Open main menu

HTTP Live Streaming (also known as HLS) is an HTTP-based adaptive bitrate streaming communications protocol implemented by Apple Inc. as part of its QuickTime, Safari, OS X, and iOS software. Client implementations are also available in Microsoft Edge, Firefox and some versions of Google Chrome. Support is widespread in streaming media servers.

HTTP Live Streaming playlist
Filename extension.m3u8
Internet media typeapplication/[1]
Developed byApple Inc.
Initial releaseMay 2009
Extended fromextended M3U

HLS resembles MPEG-DASH in that it works by breaking the overall stream into a sequence of small HTTP-based file downloads, each download loading one short chunk of an overall potentially unbounded transport stream. A list of available streams, encoded at different bit rates, is sent to the client using an extended M3U playlist.[2]

Based on standard HTTP transactions, HTTP Live Streaming can traverse any firewall or proxy server that lets through standard HTTP traffic, unlike UDP-based protocols such as RTP. This also allows content to be offered from conventional HTTP servers and delivered over widely available HTTP-based content delivery networks.[3] The standard also includes a standard encryption mechanism[4] and secure-key distribution using HTTPS, which together provide a simple DRM system. Later versions of the protocol also provide for trick-mode fast-forward and rewind and for integration of subtitles.

Apple has documented HTTP Live Streaming as an Internet Draft (Individual Submission), the first stage in the process of publishing it as a Request for Comments (RFC). As of December 2015, the authors of that document have requested the RFC Independent Stream Editor (ISE) to publish the document as an informational (non-standard) RFC outside of the IETF consensus process.[5] In August 2017, RFC8216 was published to describe version 7 of the protocol.[6]



HTTP Live Streaming uses a conventional web server to distribute audiovisual content and requires specific software to fit into the proper format transmission in real time. The service architecture comprises:

Codify and encapsulate the input video flow in a proper format for the delivery. Then it is prepared for distribution by segmenting it into different files. In the process of intake, the video is encoded and segmented to generate video fragments and index file.
  • Encoder: codify video files in H.264 format and audio in AAC, MP3, AC-3 or EC-3.[7] This is encapsulated by MPEG-2 Transport Stream to carry it.
  • Segmenter: divides the MPEG-2 TS file into fragments of equal length, kept as .ts files. It also creates an index file that contains references of the fragmented files, saved as .m3u8.
Formed by a standard web server, accepts requests from clients and delivers all the resources (.m3u8 playlist file and .ts segment files) needed for streaming.
Request and download all the files and resources, assembling them so that they can be presented to the user as a continuous flow video. The client software downloads first the index file through a URL and then the several media files available. The playback software assembles the sequence to allow continued display to the user.


HTTP Live Streaming provides mechanisms for players to adapt to unreliable network conditions without causing user-visible playback stalling. For example, on an unreliable wireless network, HLS allows the player to use a lower quality video, thus reducing bandwidth usage. HLS videos can be made highly available by providing multiple servers for the same video, allowing the player to swap seamlessly if one of the servers fails.


To enable a player to adapt to the bandwidth of the network, the original video is encoded in several distinct quality levels. The server serves an index, called a "master playlist", of these encodings, called "variant streams". The player can then choose between the variant streams during playback, changing back and forth seamlessly as network conditions change.


The master playlist can list duplicate variant streams that have the same level of quality but are hosted by different servers. This enables the player to swap to a different server for a given bitrate if one of the servers fails. This grants a degree of high availability to serving streams.

This can be combined with adaptability by listing multiple variant streams for each distinct quality level.

Using fragmented MP4Edit

On WWDC2016 Apple announced[8] the inclusion of byte-range addressing for fragmented MP4 files, or fMP4, allowing content to be played in HLS without the need to multiplex it into MPEG-2 Transport Stream. The industry considered this as a step towards compatibility between HLS and MPEG-DASH.[9][10]

Low Latency HLS (LHLS)Edit

Two unrelated HLS extensions with this name and acronym exist. The following is about Apple's standard, but the now called "Community LHLS" standard predated Apple's publication and is allegedly simpler.[11]

On WWDC2019 Apple announced[12] Low-Latency HLS which reduces the glass-to-glass delay when streaming via HLS by reducing the time to start live stream playbacks and maintain that time during a live streaming event. It works by adding partial media segment files into the mix, ala CMAF fMP4, but unlike CMAF also supports partial MPEG2 TS transport files. HTTP/2 is required to push the segments along with the playlist, reducing the overhead of establishing repeated HTTP/TCP connections.

Other features include:

"Playlist Delta Updates" - only sending what changed between playlist, which typically fit in single MTU making it more efficient to load the playlists which with large DVR windows can be quite large.

"Blocking of playlist reload" - when requesting live media playlist, wait until the first segment is also ready and give back both at same time (saving additional HTTP/TCP requests)

"Rendition Reports" - adds metadata to other media renditions to make switching between ABR faster

New tags: EXT-X-SERVER-CONTROL / EXT-X-PART / EXT-X-SKIP / EXT-X-RENDITION-REPORT URL QUERY_STRING ?_HLS callbacks added New tool: "tsrecompressor" produces and encodes a continuous low latency stream of audio and video Updated tool: "mediastreamsegmenter" low latency version of the HLS segmenter (takes in UDP MPEGTS stream from tsrecompressor and generate media playlist, including the new tags above

Support for low-latency HLS isn't yet available in iOS & iPadOS 13 beta, but tvOS 13 beta does have it.

Server implementationsEdit

Notable server implementations supporting HTTP Live Streaming include:

  • Adobe Media Server supports HLS for iOS devices (HLS) and Protected HTTP Live Streaming (PHLS).
  • Akamai supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • Amazon CloudFront supports HLS for on-demand streams.
  • Bitmovin supports HLS for on-demand and live streaming.
  • CDNetworks supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • Cisco Systems: supports full end to end delivery for Live/TSTV/VOD/HLS and Cloud DVR services.
  • Cloudflare supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • EdgeCast Networks supports cross-device streaming using HLS.
  • Helix Universal Server from RealNetworks supports iPhone OS 3.0 and later for live and on-demand HTTP Live or On-Demand streaming of H.264 and AAC content to iPhone, iPad and iPod.
  • IIS Media Services from Microsoft supports live and on-demand Smooth Streaming and HTTP Live Streaming.
  • Level 3 supports HLS live and on-demand streams.
  • Limelight Networks supports HLS for some accounts.[13]
  • Nginx with the nginx-rtmp-module supports HLS in live mode. Commercial version Nginx Plus also supports HLS/HDS VOD.
  • Nimble Streamer supports HLS in live and VOD mode.
  • Node.js with the hls-server package supports hls encoding to live mode and local files conversion.[14]
  • Tata Communications CDN supports HLS for live and on-demand streams.
  • TVersity supports HLS in conjunction with on-the-fly transcoding for playback of any video content on iOS devices.
  • Unreal Media Server supports low latency HLS as of version 9.5.
  • Ustream supports HLS delivery of live broadcasts. The ingested stream is re-transcoded if the original audio and video codec falls outside HLS requirements.
  • VLC Media Player supports HLS for serving live and on-demand streams as of version 2.0.
  • Wowza Streaming Engine from Wowza Media Systems supports HLS and encrypted HLS for live (with DVR) and on-demand streaming.


  • Google added HTTP Live Streaming support in Android 3.0 (Honeycomb).[15]
  • HP added HTTP Live Streaming support in webOS 3.0.5.[16]
  • Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in EdgeHTML rendering engine in Windows 10 in 2015.[17]
  • Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in IIS Media Services 4.0.[18]
  • Yospace added HTTP Live Streaming support in Yospace HLS Player and SDK for flash version 1.0.[citation needed]
  • Sling Media added HTTP Live Streaming support to its Slingboxes and its SlingPlayer apps.[19]
  • In 2014/15, the BBC introduced HLS-AAC streams for its live internet radio and on-demand audio services, and supports those streams with its iPlayer Radio clients.[20]

Supported players and serversEdit

HTTP Live Streaming is natively supported in the following operating systems:


Product Platform Live Streaming DRM As of Version Editor
Safari (web browser) macOS, iOS Yes Yes 6.0+

Has full HLS support.

Microsoft Edge (web browser) Windows 10 Yes Yes EdgeHTML 12+ Microsoft
Google Chrome (web browser) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS Native support on Android/iOS.

Support via Media Source Extensions on other OS.

Yes 30+

Android and iOS have native OS support.

Other platforms require Media Source Extensions.

Firefox (web browser) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS Native support on Android/iOS.

Support via Media Source Extensions on other OS.

Yes 50.0+ for Android[22] and 57.0 for others,[23] 59.0 has enhanced support for Android[24]

Other platforms require Media Source Extensions.

QuickTime Player (media player) macOS Yes Yes 10.0+

Has full HLS support.

iTunes (music player) Windows, macOS Yes Yes 10.1+[25]

Has full HLS support.

To play a HLS stream, go to File > Open Stream and replace "http://" with "itls://" (for video streams) or "itals://" (for audio streams) in the stream URL.

VLC media player (media player) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, Windows Phone Yes Unknown VLC 2.x[26] has partial support up to HLS version 3 (otherwise will load as M3U playlist, individual chunks sequence).[27]

VLC 3.0 has full HLS support.

Media Player Classic Home Cinema (media player) Windows Yes Yes Gabest, Doom9 forum users
PotPlayer (media player) Windows Yes Yes Daum Communications
MPlayer / SMPlayer / mpv (media player) Windows, macOS, Linux Yes Yes Ricardo Villalba
GOM Player (media player) Windows Yes Yes Gretech
Cameleon (live video streaming software) Windows, macOS Yes Unknown Yatko
Audacious (software) (music player) Windows, Linux Yes Yes Audacious
Radio Tray (radio player) Linux Yes Yes Carlos Ribeiro
Kodi (software) (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS Yes Partial 12.0 Alpha 5 and later
DRM support requires a monthly/nightly build
XBMC Foundation
MythTV (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS, Linux, FreeBSD Yes Yes 0.26 MythTV
JRiver Media Center (home entertainment application) Windows, macOS Yes Yes JRiver
XiiaLive (radio player) Android, iOS Yes Yes 3.0+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
Visual Blasters LLC
Tunein radio (radio player) Android, iOS Yes Yes 3.3+
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
myTuner Radio (radio player) Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows 8, macOS Yes Yes Plays internet radio streams (audio only). AppGeneration Software
Internet Radio Player (radio player) Android Yes Yes Plays internet radio streams (audio only). MuserTech
GuguRadio (radio player) iOS Yes Yes Plays internet radio streams (audio only). Leon Fan
AIMP (media player) Windows, Android Yes Unknown 4.10+ (build 1827)
Plays internet radio streams (audio only).
Artem Izmaylov
Mini Stream Player (media player) Android Yes Yes JogiApp
MX Player (media player) Android Yes Yes J2 Interactive
TV Streams (media player) macOS, iOS, tvOS Yes Yes v7.1 Tiago Martinho
HP Touchpad WebOS Yes Yes 3.0.5 HP
Amino x4x STB Amino set-top boxes Yes Yes 2.5.2 Aminet
Dune HD TV Dune HD set-top boxes Yes Yes TV Series
CTU Systems Ltd CTU Systems Ltd Eludo Play Out System Yes Yes TV Series
nangu.TV Motorola set-top boxes Yes Yes 2.0 nangu.TV
Roku Digital Video Player Roku set-top boxes Yes Yes Roku OS / SDK 2.6 Roku
Telebreeze Player HTML, Android, iOS, Windows, MacOS, Roku, MAG Infomir, Samsung Tizen, LG WebOS, Google Chromecast, tvOS, Amazon Fire TV, AndroidTV Yes Yes Telebreeze
bitdash (SDK) HTML5 or Flash, Web and Mobile Yes Yes Version 3.0+ bitmovin
3ivx (SDK) Windows 8, Windows Phone 8[28] & Xbox One[29] Yes Yes 2.0 3ivx
THEOplayer [30] HTML5, SDK (Android, iOS, Android TV, tvOS, Chromecast) Yes Yes THEO Technologies N.V.
Viblast Player (SDK) HTML5, iOS, Android Yes Partial Viblast Ltd
Flowplayer (SDK) Adobe Flash, iOS, Android, HTML5 (hlsjs plugin) Yes Yes The Flash HLS plugin is available from GitHub. Flowplayer Ltd
JW Player (SDK) Adobe Flash, iOS, Android, HTML5 Yes Yes HLS is provided in all JW Player versions as of JW8 (latest) JW Player
Radiant Media Player (SDK) Adobe Flash, HTML5 Yes Yes 1.5.0[31] Radiant Media Player
Yospace (SDK) Adobe Flash Yes Yes 2.1 Yospace
Onlinelib (SDK) Adobe Flash Yes Yes 2.0
VODOBOX HLS Player (online service) Adobe Flash, HTML5, iOS, Android Yes Yes Vodobox
NexPlayer (SDK) HTML5 (MSE Browsers), Android (mobile, TV, STB), iOS, Chromecast, Windows, Mac, Linux, Tizen, WebOS Yes Yes NexStreaming
ffplay/avplay (multimedia framework) Yes Partial FFmpeg/Libav
GPAC (multimedia framework) Yes No 0.5.0 Telecom ParisTech inc.
QuickPlayer (SDK) Android, iOS, Windows 7, 8, 8,1 and 10 Yes Yes Squadeo
hls.js (MSE) MSE Browsers Yes Unknown Daily Motion open source[32][33]
hasplayer.js (MSE) MSE Browsers Yes Unknown open source[34]
Hola Player (video player) HTML5, Adobe Flash, iOS, Android Yes Yes All versions Hola Ltd open source[35]
Shaka Player (SDK) HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Coming soon Partial 2.1 Open Source[36][37]
Fluid Player (Video Player) HTML5 (MSE Browsers) Yes Yes 2.2.0+ Fluid Player OSS[38][39][40]
Video.js MSE Browsers. Flash with flashls source handler fallback. Yes Yes Open source


Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
ANEVIA Genova Live Bundled software for transcoding to H.264 & HEVC, and packaging to HLS, MPEG-DASH, MS Smooth Streaming Anevia No
AvProxy Light software for live streaming
Input and output streams : HTTP(S), HLS(S)/AES-128, UDP, RTP, MPTS demux
2.19[41] Yes Proprietary but free for use
bitcodin SaaS bitmovin No [42]
VLC 1.2 Yes
Video Cloud SaaS Brightcove No [43]
IIS Media Services 4.0[18] Microsoft No
Antik Media Streamer Ingest Module (UDP/HTTP Transport Stream, Backup Stream with auto-switching, stream status monitoring and logging), Stream replication UDP/HTTP, HLS streaming, Video archive with snapshots, Server-side Timeshift, Timezone Shifting with multi-timezones, Stream Encryption using AES and key-rotation (with Antik Key Server) 3.0 Antik technology No
Adobe Media Server Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server 5.0 Adobe No
Evostream Media Server Cross-platform including embedded systems such as encoders, IP cameras, DVRs, and more. Supports: Adobe Flash RTMP, RTMPS, LiveFLV, full transcoder for creating lower bitrate streams, HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) for streaming to iPhones, iPads and Androids, HTTP Dynamic Streaming (HDS) for Adobe Air, Microsoft Smooth Streaming (MSS) for Microsoft devices, RTSP with RTP or MPEG-TS, MPEG-TS (unicast/multicast), compatible Live Encoding, strong security for your content ( Verimatrix DRM, HLS AES encryption, Stream Aliasing, Watermarking), built-in clustering mechanism and more. 1.6.5 EvoStream No
MythTV 0.25 MythTV Yes
Anevia NEA Live Servers Transcapsulation: from one input, several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
Anevia No
Packet Ship OverView:Origin Server Capture from IPTV multicast and chunking to HLS for multi-bandwidth live streams, with AES encryption 2.1 Packet Ship No
nangu.TV Streamers on-the-fly adaptation: content is stored once enabling several outputs
(HLS, MS Smooth Streaming, ADS Flash, MPEG DASH)
nangu.TV No
TVersity Media Server 1.9 TVersity No Pro Edition only
Helix Universal Server Live + VOD HLS with Verimatrix DRM integration, ABR, Multi-Resolution, AES encryption 15.0+ RealNetworks No High performance HLS (12,000+ concurrent devices)
Wowza Streaming Engine Live and VOD streaming as origin and edge server with DVR, DRM Integration and Transcoding for adaptive delivery. Outputs to MPEG-DASH, HLS, HDS, Smooth Streaming, RTMP, and RTSP 2.0+ Wowza Media Systems No
Unified Streaming Platform Muxes media content from one unified source to multiple outputs (Smooth Streaming, HDS, HLS and MPEG DASH) Unified Streaming No
VODOBOX Live Server Outputs HTTP Live Streaming with Adaptive bitrate streaming (up to 6 simultaneous qualities).
Video codecs : AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265
Audio codecs : MP3 / AAC
Transport layers : HTTP / FTP / Amazon AWS S3 / Microsoft Azure Web Storage / writing to disk (NetBios / Samba)
Hostings : internal HTTP Web server and/or external Web servers (ex: Apache HTTP server, Microsoft IIS, Nginx, etc.)
1.0 Vodobox Yes Supports input live streams from DVB-T devices, satellite receivers (Dreambox), IP streams (RTSP, RTMP, MMS, HTTP), Microsoft DirectShow drivers (video capture cards, live production software, camera). Encoder is compliant with Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC hardware acceleration.
Flixwagon Platform Video Server Flixwagon No
StreamCoder Live Encoder Realtime video encoder (inputs : DVB/IP stream or video signal). Supports multi-bitrates and multi-languages Ektacom No
Apache HTTP Server Apache Software Foundation Yes
Unreal Media Server 9.5 Unreal Streaming Technologies No Latency of live streams can be as low as 2.5 seconds over the Internet
Nimble Streamer RTMP / RTSP / Icecast / MPEG-TS to ABR HLS. MP4 / MP3 to VOD HLS 1.0.0-x WMSPanel No
Nginx-rtmp-module Free module for nginx server with support of HLS live streaming. Compliant with iOS and Android. 0.9.x Roman Arutyunyan Yes
Nginx Plus VOD HLS as origin NGINX, Inc. No
Flussonic Media Server Multi-platform support for HTTP, RTSP, RTMP, DASH, Time Shifting, DVR Functions with Unlimited Rewind Capabilities HLS streaming specific to iOS platform support. 3.0+ Flussonic, LLC. No Supporting a magnitude of features with full HTTP support.
VBrick Distributed Media Engine ("DME") 2.0 VBrick Systems, Inc. No Live and stored HLS. Live can be transmuxed from several input mux including RTP, RTMP, and MPEG-TS using H.264 encoding
Telebreeze Coder / Media Server Input streams / interfaces: UDP, TCP, RTP, HLS, HTTP, RTMP (MPEG-TS)
Output Streams: HLS, HTTP, UDP
Preprocessing: Resize, Deinterlace, Frame Rate Conversion, Audio Resampling, Logo Rendering
Telebreeze No
LEADTOOLS Media Streaming Server SDK Converts files on the fly to Adobe HDS, Apple HLS, MPEG-DASH, Microsoft Smooth Streaming, RTSP. 19.0 LEAD Technologies No
MC-ROUTE Multifunctional software for live stream routing and protocol conversion 4.4 Teracue No Supported protocols: TS over UDP, RTP, TCP, HLS, HTTP, RTSP/RTP
Direkt router Live hardware decoder with SDI, NDI out and transcoding 4.1 Intinor No Supported protocols in: TS over UDP, RTP, TCP, HLS, HTTP, RTMP out: UDP, RTP, TCP, RTMP

Live EncodersEdit

Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
ENC-400 Series Live hardware encoder with SDI or HDMI 1.0 Teracue No Supported protocols: TS over UDP,RTP, TCP, RTP/RTSP, RTMP push, HLS
WELLAV NB100 Live Streamcast with SDI or HDMI, CVBS 1.0 Wellav Technologies No Supported protocols: TS UDP,RTP, RTP/RTSP, RTMP, HLS;
ZyPerMX4 Live hardware encoder with 4 HDMI inputs 1.0 ZeeVee No Supported protocols: TS over UDP,RTP, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HLS, RTMP
ZyPerMX2 Live hardware encoder with 2 HDMI inputs 1.0 ZeeVee No Supported protocols: TS over UDP,RTP, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, HLS, RTMP

VOD encodersEdit

Product Technology As Of Version Editor Free Notes
VODOBOX HLS Encoder Converts video files into pre-encoded HLS Adaptive bitrate streaming, ready to be hosted and broadcast through Apache HTTP server / Microsoft IIS / Nginx Web servers. Supports AVC H.264 / HEVC H.265 / MPEG-TS / Fragmented MP4 / Alternate Audio / Alternate Subtitles. 1.0 Vodobox Yes Transcodes classic video files (avi, mp4, m2ts, mkv, ...) into HLS streams with multi-qualities for VOD or replay usage. Hardware encoding can be accelerated by Intel Quick Sync Video and Nvidia NVENC technologies.
MediaGoom HLS Packager[44] Convert mp4 files encoded with multibitrate to HLS chunks. 0.1 Mediagoom Yes Support both Linux and Windows.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Pantos, R.P. (April 2016). "HTTP Live Streaming draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-19". Network Working Group: 1.
  2. ^ Jordan, Larry (10 June 2013). "The Basics of HTTP Live Streaming". Larry's Blog. Larry Jordan & Associates. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  3. ^ "MPEG-DASH vs. Apple HLS vs. Smooth Streaming vs. Adobe HDS".
  4. ^ Pantos, R. (30 September 2011). "HTTP Live Streaming". Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  5. ^ "History for draft-pantos-http-live-streaming". Retrieved 2017-04-17. Stream changed to ISE from None
  6. ^ Pantos, Roger; May, William (August 2017). HTTP Live Streaming. doi:10.17487/RFC8216. RFC 8216. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  7. ^ Roger, Pantos; William, May. "HTTP Live Streaming". Retrieved 2017-01-23.
  8. ^ What's New in HTTP Live Streaming. Apple Developer.
  9. ^ Siglin, Tim (16 June 2016). "HLS Now Supports Fragmented MP4, Making it Compatible With DASH".
  10. ^ Grandl, Reinhard (15 June 2016). "WWDC16: HLS supports Fragmented MP4 – and gets MPEG-DASH compatible!".
  11. ^ "The community gave us low-latency live streaming. Then Apple took it away". 2019-06-14. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
  12. ^ Low-Latency HLS. Apple Developer.
  13. ^ "Encoding Guide". Limelight Orchestrate Video Support. Limelight Networks. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  14. ^ "hls-server". npm.
  15. ^ "Android 3.0 Platform Highlights". Android Developers. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28.
  16. ^ "webOS 3.0.5 Updates". Archived from the original on 2012-01-22.
  17. ^ "Simplified Adaptive Video Streaming: Announcing support for HLS and DASH in Windows 10". Internet Explorer Team Blog. 29 January 2015.
  18. ^ a b Siglin, Tim (1 November 2010). "First Look: Microsoft IIS Media Services 4". Retrieved 30 July 2011.
  19. ^ Chan, David (November 26, 2010). "iPad App Review: SlingPlayer". Blogcritics. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  20. ^ Scott, Andrew (27 Feb 2015). "Audio Factory: an overview". Internet Blog. BBC. the only on-demand assets will be AAC HLS. ... We are still talking to manufacturers and many are confident that they will be able to provide their users with access to all 57 of our HLS AAC streams at 320kb/s within a few weeks or months.
  21. ^ "Supported media formats". Android Developers.
  22. ^ "Firefox for Android 50.0, See All New Features, Updates and Fixes". Mozilla.
  23. ^ Giles, Ralph; Smole, Martin (28 November 2017). "DASH playback of AV1 video in Firefox". Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog.
  24. ^ "Firefox for Android Beta 59.0beta, See All New Features, Updates and Fixes". Mozilla.
  25. ^ Slivka, Eric (15 November 2010). "Hints of 'iTunes Live Stream' Service Found in iTunes 10.1". MacRumors.
  26. ^ "#2943 (Support for HTTP Live Streaming as a client)". VLC bug tracker.
  27. ^ "Playing HLS streaming video with VLC player - The VideoLAN Forums".
  28. ^ "Windows 8 - HTTP Live Streaming".
  29. ^ "3ivx - Xbox Live Developer Partner Program - Component Provider".
  30. ^ NV, THEO Technologies. "HTML5 Video Player – THEOplayer".
  31. ^ Player, Radiant Media. "Version History - Radiant Media Player".
  32. ^ "dailymotion – Medium". Medium.
  33. ^ hls.js demo page Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "Orange-OpenSource/hasplayer.js". GitHub.
  35. ^ "Spark". Spark.
  36. ^ "google/shaka-player". GitHub.
  37. ^ "Shaka Player Demo".
  38. ^ "Fluid Player - HTML5 video player".
  39. ^ "Fluid Player Documentation".
  40. ^ "fluid-player/fluid-player". GitHub.
  41. ^ "marakew/AvProxy". GitHub.
  42. ^ Ozer, Jan (2015). "Review: Bitcodin, a Cloud Video Encoding Service From Bitmovin".
  43. ^ "Delivering HLS Video - Brightcove Learning".
  44. ^ "MediaGoom. Essential Web Streaming".