HIV/AIDS in Asia

In 2008, 4.7 million people in Asia were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Asia's epidemic peaked in the mid-1990s, and annual HIV incidence has declined since then by more than half. Regionally, the epidemic has remained somewhat stable since 2000.[1]

People living with HIV/AIDS (CIA), in absolute numbers for the year of 2008. Large numbers of people live with HIV even in countries with relatively low HIV prevalence levels due to their large populations.
Estimated per capita prevalence of HIV among young adults (15–49) by country as of 2011.[2]

South AsiaEdit

Compared with other regions, notably Africa and the Americas, national HIV prevalence levels in South Asia are very low (0.3% in the adult (15–49) group). However, due to the large populations of many South Asian nations, this low national HIV prevalence still means that many people have HIV.

In South Asia, the HIV epidemic remains largely concentrated in injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, sex workers, clients of sex workers and their immediate sexual partners. Prevention strategies in these populations are, for the most part, inadequate.


The prevalence of HIV in Afghanistan is 0.04%.[citation needed] According to Afghanistan's National Aids Control Program (NACP), 504 cases of HIV/AIDS were documented in late 2008.[3] By the end of 2012, the number reached 1,327.[4] As of 2015, as many as 6,900 people were living in Afghanistan with HIV and about 300 had died in from the disease.[citation needed]


With less than 0.1% of the population estimated to be HIV-positive, Bangladesh is a low HIV-prevalence country. UNAIDS estimates that 11,000 people live with HIV in the country.[5]


In 2011, there were 246 reported cases of HIV in Bhutan, representing just over 0.03% of the population.[6] However, Health Ministry sources indicated actual numbers were estimated at more than 500 by UNAIDS.[7]


In 2015, the NACO estimated that 2.11 million people live with HIV/AIDS in India.[8] As of 2018, India has the third most people with HIV after South Africa and Nigeria.[9] However, the AIDS prevalence rate in India is lower than many other countries. In 2016, India's AIDS prevalence rate stood at approximately 0.30%, the 80th highest in the world.[10]


UNAIDS estimates from 2017 indicate that approximately 375,000 people in Nepal are HIV-positive across all age groups. The Government of Nepal's National Center for AIDS & STD Control (NCASC) estimated that number to be closer to 70,000 in December 2010. A study from 2014 found that the overall national HIV prevalence was 0.20% (adult male 19.28%, adult female 25.13%). According to UNAIDS, by the end of 2018, the number of people living with HIV was 139,000 [34,000–46,000].[5] NCASC (2019) reports that the estimated number of HIV infections by risk groups is 159,984.[11]


The Pakistan National AIDS Control Program estimated that in 2018, there were a total of 160,000 people living with HIV.[12] However, there are only 39,529 cases of HIV that have been registered with the National AIDS Control Program, of which 22,947 are receiving antiretroviral therapy.[13] The HIV prevalence rate is far higher among people who inject drugs (21.0%) compared to the general population of people aged 15 to 49 (0.1%).[14]

Sri LankaEdit

East AsiaEdit

National HIV prevalence levels in East Asia are much lower (0.1% in the adult (15-49) group) than in much of Africa and the Americas. Similar to South Asian countries, low national HIV prevalence still means that large numbers of people are living with HIV.


Much of the current spread of HIV in the People's Republic of China is through intravenous drug abuse and paid sex. In rural areas, especially in Henan province, large numbers of farmers had contaminated blood transfusions; estimates of those infected are in the tens of thousands.[citation needed]


Official figures (English) for July–October 2006 showed that just over half of domestic HIV/AIDS cases were among homosexual men, with the remainder transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, drug abuse, in the womb or via unknown means. As of 2015, there had been 17,909 HIV and 8,086 AIDS cases reported in Japan since 1985.[15]

North KoreaEdit

According to UNAIDS, less than 0.2% of North Korea's adult population has HIV.[16] WHO estimates that North Korea has less than 100 people with HIV/AIDS.[17] Officially, the country maintains that it is completely free of AIDS.[18]

South KoreaEdit

The cumulative reported cases of HIV in South Korea has surpassed 6,000, with 797 reported in 2008.[19]

According to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of HIV in South Korea is rising. The first case of HIV was in 1985.[20] By 2000, the number of people diagnosed with HIV was 219, and this had risen to 797 in 2008.[21] Males had a much higher infection rate.[21] In order to prevent Korean women from contracting HIV, HIV positive males should be detected early on.[22] The most commonly recognized mode of transmission in South Korea is through heterosexual sexual contact.[20]

Due to the lower prevalence of HIV in South Korea, the Korean media has represented HIV as a disease brought to Korea by migrant sex workers from other countries.[23] Any sex workers who plan to stay in South Korea must test for HIV, and if results show they are positive, they are no longer able to stay in the country.[23]


As of March 2016, there were 31,620 reported cases of Taiwanese nationals testing positive for HIV/AIDS.[24] Currently, HIV/AIDS patients who are Taiwanese nationals receive free medical care (including HAART therapies) from the state. Non-governmental organizations have set up "AIDS Half-Way Houses" for homeless patients. The ratio of patients who are drug users has increased rapidly, which has led the authority to promote a harm reduction program.

South-East AsiaEdit

National HIV prevalence levels in South-East Asia are very low, at 0.3% in the adult (15-49) group. In Southeast Asia, the HIV epidemic remains largely concentrated in injecting drug users, men who have sex with men, sex workers, and clients of sex workers and their immediate sexual partners. Prevention strategies in these populations are generally inadequate.


Between 2003 and 2005, the estimated HIV prevalence among Cambodian adults aged 15 to 49 declined from 2.0% to 1.6%.[5]

East Timor (Timor-Leste)Edit

Timor-Leste is a low HIV-prevalence country with less than 0.2% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive. Forty-three cases of the disease were confirmed in 2007 and are now under treatment, according to the Ministry of Health.


UNAIDS has said that HIV/AIDS in Indonesia is one of Asia's fastest growing epidemics.[25] It was expected that 5 million Indonesians would have HIV/AIDS by 2010.[26] In 2007, Indonesia was ranked 99th in the world by prevalence rate, but because of low understanding of the symptoms of the disease and high social stigma attached to it, only 5–10% of HIV/AIDS sufferers were diagnosed and treated.[26]


In 2005, UNAIDS estimated that 3,700 people in Lao PDR were living with HIV.[27] Lao PDR currently faces a concentrated epidemic with an adult HIV prevalence of 0.1%.


On World AIDS Day in June 2008, Malaysia reported 82,704 cumulative HIV cases since 1986.[28]


In 2005, the estimated adult HIV prevalence rate in Myanmar was 1.3% (200,000–570,000 people) according to UNAIDS, and early indicators show that the epidemic may be waning in the country, although the epidemic continues to expand in parts of the country.[29][30][31] An estimated 20,000 (range between 11,000 and 35,000) die from HIV/AIDS annually.[32]


The Philippines has a relatively low incidence of HIV/AIDS. There have been about 2,800 reported cases since 1984, but independent estimates put the number of cases closer to 12,000.[33][34] The majority (70–75%) of carriers are male, 25–39, and the predominant mode of transmission is through sexual intercourse.

Although the national incidence rate remains relatively low, an independent HIV surveillance study conducted in 2010 by Dr. Louie Mar Gangcuangco and colleagues from the University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital showed that out of 406 men having sex with men tested for HIV in Metro Manila, HIV prevalence was at 11.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–15.0).[35][36]


The Ministry of Health maintains a confidential registry of HIV positive individuals. The private details of 8,800 foreigners and 5,400 Singaporeans infected with HIV were exposed as a result of improper handling of the data.[37] The details of some 5,400 Singaporeans and permanent residents diagnosed with HIV up to January 2013, and 8,800 foreigners diagnosed up to December 2011 were leaked, by Mikhy Farrera-Brochez, a US citizen.[38] It was in retaliation for Farrera-Brochez being deported from Singapore for falsify documents that granted him work privileges in Singapore and for covering up the fact he has HIV on an application form.[39] He was supplied the details by his, then boyfriend, Ler Teck Siang, a doctor in Singapore. Ler also provided his own blood sample to cover up Farrera-Brochez's HIV status.[39]


Around 532,522 Thais were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008.[40]


The UN estimated that there were 290,000 people living with HIV as of 2008.[41]

West AsiaEdit



The Adult prevalence rate was less than 0.2% in 2012, with an estimated 10,400 people living with HIV/AIDS and 65 deaths.


The Adult prevalence rate was estimated at 0.01% in 2016, with fewer than 500 people with HIV/AIDS and fewer than 100 deaths.




In 2007, there were an estimated 380,000 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the region, according to UNAIDS.

Saudi ArabiaEdit

In 2003, the government announced the number of known cases of HIV/AIDS in the country to be 6,700, and over 10,000 in June 2008.[42]


According to the United Nations HIV/AIDS Theme Group's 2002 HIV/AIDS Situation Analysis report in Turkey, 7,000–14,000 people had been infected with AIDS since the beginning of the pandemic. The Ministry of Health in June 2002 stated that 1,429 HIV/AIDS cases had been reported since 1985.[43]

United Arab EmiratesEdit

Official figures show that 540 people were living with HIV/AIDS by the end of 2006, and the number of recorded new cases was about 35 annually.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Regions". Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
  2. ^ "AIDSinfo". UNAIDS. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  3. ^ Children at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in Afghanistan. December 1, 2008.
  4. ^ "Over 1,300 HIV cases registered in Afghanistan". Pajhwok Afghan News. December 1, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  5. ^ a b c "Health Profile: Bangladesh" Archived 17 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. United States Agency for International Development (March 2008). Accessed 25 August 2008.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "The Ministry of Health has Detected…". Bhutan Observer online. 2011-08-01. Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  7. ^ "An Update on Human Immuno Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)" (PDF). Bhutan Ministry of Health. 2010-07-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Country comparison: people living with HIV/AIDS". The World Factbook—Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Country comparison AIDS/HIV prevalence". The World Factbook—Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  11. ^ "Home". National Center for AIDS and STD Control. Nepal.
  12. ^ "Country Factsheets: Pakistan - 2018". Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  13. ^ "National AIDS Control Programme". Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  14. ^ "Country Factsheets: Pakistan - 2018". Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  15. ^ "IASR 37(9)、2016【TOPIC】HIV/AIDS in Japan, 2015". Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  16. ^ "2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic : A UNAIDS 10th anniversary special edition" (PDF). UNAIDS. 2006. p. 343. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  17. ^ "Young People and HIV/AIDS : Fact Sheet : DPR Korea" (PDF). Regional Office for South East Asia, World Health Organization. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  18. ^ O'Byrne, Tom (2 December 2001). "North Korea fights AIDS". ABC Radio National. Retrieved 2015-12-08.
  19. ^ "KaiserNetwork: Korea cases". Archived from the original on June 23, 2009.
  20. ^ a b Oh, Myoung-don (December 1999). "Spectrum of Opportunistic Infections and Malignancies in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in South Korea". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 29 (6): 1524–1528. doi:10.1086/313516. JSTOR 4482066. PMID 10585807.
  21. ^ a b Lee, Jin-Hee (December 2009). "Increasing Late Diagnosis in Hiv Infection in South Korea: 2000-2007". BMC Public Health. 10: 411. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-411. PMC 2912814. PMID 20624319.
  22. ^ Lee, Jin-Hee (September 2009). "Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV-Infected Women in the Republic of Korea: A Low HIV Prevalence Country". Journal of Public Health Policy. 30 (3): 342–355. doi:10.1057/jphp.2009.16. JSTOR 40542225. PMID 19806074. S2CID 23893168.
  23. ^ a b Cheng, Sealing (2004). "Interrogating the Absence of HIV/AIDS Interventions for Migrant Sex Workers in South Korea". Health and Human Rights. 7 (2): 193–204. doi:10.2307/4065354. JSTOR 4065354.
  24. ^ "HIV月報105-03(更新)" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control, R.O.C (Taiwan). Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  25. ^ "U.S., INDONESIA PARTNERSHIP TO FIGHT HIV/AIDS CONTINUES". US Fed News Service, Including US State News. 2009-12-07. ProQuest 471598082.
  26. ^ a b "FIVE MILLION HIV/AIDS CASES IN INDONESIA BY 2010". Antara. 2009-11-15. ProQuest 446446798.
  27. ^ "Laos: HIV/AIDS Health Profile" Archived 2008-11-15 at the Wayback Machine. USAID (March 2008).   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  28. ^ "SinChew - MySinchew".
  29. ^ "At a glance: Myanmar - statistics". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
  30. ^ "A scaled-up response to AIDS in Asia and the Pacific" (PDF). UNAIDS. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  31. ^ "Asia" (PDF). UNAIDS. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2007.
  32. ^ "Myanmar: Epidemiological Fact Sheets" (PDF). UNAIDS. 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2007.
  33. ^ HIV and AIDS in Philippines,HIV in Philippines,AIDS in Philippines,social Indicators,social statistics, HIV Estimates,Figures,HIV situation in Philippines Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "RP HIV/AIDS situation alarming; undocumented cases at 11,000 - solon". GMA News Online.
  35. ^ Gangcuangco, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among men having sex with men in Metro Manila, Philippines. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2015-04-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "International AIDS Society - Abstract - 200739361". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  37. ^ "Data of 14,200 people with HIV leaked online by American fraudster:MOH". The Business Times. January 28, 2019.
  38. ^ hermesauto (2019-01-28). "Data of 14,200 with HIV leaked online: What you need to know about the case". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  39. ^ a b hermesauto (2020-09-15). "Trial begins for Ler Teck Siang, doctor involved in HIV data leak, for not providing urine sample for drug offences". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  40. ^ "More teenaged girls getting HIV infection". Archived from the original on November 26, 2014.
  41. ^ "Viet Nam". Archived from the original on 2010-07-03. Retrieved 2010-10-21.
  42. ^ Hassan M. Fattah (August 8, 2006). "Saudi Arabia Begins to Face Hidden AIDS Problem". New York Times.
  43. ^ UNICEFF Türkiye. "Evet Deyin: Kış 2003 AIDS'i Anlamak". UNICEFF Türkiye. Retrieved 5 September 2017.

External linksEdit