" and those who have just passed the "knowledge" are known as "butter boys".[22] There are currently around 21,000 black cabs in London, licensed by the Public Carriage Office.[23]

Elsewhere, councils have their own regulations. Some merely require a driver to pass a DBS disclosure and have a reasonably clean driving licence, while others use their own local versions of London's The Knowledge test.[citation needed]

Notable driversEdit

  • Alfred Collins, who retired in 2007 at the age of 92, was the oldest cab driver and had been driving for 70 years.[24]
  • Fred Housego is a former London taxi driver who became a television and radio personality and presenter after winning the BBC television quiz Mastermind in 1980.[25][26]
  • Clive Efford, Labour MP for the London constituency of Eltham, was a cab driver for 10 years before entering parliament in 1997.
  • John Worboys is a convicted serial rapist, known as the Black Cab Rapist because he drove a Fairview London cab. He was convicted in March 2009 for attacks on 12 women.[27]

Private usersEdit

Oil millionaire Nubar Gulbenkian owned an Austin FX3 Brougham Sedanca taxi, with custom coachwork by FLM Panelcraft Ltd as he was quoted "because it turns on a sixpence whatever that is."[28] Gulbenkian had two such taxis built, the second of which was built on an FX4 chassis and was sold at auction by Bonhams for $39,600 in 2015.[29] Other celebrities are known to have used hackney carriages both for their anonymity and their ruggedness and manoeuvrability in London traffic. Users included Prince Philip, whose cab was converted to run on liquefied petroleum gas,[30] author and actor Stephen Fry,[31] and the Sheriffs of the City of London. A black cab was used in the band Oasis's video for the song "Don't Look Back in Anger." Black cabs were used as recording studios for indie band performances and other performances in the Black Cab Sessions internet project.

Ghosthunting With... featured a black cab owned by host of the show, Yvette Fielding. Bez of the Happy Mondays owns one, shown on the UK edition of Pimp My Ride. Noel Edmonds used a black cab to commute from his home to the Deal or No Deal studios in Bristol. He placed a dressed mannequin in the back so that he could use special bus/taxi lanes, and so that people would not attempt to hail his cab.[32]

The official car of the Governor of the Falkland Islands between 1976 and 2010 was a London taxi.[33]

In other countriesEdit

A London taxi (TXII model) in Switzerland

Between 2003 and 1 August 2009 the London taxi model TXII could be purchased in the United States.[34] Today there are approximately 250 TXIIs in the US, operating as taxis in San Francisco, Dallas, Long Beach, Houston, New Orleans, Las Vegas, Newport, Rhode Island, Wilmington, North Carolina and Portland, Oregon. There are also a few operating in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The largest London taxi rental fleet in North America is in Wilmington, owned by The British Taxi Company. There are London cabs in Saudi Arabia, Romania, South Africa, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain and Cyprus, and in Israel, where a Chinese-made version of LTI's model TX4 built by Geely Automobile is available. In February 2010, a number of TX4s started operating in Pristina, the capital of Kosovo, and are known as London Taxi.[35]

A London taxi (TX4 model) in Singapore

Singapore has used London-style cabs since 1992; starting with the "Fairway". The flag-down fares for the London Taxis are the same as for other taxis. SMRT Corporation, the sole operator, had by March 2013 replaced its fleet of 15 ageing multi-coloured (gold, pink, etc.) taxis with new white ones. They are the only wheelchair-accessible taxis in Singapore, and were brought back following an outcry after the removal of the service.[citation needed]

By 2011 a thousand of a Chinese-made version of LTI's latest model, TX4, had been ordered by Baku Taxi Company. The plan is part of a program originally announced by Azerbaijan's Ministry of Transportation to introduce London cabs to the capital, Baku.[36][37] The move was part of a £16 million agreement between the London Taxi Company and Baku Taxi Company.[38][39]

Variety of modelsEdit

There have been different makes and types of hackney cab through the years,[40] including:

Use in advertisingEdit

The unique body of the London taxi is occasionally wrapped with all-over advertising, known as a "livery".[citation needed]

In October 2011 the company Eyetease Ltd. introduced digital screens on the roofs of London taxis for dynamically changing location-specific advertising.[42]


On 14 December 2010 Mayor of London Boris Johnson released an air quality strategy paper encouraging phasing out of the oldest of the LT cabs, and proposing a £1m fund to encourage taxi owners to upgrade to low-emission, such as electric, vehicles. On the same day Secretary of State for Transport Philip Hammond unveiled the £5,000 electric car subsidy.[citation needed]

In October 2019 the first fully electric cab since the Bersey in 1897,[43][44] the Dynamo, was launched with an 187-mile range and with the bodywork based on Nissan's NV200 platform.[45]

In the longer term, black cabs are predicted to be largely automated and driver-less.[46]

Digital hailingEdit

2011 saw the launch of many digital hailing applications for hackney carriages that operate through smartphones, including GetTaxi and Hailo. Many of these applications also facilitate payment and tracking of the taxicabs.[citation needed]

United Kingdom lawEdit

Laws about the definition, licensing and operation of hackney carriages have a long history.[47] The most significant pieces of legislation by region are:

  • In England and Wales: the Town Police Clauses Act 1847, and the Local Government (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976. In Wales, responsibility for licensing is now devolved to the National Assembly for Wales. In September 2017, a consultation started about the future of such licensing.
  • In London: the Metropolitan Public Carriage Act 1869 and the London Cab Order 1934.
  • In Scotland: the Civic Government (Scotland) Act 1982.
  • In Northern Ireland: the Taxis Act (Northern Ireland) 2008[47]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Definition of "hackney"". Onlinedictionary.datasegment.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  2. ^ "Definition of remise by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Boston Police Hackney Carriage Unit". Cityofboston.gov. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  4. ^ ' may be considered doubtful: the area was marshy, which was not the best type of ground for keeping horses. 'Oxford English Dictionary online pay site accessed 18 April 2018
  5. ^ "The history of the word "Hackney"". Worldwidewords.org. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  6. ^ TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=jaca "DICCIONARIO DE LA LENGUA ESPAÑOLA" Check |url= value (help). REAL ACADEMIA ESPAÑOLA. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  7. ^ An Ordinance for the Regulation of Hackney-Coachmen in London and the places adjacent, June 1654, british-history.ac.uk; accessed 26 May 2017.
  8. ^ "William and Mary, 1694: An Act for the lycenseing and regulateing Hackney-Coaches and Stage-Coaches [Chapter XXII Rot. Parl. pt. 5. nu. 2.]". Statutes of the Realm: Volume 6, 1685-94. Great Britain Record Commission. 1819. pp. 502–505. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  9. ^ "The Omnibuses of London". The Gentleman's Magazine. R. Newton: 663. December 1857.
  10. ^ Busch, Noel F. (1947) "Life's Reports: Restful Days in Dublin" " Life Magazine 15 September 1947 page 9, includes a photograph of a growler.
  11. ^ Knox, Thomas Wallace (1888) The pocket guide for Europe: hand-book for travellers on the Continent and the British Isles, and through Egypt, Palestine, and northern Africa G. Putnam, New York, page 34, OCLC 28649833
  12. ^ a b "Taxi History - London Vintage Taxi Association". lvta.co.uk. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  13. ^ a b c d Lord Montagu of Beaulieu (1982-06-05). "London's Taxis". Autocar. Vol. 156 no. 4459. IPC Business Press Ltd. p. 42.
  14. ^ "Cockington Carriages plan for the future - Cockington Court". www.cockingtoncourt.org.
  15. ^ Golden times for black cabs, bbc.co.uk, 13 March 2002
  16. ^ "London Wheelchair Taxis with Ramps". Wheelchair Travel. 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  17. ^ "Why does traffic entering and leaving the Savoy Hotel in London drive on the right?". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  18. ^ "Construction and Licensing of Motor Taxis for Use in London: Conditions of Fitness, as updated 17 September 2019" (PDF). Transport for London: Public Carriage Office. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Transported by Design". Archived from the original on April 17, 2016.
  20. ^ London’s transport ‘Design Icons’ announced, ltmuseum.co.uk; accessed 26 May 2017.
  21. ^ Transported By Design: Vote for your favourite part of London transport, timeout.com; accessed 26 May 2017.
  22. ^ The history of London's black cabs, theguardian.com, 9 December 2012.
  23. ^ About the Public Carriage Office, "Taxi and Private Hire Vehicle Statistics, England: 2018" (PDF). p. 2.
  24. ^ Longest serving cabbie honoured, bbc.co.uk; accessed 26 May 2017.
  25. ^ de Garis, Kirsty (9 February 2003). "What happened next?". The Observer. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  26. ^ "Take our Mastermind quiz". BBC News. 7 July 2003. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  27. ^ "Cab driver guilty of sex attacks". BBC News. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  28. ^ The sixpence was the smallest coin in circulation, so the phrase was a hyperbole meaning that it had a tight turning radius.
  29. ^ "Bonhams The millionairee Paul Mellon wants to buy Gulbenkian's FX3, but Gulbenkian would not sell, but did allow Mellon to have replica built. This was also constructed by FLM Panelcraft, but on an FX4 chassis and was fitted with an American Ford 6-cylinder engine and automatic gearbox, as Mellon kept it in the USA: The ex-Nubar Gulbenkian,1960 AUSTIN FX4 BROUGHAM SEDANCA Chassis no. FX4AT033U010". www.bonhams.com.
  30. ^ "Prince Philip's taxi". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  31. ^ Stephen Fry in America, stephenfry.com, 10 October 2008.
  32. ^ "Noel Edmonds dodged traffic by illegally driving a taxi in Bristol". motor1.com. 2018-11-30. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
  33. ^ "Rex Hunt, Governor of the Falkland Islands". Imperial War Museum. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  34. ^ "London-Fleet.com is for sale". HugeDomains.
  35. ^ Ben-Gedalyahu, Dubi (18 August 2009). "Eldan to sell Chinese 'London taxi'". Globes. Tel Aviv. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
  36. ^ Meidment, Neil. "Manganese Bronze seals biggest London taxi order". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  37. ^ Jaglom, Ben. "Manganese takes black cab to Azerbaijan". Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  38. ^ "1,000 London taxis for Azerbaijan". Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  39. ^ "British firm wins £16m Azerbaijan order for its Chinese built taxis". Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  40. ^ "Taxicab Make And Model History". London-taxi.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012.
  41. ^ "London Black-Cab Crisis Opens Road to Mercedes Minivans". Bloomberg. 3 December 2012.
  42. ^ Mark Prigg (11 October 2011). "The video screen coming to a cab near you". ThisIsLondon. London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  43. ^ Says, Alan Brown. "The Surprisingly Old Story Of London's First Ever Electric Taxi". Science Museum Blog.
  44. ^ "First 100% electric black cab for 120 years launches in London". The Guardian. October 23, 2019.
  45. ^ "Electric London black cab launches with 187-mile range | Autocar". www.autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  46. ^ "Thinking of doing The Knowledge? You may want to think again". Onega.net. 15 November 2016.
  47. ^ a b Butcher, Louise (2018). "Taxi and private hire vehicle licensing in England. House of Commons Briefing Paper CBP 2005" (PDF). Parliament. Retrieved 19 May 2018.

External linksEdit