The Hōjō clan (Japanese: 北条氏, Hepburn: Hōjō-shi) was a Japanese samurai family who controlled the hereditary title of shikken (regent) of the Kamakura shogunate between 1203 and 1333. Despite the title, in practice the family wielded actual political power in Japan during this period compared to both the Kamakura shoguns, or the Imperial Court in Kyoto, whose authority was largely symbolic. The Hōjō are known for fostering Zen Buddhism and for leading the successful opposition to the Mongol invasions of Japan. Resentment at Hōjō rule eventually culminated in the overthrow of the clan and the establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate.

The emblem (mon) of the Hōjō clan
Home province
Parent houseTaira clan
FounderHōjō Tokimasa
Final rulerHōjō Takatoki
Founding year12th century
Ruled until1333

History edit

Bloodline edit

The Hōjō are alleged to have been an offshoot of the Taira of the Kanmu branch, originating in Izu Province. They gained power by supporting the defeat of the Taira by intermarrying with and supporting Minamoto no Yoritomo in the Genpei War. The Hōjō usurped power when Yoritomo died eighteen years later.

Rise to power edit

Hōjō Tokimasa helped Minamoto no Yoritomo, a son-in-law, defeat the forces of the Taira to become Japan's first shōgun. Hōjō Masako, Tokimasa's daughter, was married to Yoritomo. After the death of Yoritomo, Tokimasa became shikken (regent) to the child shōgun, thus effectively transferring control of the shogunate to his clan permanently.[1] Consequently the shōguns became puppets and hostages of the Hōjō.

Early events edit

The Imperial court at Kyoto resented the decline in its authority during the Kamakura shogunate, and the clan disliked Emperor Go-Toba. and in 1221 the Jōkyū War broke out between retired Emperor Go-Toba and the second regent Hōjō Yoshitoki. The Hōjō forces easily won the war, and the imperial court was brought under the direct control of the shogunate, while the emperor was exiled "to a remote island off western Japan."[2] The shōgun's constables gained greater civil powers, and the court was obliged to seek the shōgun's approval for all of its actions. Although deprived of political power, the court retained extensive estates in Kyoto.

Several significant administrative achievements were made during the Hōjō regency. In 1225 the third regent Hōjō Yasutoki established the Council of State, providing opportunities for other military lords to exercise judicial and legislative authority at Kamakura. The Hōjō regent presided over the council, which was a successful form of collective leadership. The adoption of Japan's first military code of law—the Goseibai Shikimoku—in 1232 reflected the profound transition from court to militarized society. While legal practices in Kyoto were still based on 500-year-old Confucian principles, the new code was a highly legalistic document that stressed the duties of stewards and constables, provided means for settling land disputes, and established rules governing inheritances. It was clear and concise, stipulated punishments for violators of its conditions, and remained in effect for the next 635 years.

As might be expected, the literature of the time reflected the unsettled nature of the period. The Hōjōki describes the turmoil of the period in terms of the Buddhist concepts of impermanence and the vanity of human projects. The Heike monogatari narrated the rise and fall of the Taira, replete with tales of wars and samurai deeds. A second literary mainstream was the continuation of anthologies of poetry in the Shin Kokin Wakashū, of which twenty volumes were produced between 1201 and 1205.

List of Hōjō Shikken edit

  1. Hōjō Tokimasa (1138–1215) (r. 1203–1205)
  2. Hōjō Yoshitoki (1163–1224) (r. 1205–1224)
  3. Hōjō Yasutoki (1183–1242) (r. 1224–1242)
  4. Hōjō Tsunetoki (1224–1246) (r. 1242–1246)
  5. Hōjō Tokiyori (1227–1263) (r. 1246–1256)
  6. Hōjō Nagatoki (1229–1264) (r. 1256–1264)
  7. Hōjō Masamura (1205–1273) (r. 1264–1268)
  8. Hōjō Tokimune (1251–1284) (r. 1268–1284)
  9. Hōjō Sadatoki (1271–1311) (r. 1284–1301)
  10. Hōjō Morotoki (1275–1311) (r. 1301–1311)
  11. Hōjō Munenobu (1259–1312) (r. 1311–1312)
  12. Hōjō Hirotoki (1279–1315) (r. 1312–1315)
  13. Hōjō Mototoki (1286-1333) (r. 1315)
  14. Hōjō Takatoki (1303–1333) (r. 1316–1326)
  15. Hōjō Sadaaki (1278–1333) (r. 1326)
  16. Hōjō Moritoki (1295-1333) (r. 1327–1333)
  17. Hōjō Sadayuki (1302-1333) (r.1333)

Aside from the regents above, those who played an important role among the Hōjō clan are:

References in media edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Harrison, John A. "Hōjō family". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  2. ^ Allen, Tony; Grant, R. G.; Parker, Philip; Celtel, Kay; Kramer, Ann; Weeks, Marcus (June 2022). Timelines of World History (First American ed.). New York: DK. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-7440-5627-3.
  3. ^ "Civilization 6's civilizations, leaders and their unique abilities". PCGamesN. July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2016.