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HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based media streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software. It resembles MPEG-DASH in that it works by breaking the overall stream into a sequence of small HTTP-based file downloads, each download loading one short chunk of an overall potentially unbounded transport stream. As the stream is played, the client may select from a number of different alternate streams containing the same material encoded at a variety of data rates, allowing the streaming session to adapt to the available data rate. At the start of the streaming session, HLS downloads an extended M3U playlist containing the metadata for the various sub-streams that are available.[2]

HTTP Live Streaming playlist
Filename extension .m3u8
Internet media type application/[1]
Developed by Apple Inc.
Initial release May 2009
Extended from extended M3U

Since its requests use only standard HTTP transactions, HTTP Live Streaming can traverse any firewall or proxy server that lets through standard HTTP traffic, unlike UDP-based protocols such as RTP. This also allows content to be offered from conventional HTTP servers as origin and delivered over widely available HTTP-based content delivery networks.[3]

HLS also specifies a standard encryption mechanism[4], using AES and a method of secure-key distribution using HTTPS with either a device-specific realm login or HTTP cookie, which together provide a simple DRM system. Later versions of the protocol also provide for trick-mode fast-forward and rewind and for integration of subtitles. upLynk has also added the AES scrambling and base-64 encoding of the DRM content-key with a 128-bit device-specific key for registered commercial SWF applications together with a sequential initialization Vector for each chunk to its implementation of the standard.[5]

Apple has documented HTTP Live Streaming as an Internet Draft (Individual Submission), the first stage in the process of publishing it as a Request for Comments (RFC). As of December 2015, the authors of that document have requested the RFC Independent Stream Editor (ISE) to publish the document as an informational (non-standard) RFC outside of the IETF consensus process.[6] August 2017, RFC8216 was published to describe version 7 of the protocol.[7]



HTTP Live Streaming uses a conventional web server to distribute audiovisual content and requires specific software to fit into the proper format transmission in real time. The service architecture comprises:

Codify and encapsulate the input video flow in a proper format for the delivery. Then it is prepared for distribution by segmenting it into different files. In the process of intake, the video is encoded and segmented to generate video fragments and index file.
  • Encoder: codify video files in H.264 format and audio in AAC, MP3, AC-3 or EC-3.[8] This is encapsulated by MPEG-2 Transport Stream to carry it.
  • Segmenter: divides the MPEG-2 TS file into fragments of equal length, kept as .ts files. It also creates an index file that contains references of the fragmented files, saved as .m3u8.
Formed by a standard web server, accepts requests from clients and delivers all the resources (.m3u8 playlist file and .ts segment files) needed for streaming.
Request and download all the files and resources, assembling them so that they can be presented to the user as a continuous flow video. The client software downloads first the index file through a URL and then the several media files available. The playback software assembles the sequence to allow continued display to the user.


HTTP Live Streaming provides mechanisms for players to adapt to unreliable network conditions without causing user-visible playback stalling. For example, on an unreliable wireless network, HLS allows the player to use a lower quality video, thus reducing bandwidth usage. HLS videos can be made highly available by providing multiple servers for the same video, allowing the player to swap seamlessly if one of the servers fails.


To enable a player to adapt to the bandwidth of the network, the original video is encoded in several distinct quality levels. The server serves an index, called a "master playlist", of these encodings, called "variant streams". The player can then choose between the variant streams during playback, changing back and forth seamlessly as network conditions change.


The master playlist can list duplicate variant streams that have the same level of quality but are hosted by different servers. This enables the player to swap to a different server for a given bitrate if one of the servers fails. This grants a degree of high availability to serving streams.

This can be combined with adaptability by listing multiple variant streams for each distinct quality level.

movieStream = fs.createReadStream(pathToFile);
movieStream.on('open', function () {
    res.writeHead(206, {
        "Content-Range": "bytes " + start + "-" + end + "/" + total,
        "Accept-Ranges": "bytes",
        "Content-Length": chunksize,
        "Content-Type": "video/mp4"
    // This just pipes the read stream to the response object (which goes 
    //to the client)

movieStream.on('error', function (err) {

Using fragmented MP4Edit

On WWDC2016 Apple announced[9] the inclusion of byte-range addressing for fragmented MP4 files, or fMP4, allowing content to be played in HLS without the need to multiplex it into MPEG-2 Transport Stream. The industry considered this as a step towards compatibility between HLS and MPEG-DASH.[10][11]

Server implementationsEdit

  • Adobe Media Server supports HLS for iOS devices (HLS) and Protected HTTP Live Streaming (PHLS).
  • Akamai supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • Amazon CloudFront supports HLS for on-demand streams.
  • CTU Systems Ltd provides the Eludo transcoding service, which supports HLS for on-demand and live streaming.
  • bitmovin provides the cloud transcoding service, which supports HLS for on-demand and live streaming.
  • CDNetworks supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • Cisco Systems: Supports full end to end delivery for Live/TSTV/VOD/HLS and Cloud DVR services.
  • EdgeCast Networks supports cross-device streaming using HLS.
  • Edgeware: Supports full end to end delivery for Live/TSTV/VOD/HLS.
  • Exterity: AvediaStream o7500 Origin Server supports HLS (HTTP Live Streaming).
  • Flussonic Media Server[12] supports multibitrate HLS either for transcoding or streaming since 4.3.0 version[13].
  • Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H.264 and AAC content to iPhone, iPad and iPod.
  • IIS Media Services from Microsoft supports live and on-demand Smooth Streaming and HTTP Live Streaming.
  • Keepixo Genova Live does both transcoding to H.264 & HEVC and packaging to HLS, MPEG-DASH, MS Smooth Streaming.
  • Kollective Technology Inc. supports HLS delivery.
  • Level 3 supports HLS live and on-demand streams.
  • Limelight Networks supports HLS for some accounts.[14]
  • Nginx with the nginx-rtmp-module supports HLS in live mode. Commercial version Nginx Plus also supports HLS/HDS VOD.
  • Nimble Streamer supports HLS in live and VOD mode.
  • Qencode Video Transcoding supports HLS.[15]
  • Tata Communications CDN supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • TVersity supports HLS in conjunction with on-the-fly transcoding for playback of any video content on iOS devices.
  • Unified Origin supports HLS in live and VOD mode.
  • Unreal Media Server supports low latency HLS as of version 9.5.
  • Ustream supports HLS delivery of live broadcasts. The ingested stream is re-transcoded if the original audio and video codec falls outside HLS requirements.
  • VLC Media Player supports HLS for serving live and on-demand streams as of version 2.0.
  • Wowza Streaming Engine from Wowza Media Systems supports HLS and encrypted HLS for live (with DVR) and on-demand streaming.
  • Octivid Media Solutions Supports Live and Video Streaming using HLS and integrates its solutions with Octipulse to deliver HLS on different platforms.


  • Adobe Systems demonstrated an update to its Adobe Flash Media Server product supporting HTTP Live Streaming at the NAB Show in April 2011.
  • Apple Inc. used this on September 1, 2010 to stream its iPod Keynote event live over the internet, and on October 20, 2010 to stream its 'Back to the Mac' Keynote event live over the Internet.
  • Google added HTTP Live Streaming support in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).[16]
  • Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H.264 and AAC content to iPhone, iPad and iPod initial release April 2010, latest release November 2012.
  • flashls is an open-source Adobe Flash/Adobe AIR plugin that provides HTTP Live Streaming support for Chromeless Flash/Air Player, Flowplayer, Video.js, mediaelement.js and Open Source Media Framework 2.0.
  • HP added HTTP Live Streaming support in webOS 3.0.5.[17]
  • Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in EdgeHTML rendering engine in Windows 10 in 2015[18].
  • Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in IIS Media Services 4.0.[19]
  • Yospace added HTTP Live Streaming support in Yospace HLS Player and SDK for flash version 1.0.
  • Sling Media added HTTP Live Streaming support to its Slingboxes and its SlingPlayer apps.[20]
  • In 2014/15, the BBC introduced HLS-AAC streams for its live internet radio and on-demand audio services, and supports those streams with its iPlayer Radio clients.[21]
  • hls.js implements HLS in MSE compatible browsers; ability to read ID3 from video pid.[22][23]
  • hasplayer.js implements HLS in MSE compatible browsers.[24]

Supported players and serversEdit

HTTP Live Streaming is natively supported in the following operating systems: Windows 10 (Microsoft Edge), OS X 10.6+ (Safari and QuickTime), iOS 3.0+ (Safari), and Android 4.1+[25] (Google Chrome).


Product Platform Live Streaming DRM As of Version Editor
Safari (web browser) macOS, iOS Yes Yes 6.0+
Has full HLS support.
Google Chrome (web browser) Windows, macOS, Android, iOS Partial Yes 30+
Supported on Android and iOS. Unsupported on desktop OSes.
Microsoft Edge (web browser) Windows 10 Yes Yes Microsoft
Firefox (web browser) Windows, macOS, Android, iOS Partial Yes 50.0+ for Android[26] and 57.0 for others,[27] 59.0 has enhanced support for Android[28] Mozilla
QuickTime Player (media player) macOS Yes Yes 10.0+
Has full HLS support.
iTunes (music player) Windows, macOS Yes Yes 10.1+[29]
Has full HLS support. To play a HLS stream, go to File > Open Stream and replace "http://" with "itls://" (for video streams) or "itals://" (for audio streams) in the stream URL.
VLC media player (media player) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, Windows Phone Yes No VLC 2.x[30] has partial up to HLS version 3 support (otherwise will load as M3U playlist, individual chunks sequence).[31]
VLC 3.0 beta has full HLS support
Media Player Classic Home Cinema (media player) Windows Yes Yes Gabest, Doom9 forum users
PotPlayer (media player) Windows Yes Yes Daum Communications
MPlayer / SMPlayer / mpv (media player) Windows, macOS, Linux Yes Yes Ricardo Villalba
GOM Player (media player) Windows Yes Yes Gretech
Cameleon (live video streaming software) Windows, macOS Yes Unknown Yatko
Audacious (software) (music player) Windows, Linux Yes Yes Audacious
Radio Tray (radio player) Linux Yes Yes Carlos Ribeiro
Kodi (software) (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS Yes Partial 12.0 Alpha 5 and later
DRM support requires a monthly/nightly build
XBMC Foundation
MythTV (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS, Linux, FreeBSD Yes Yes 0.26 MythTV
JRiver Media Center (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS Yes Yes JRiver
XiiaLive (radio player) Android, iOS Yes Yes 3.0+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
Visual Blasters LLC
Tunein radio (radio player) Android, iOS Yes Yes 3.3+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
myTuner Radio (radio player) Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows 8, macOS Yes Yes AppGeneration Software
Internet Radio Player (radio player) Android Yes Yes MuserTech
GuguRadio (radio player) iOS Yes Yes Leon Fan
MX Player (media player) Android, iOS Yes Yes J2 Interactive
RockPlayer (media player) Android, iOS Yes Yes Shanghai ChangeTech Co. Ltd.
DicePlayer (media player) Android 2.2+ Yes Yes Diceplayer 1.0+ INISOFT
HP Touchpad WebOS Yes Yes 3.0.5 HP
Amino x4x STB Amino set-top boxes Yes Yes 2.5.2 Aminet
Dune HD TV Dune HD set-top boxes Yes Yes TV Series
CTU Systems Ltd CTU Systems Ltd Eludo Play Out System Yes Yes TV Series
nangu.TV Motorola set-top boxes Yes Yes 2.0 nangu.TV
Roku Digital Video Player Roku set-top boxes Yes Yes Roku OS / SDK 2.6 Roku
Telebreeze Player HTML, Android, iOS, Windows, MacOS, Roku, MAG Infomir, Samsung Tizen, LG WebOS, Google Chromecast, tvOS, Amazon Fire TV, AndroidTV Yes Yes Telebreeze
bitdash (SDK) HTML5 or Flash, Web and Mobile Yes Yes Version 3.0+ bitmovin
3ivx (SDK) Windows 8, Windows Phone 8[32] & Xbox One[33] Yes Yes 2.0 3ivx
THEOplayer (SDK)[34] HTML5 Yes Yes OpenTelly
Viblast Player (SDK) HTML5, iOS, Android Yes Partial Viblast Ltd
Flowplayer (SDK) Adobe Flash, iOS, Android, HTML5 (hlsjs plugin) Yes Yes The Flash HLS plugin is available from GitHub. Flowplayer Ltd
JW Player (SDK) Adobe Flash, iOS, Android Yes Yes HLS is provided in all JW Player versions as of JW8 (latest) JW Player
Radiant Media Player (SDK) Adobe Flash, HTML5 Yes Yes 1.5.0[35] Radiant Media Player
Yospace (SDK) Adobe Flash Yes Yes 2.1 Yospace
Onlinelib (SDK) Adobe Flash Yes Yes 2.0
VODOBOX HLS Player (online service) Adobe Flash, HTML5, iOS, Android Yes Yes Vodobox
NexPlayer (SDK) iOS, Android, Windows Phone Yes Yes NexStreaming
ffplay/avplay (multimedia framework) Yes Partial FFmpeg/Libav
GPAC (multimedia framework) Yes No 0.5.0 Telecom ParisTech inc.
QuickPlayer (SDK) Android, iOS, Windows 7, 8, 8,1 and 10 Yes Yes Squadeo
hls.js (MSE) MSE Browsers Yes Unknown Daily Motion open source [22][23]
hasplayer.js (MSE) MSE Browsers Yes Unknown open source [24]
Hola Player (video player) HTML5, Adobe Flash, iOS, Android Yes Yes All versions Hola Ltd open source [36]
Shaka Player (SDK) HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Coming soon Partial 2.1 Open Source[37][38]


Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
Keepixo Genova Live Bundled software for transcoding to H.264 & HEVC, and packaging to HLS, MPEG-DASH, MS Smooth Streaming Keepixo No
bitcodin SaaS bitmovin No [39]
VLC 1.2 Yes
Once SaaS Brightcove No
IIS Media Services 4.0[19] Microsoft No
Antik Media Streamer Ingest Module (UDP/HTTP Transport Stream, Backup Stream with auto-switching, stream status monitoring and logging), Stream replication UDP/HTTP, HLS streaming, Video archive with snapshots, Server-side Timeshift, Timezone Shifting with multi-timezones, Stream Encryption using AES and key-rotation (with Antik Key Server) 3.0 Antik technology No
Adobe Media Server Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server 5.0 Adobe No
Evostream Media Server Cross-platform including embedded systems such as encoders, IP cameras, DVRs, and more. Supports: Adobe Flash RTMP, RTMPS, LiveFLV, full transcoder for creating lower bitrate streams, HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) for streaming to iPhones, iPads and Androids, HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS) for Adobe Air, Microsoft Smooth Streaming (MSS) for Microsoft devices, RTSP with RTP or MPEG-TS, MPEG-TS (unicast/multicast), compatible Live Encoding, strong security for your content ( Verimatrix DRM, HLS AES encryption, Stream Aliasing, Watermarking), built-in clustering mechanism and more. 1.6.5 EvoStream No
MythTV 0.25 MythTV Yes
Anevia ViaMotion Servers Transcapsulation: from one input, several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
Anevia No
Packet Ship OverView:Origin Server Capture from IPTV multicast and chunking to HLS for multi-bandwidth live streams, with AES encryption 2.1 Packet Ship No
nangu.TV Streamers on-the-fly adaptation: content is stored once enabling several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
nangu.TV No
TVersity Media Server 1.9 TVersity No Pro Edition only
Helix Universal Server Live + VOD HLS with Verimatrix DRM integration, ABR, Multi-Resolution, AES encryption 15.0+ RealNetworks No High performance HLS (12,000+ concurrent devices)
Wowza Streaming Engine Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server with DVR, DRM Integration and Transcoding for adaptive delivery. Outputs to MPEG-DASH, HLS, HDS, Smooth Streaming, RTMP, and RTSP 2.0+ Wowza Media Systems No
Unified Streaming Platform Muxes media content from one unified source to multiple outputs (Smooth Streaming, HDS, HLS and MPEG DASH) Unified Streaming No
VODOBOX Live Server Outputs HTTP Live Streaming with Adaptive bitrate streaming (up to 6 simultaneous qualities).
Video codecs : AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265
Audio codecs : MP3 / AAC
Transport layers : HTTP / FTP / Amazon AWS S3 / Microsoft Azure Web Storage / writing to disk (NetBios / Samba)
Hostings : internal HTTP Web server and/or external Web servers (ex: Apache HTTP server, Microsoft IIS, Nginx, etc.)
1.0 Vodobox Yes Supports input live streams from DVB-T devices, satellite receivers (Dreambox), IP streams (RTSP, RTMP, MMS, HTTP), Microsoft DirectShow drivers (video capture cards, live production software, camera). Encoder is compliant with Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC hardware acceleration.
Flixwagon Platform Video Server Flixwagon No
StreamCoder Live Encoder Realtime video encoder (inputs : DVB/IP stream or video signal). Supports multi-bitrates and multi-languages Ektacom No
Apache HTTP Server Apache Software Foundation Yes
Unreal Media Server 9.5 Unreal Streaming Technologies No Latency of live streams can be as low as 2.5 seconds over the Internet
Nimble Streamer RTMP / RTSP / Icecast / MPEG-TS to ABR HLS. MP4 / MP3 to VOD HLS 1.0.0-x WMSPanel No
Nginx-rtmp-module Free module for nginx server with support of HLS live streaming. Compliant with iOS and Android. 0.9.x Roman Arutyunyan Yes
Nginx Plus VOD HLS as origin NGINX, Inc. No
Flussonic Media Server Multi-platform support for HTTP, RTSP, RTMP, DASH, Time Shifting, DVR Functions with Unlimited Rewind Capabilities HLS streaming specific to iOS platform support. 3.0+ Flussonic, LLC. No Supporting a magnitude of features with full HTTP support.
VBrick Distributed Media Engine ("DME") 2.0 VBrick Systems, Inc. No Live and stored HLS. Live can be transmuxed from several input mux including RTP, RTMP, and MPEG-TS using H.264 encoding
Telebreeze Coder / Media Server Input streams / interfaces: UDP, TCP, RTP, HLS, HTTP, RTMP (MPEG-TS)
Output Streams: HLS, HTTP, UDP
Preprocessing: Resize, Deinterlace, Frame Rate Conversion, Audio Resampling, Logo Rendering
Telebreeze No
LEADTOOLS Media Streaming Server SDK Converts files on the fly to Adobe HDS, Apple HLS, MPEG-DASH, Microsoft Smooth Streaming, RTSP. 19.0 LEAD Technologies No
MC-ROUTE Multifunctional software for live stream routing and protocol conversion 4.4 Teracue No Supported protocols: TS over UDP, RTP, TCP, HLS, HTTP, RTSP/RTP

Live EncodersEdit

Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
ENC-400 Series Live hardware encoder with SDI or HDMI 1.0 Teracue No Supported protocols: TS over UDP,RTP, TCP, RTP/RTSP, RTMP push, HLS
WELLAV NB100 Live Streamcast with SDI or HDMI, CVBS 1.0 Wellav Technologies No Supported protocols: TS UDP,RTP, RTP/RTSP, RTMP, HLS;

VOD encodersEdit

Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
VODOBOX HLS Encoder Converts video files into pre-encoded HLS Adaptive bitrate streaming, ready to be hosted and broadcast through Apache HTTP server / Microsoft IIS / Nginx Web servers. Supports AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265 / MPEG-TS / Fragmented MP4 / Alternate Audio / Alternate Subtitles. 1.0 Vodobox Yes Transcodes classic video files (avi, mp4, m2ts, mkv, ...) into HLS streams with multi-qualities for VOD or replay usage. Hardware encoding can be accelerated by Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC technologies.
MediaGoom HLS Packager[40] Convert mp4 files encoded with multibitrate to HLS chunks. 0.1 Mediagoom Yes Support both Linux and Windows.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Pantos, R.P. (April 2016). "HTTP Live Streaming draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-19". Network Working Group: 1. 
  2. ^ Jordan, Larry (10 June 2013). "The Basics of HTTP Live Streaming". Larry's Blog. Larry Jordan & Associates. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  3. ^ MPEG-DASH vs. Apple HLS vs. Smooth Streaming vs. Adobe HDS
  4. ^ Pantos, R. (30 September 2011). "HTTP Live Streaming". Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "Application keys". Digital rights management (DRM). upLynk Support. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "History for draft-pantos-http-live-streaming". Retrieved 2017-04-17. Stream changed to ISE from None 
  7. ^ Pantos, R., Ed., and W. May. "HTTP Live Streaming". Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  8. ^ Roger, Pantos,; William, May,. "HTTP Live Streaming". Retrieved 2017-01-23. 
  9. ^ What's New in HTTP Live Streaming
  10. ^ HLS Now Supports Fragmented MP4, Making it Compatible With DASH
  11. ^ WWDC16: HLS supports Fragmented MP4 – and gets MPEG-DASH compatible!
  12. ^
  13. ^!topic/flussonic/XYav4KX6StY
  14. ^ "Limelight Orchestrate Video Support". Limelight Networks. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Qencode supported formats include HLS and MPEG-DASH". Qencode, Inc. 
  16. ^ "Android 3.0 Platform Highlights". 
  17. ^ "webOS 3.0.5 Updates". 
  18. ^ Simplified Adaptive Video Streaming: Announcing support for HLS and DASH in Windows 10
  19. ^ a b "First Look: Microsoft IIS Media Services 4". Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  20. ^ Blogcritics, November 26, 2010. iPad App Review: SlingPlayer (Retrieved April 14, 2014)
  21. ^ Scott, Andrew (27 Feb 2015). "Audio Factory: an overview". Internet Blog. BBC. the only on-demand assets will be AAC HLS. ... We are still talking to manufacturers and many are confident that they will be able to provide their users with access to all 57 of our HLS AAC streams at 320kb/s within a few weeks or months. 
  22. ^ a b [1]
  23. ^ a b hls.js demo page Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^ Supported Media Formats | Android Developers
  26. ^ Release Notes Firefox 50.0 for Android Release
  27. ^ DASH playback of AV1 video in Firefox
  28. ^ Release Notes Firefox 59.0beta for Android Release
  29. ^ Hints of 'iTunes Live Stream' Service Found in iTunes 10.1 - Mac Rumors
  30. ^ VLC Ticket #2943 (Support for HTTP Live Streaming as a client)
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ THEOplayer | HLS Support
  35. ^ Radiant Media Player version history
  36. ^
  37. ^ Shaka Player GitHub Repo
  38. ^ Shaka Player Demo
  39. ^ StreamingMedia Review bitcodin
  40. ^ "MediaGoom. Essential Web Streaming".