H-IIA

  (Redirected from H-2A)

H-IIA (H-2A) is an active expendable launch system operated by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The liquid-fueled H-IIA rockets have been used to launch satellites into geostationary orbit, to launch a lunar orbiting spacecraft, and to launch Akatsuki, which studied the planet Venus. Launches occur at the Tanegashima Space Center. The H-IIA first flew in 2001. As of February 2020, H-IIA rockets were launched 41 times, including 35 consecutive missions without a failure, dating back to November 29, 2003.

H-IIA
H IIA No. F23 with GPM on its way to the launchpad.jpg
The H-IIA No. F23 rolls out to the launch pad in February 2014.
FunctionMedium-lift launch vehicle
Manufacturer
Country of originJapan
Cost per launchUS$90 million [1]
Size
Height53 m (174 ft)
Diameter4 m (13 ft)
Mass285,000–445,000 kg (628,000–981,000 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO10,000–15,000 kg (22,000–33,000 lb)
Payload to GTO4,100–6,000 kg (9,000–13,200 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyH-II
DerivativesH-IIB
Launch history
StatusActive
Launch sitesTanegashima LA-Y
Total launches
  • 41
    • 202: 27
    • 204: 4
    • 2022: 3
    • 2024: 7
Successes
  • 40
    • 202: 27
    • 204: 4
    • 2022: 3
    • 2024: 6
Failures1 (2024)
First flight
  • 202: 29 August 2001
  • 204: 18 December 2006
  • 2022: 26 February 2005
  • 2024: 4 February 2002
Last flight
  • 202: 29 October 2018
  • 204: 19 August 2017
  • 2022: 14 September 2007
  • 2024: 23 February 2008
Notable payloads
Boosters (All variants) – SRB-A
No. boosters2–4
Thrust2,260 kN (510,000 lbf)
Total thrust4,520–9,040 kN (1,020,000–2,030,000 lbf)
Specific impulse280 seconds (2.7 km/s)
Burn time120 seconds
FuelHTPB
Boosters (2022 / 2024) – Castor 4A-XL
No. boosters2–4
Thrust745 kN (167,000 lbf)
Total thrust1,490–2,980 kN (330,000–670,000 lbf)
Specific impulse280 seconds (2.7 km/s)
Burn time60 seconds
FuelSolid
First stage
Engines1 LE-7A
Thrust1,098 kN (247,000 lbf)
Specific impulse440 seconds (4.3 km/s)
Burn time390 seconds
FuelLOX / LH2
Second stage
Engines1 LE-5B
Thrust137 kN (31,000 lbf)
Specific impulse447 seconds (4.38 km/s)
Burn time534 seconds
FuelLOX / LH2
The Liftoff of H-IIA Flight 19.
The H-IIA rocket lineup.
The H-IIA.

Production and management of the H-IIA shifted from JAXA to MHI on April 1, 2007. Flight 13, which launched the lunar orbiter SELENE, was the first H-IIA launched after this privatization.[1]

The H-IIA is a derivative of the earlier H-II rocket, substantially redesigned to improve reliability and minimize costs. There are currently two (formerly four) different variants of the H-IIA in active service for various purposes. A derivative design, the H-IIB, was developed in the 2000s and made its maiden flight in 2009.

Vehicle descriptionEdit

The launch capability of an H-IIA launch vehicle can be enhanced by adding SRB-A (solid rocket booster or SRB) and Castor 4AXL (solid strap-on booster or SSB) to its basic configuration, creating a "family". The models are indicated by three or four numbers following the prefix "H2A". The first number in the sequence indicates the number of stages; the second number of liquid rocket boosters (LRBs); the third number of SRBs; and, if present, the fourth number shows the number of SSBs.[2] The first two figures are virtually fixed at "20", as H-IIA is always two-staged, and the plans for LRBs were cancelled and superseded by the H-IIB.

VariantsEdit

Designation Mass (tonnes) Payload (tonnes to GTO) Addon modules
H2A 202 285 4.1 2 SRB-A (SRB)
H2A 2022 (discontinued)[3] 316 4.5 2 SRB-A (SRB) + 2 Castor 4AXL (SSB)
H2A 2024 (discontinued) 347 5 2 SRB-A (SRB) + 4 Castor 4AXL (SSB)
H2A 204 445 6 4 SRB-A (SRB)
H2A 212 (cancelled) 403 7.5 2 SRB-A (SRB) + 1 LRB
H2A 222 (cancelled) 520 9.5 2 SRB-A (SRB) + 2 LRBs

Launch historyEdit

The first H-IIA was successfully launched on August 29, 2001, followed by a string of successes.

The sixth launch on November 29, 2003, intended to launch two IGS reconnaissance satellites, failed. JAXA announced that launches would resume in 2005, and the first successful flight took place on February 26 with the launch of MTSAT-1R.

The first launch for a mission beyond Earth orbit was on September 14, 2007 for the SELENE moon mission. The first foreign payload on the H-IIA was the Australian FedSat-1 in 2002. As of March 2015, 27 out of 28 launches were successful.

A rocket with increased launch capabilities, H-IIB, is a derivative of the H-IIA family. H-IIB uses two LE-7A engines in its first stage, as opposed to one in H-IIA. The first H-IIB was successfully launched on September 10, 2009.

For the 29th flight on November 24, 2015, an H-IIA with an upgraded second stage[4] launched the Canadian Telstar 12V satellite, the first commercial primary payload for a Japanese launch vehicle.[5]

Flight

No.

Date (UTC) Type Payload(s) Outcome
TF1 August 29, 2001
07:00:00
H2A 202   VEP 2
  LRE
Success
TF2 February 4, 2002
02:45:00
H2A 2024   VEP 3
  MDS-1 (Tsubasa)
  DASH
Success
F3 September 10, 2002
08:20:00
H2A 2024   USERS
  DRTS (Kodama)
Success
F4 December 14, 2002
01:31:00
H2A 202   ADEOS 2 (Midori 2)
  WEOS (Kanta-kun)
  FedSat 1
  Micro LabSat 1
Success
F5 March 28, 2003
01:27:00
H2A 2024   IGS-Optical 1
  IGS-Radar 1
Success
F6 November 29, 2003
04:33:00
H2A 2024   IGS-Optical (2)
  IGS-Radar (2)
Failure
A hot gas leak from one SRB-A motor destroyed its separation system. The strap-on did not separate as planned, and the weight of the spent motor prevented the vehicle from achieving its planned height.[6]
F7 February 26, 2005
09:25:00
H2A 2022   MTSAT-1R (Himawari 6) Success
F8 January 24, 2006
01:33:00
H2A 2022   ALOS (Daichi) Success
F9 February 18, 2006
06:27:00
H2A 2024   MTSAT-2 (Himawari 7) Success
F10 September 11, 2006
04:35:00
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 2 Success
F11 December 18, 2006
06:32:00
H2A 204   ETS-VIII (Kiku 8) Success
F12 February 24, 2007
04:41:00
H2A 2024   IGS-Radar 2
  IGS-Optical 3V
Success
F13 September 14, 2007
01:31:01
H2A 2022   SELENE (Kaguya) Success
F14 February 23, 2008
08:55:00
H2A 2024   WINDS (Kizuna) Success
F15 January 23, 2009
03:54:00
H2A 202   GOSAT (Ibuki)
  SDS-1
  STARS (Kūkai)
  KKS-1 (Kiseki)
  PRISM (Hitomi)
  Sohla-1 (Maido 1)
  SORUNSAT-1 (Kagayaki)
  SPRITE-SAT (Raijin)
Success[7]
F16 November 28, 2009
01:21:00 [8]
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 3 Success
F17 May 20, 2010
21:58:22[9][10][11]
H2A 202[12]   PLANET-C (Akatsuki)
  IKAROS
  UNITEC-1 (Shin'en)
  Waseda-SAT2
  K-Sat (Hayato)
  Negai☆″
Success
F18 September 11, 2010
11:17:00[13]
H2A 202   QZS-1 (Michibiki) Success
F19 September 23, 2011
04:36:50[14]
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 4 Success
F20 December 12, 2011
01:21:00[15]
H2A 202   IGS-Radar 3 Success
F21 May 17, 2012
16:39:00
H2A 202[16]   GCOM-W1 (Shizuku)
  KOMPSAT-3 (Arirang 3)
  SDS-4
  HORYU-2
Success
F22 January 27, 2013
04:40:00
H2A 202   IGS-Radar 4
  IGS-Optical 5V
Success
F23 February 27, 2014
18:37:00
H2A 202    GPM-Core
  SindaiSat (Ginrei)
  STARS-II (Gennai)
  TeikyoSat-3
  ITF-1 (Yui)
  OPUSAT (CosMoz)
  INVADER
  KSAT2
Success
F24 May 24, 2014
03:05:14
H2A 202   ALOS-2 (Daichi 2)
  RISING-2
  UNIFORM-1
  SOCRATES
  SPROUT
Success
F25 October 7, 2014
05:16:00
H2A 202   Himawari 8 Success
F26 December 3, 2014
04:22:04
H2A 202   Hayabusa 2
  Shin'en 2
  ARTSAT2-DESPATCH
  PROCYON
Success
F27 February 1, 2015
01:21:00
H2A 202   IGS-Radar Spare Success
F28 March 26, 2015
01:21:00
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 5 Success
F29 November 24, 2015
06:50:00
H2A 204   Telstar 12 Vantage Success
F30 February 17, 2016
08:45:00
H2A 202   ASTRO-H (Hitomi)
  ChubuSat-2 (Kinshachi 2)
  ChubuSat-3 (Kinshachi 3)
  Horyu-4
Success
The Hitomi telescope broke apart 37 days after launch.[17]
F31 November 2, 2016
06:20:00
H2A 202   Himawari 9 Success
F32 January 24, 2017
07:44:00
H2A 204   DSN-2 (Kirameki 2) Success
F33 March 17, 2017
01:20:00
H2A 202   IGS-Radar 5 Success
F34 June 1, 2017
00:17:46
H2A 202   QZS-2 (Michibiki 2) Success
F35 August 19, 2017
05:29:00
H2A 204   QZS-3 (Michibiki 3) Success
F36 October 9, 2017
22:01:37
H2A 202   QZS-4 (Michibiki 4) Success
F37 December 23, 2017
01:26:22
H2A 202   GCOM-C (Shikisai)
  SLATS (Tsubame)
Success
F38 February 27, 2018
04:34:00
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 6 Success
F39 June 12, 2018
04:20:00
H2A 202   IGS-Radar 6 Success
F40 October 29, 2018
04:08:00
H2A 202   GOSAT-2 (Ibuki-2)
  KhalifaSat
   Diwata-2B
 Tenkōh
 Stars-AO
 AUTcube2
Success
F41 February 9, 2020
01:34:00
H2A 202   IGS-Optical 7 Success

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ "Mitsubishi and Arianespace Combine Commercial Satellite Launch Services". SatNews. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012.
  2. ^ "H-IIA Launch Vehicle" (PDF). JAXA. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
  3. ^ 三菱重工、「H2A」2機種に半減・民営化でコスト減. NIKKEI NET
  4. ^ "Launch Result of Telstar 12 VANTAGE by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 29". JAXA. 24 Nov 2015. Retrieved 30 Nov 2015.
  5. ^ William Graham (23 Nov 2015). "Japanese H-IIA successfully lofts Telstar 12V". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 30 Nov 2015.
  6. ^ "Launch Result of IGS #2/H-IIA F6". JAXA. November 29, 2003. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  7. ^ "Launch Result of the IBUKI (GOSAT) by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 15". MHI and JAXA. January 23, 2009.
  8. ^ "H-IIA F16". Sorae. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18.
  9. ^ "Launch Day of the H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 17". JAXA. March 3, 2010.
  10. ^ "Overview of Secondary Payloads". JAXA.
  11. ^ Tariq Malik (18 May 2010). "New Venus Probe to Launch Thursday From Japan After". space.com. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  12. ^ Chris Bergin (17 May 2010). "JAXA launch H-IIA carrying AKATSUKI and IKAROS scrubbed". NASASpacflight.com. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  13. ^ "New Launch Day of the First Quasi-Zenith Satellite 'MICHIBIKI' by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 18". JAXA.
  14. ^ Chris Bergin (23 September 2011). "Japanese H-2A launches with new IGS military satellite". NASASpaceflight.com.
  15. ^ Chris Bergin (11 December 2011). "Japanese H-2A lofts IGS (Radar-3) satellite into orbit". NASASpaceflight.com.
  16. ^ "Launch Overview – H-IIA Launch Services Flight No.21". Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
  17. ^ Clark, Stephen (18 April 2016). "Attitude control failures led to break-up of Japanese astronomy satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 21 April 2016.

Sources

External linksEdit