Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Fully female spider (Drassodes saccatus) with left male pedipalp, an example of mosaic gynandromorphism
Heteropteryx dilatata gynandromorph
Gynandromorph of the small white, Pieris rapae.

A gynandromorph is an organism that contains both male and female characteristics. The term gynandromorph, from Greek "gyne" female and "andro" male, is mainly used in entomology. These characteristics are notable in butterflies and other insects, where both male and female body parts can be distinguished physically because of sexual dimorphism.

Contents

Occurrence in other generaEdit

Gynandromorphism has been observed in numerous animal species, e.g., crustaceans such as lobsters and crabs, many bird species.[1][2][3][4][5] A clear example in birds involves gynandromorphic zebra finch. These birds have lateralised brain structures in the face of a common steroid signal, providing strong evidence for a non-hormonal primary sex mechanism regulating brain differentiation.[6]

Pattern of distribution of male and female tissues in a single organismEdit

A gynandromorph can have bilateral asymmetry—one side female and one side male.[7] Alternatively, the distribution of male and female tissue can be more haphazard.

Bilateral gynandromorphy arises very early in development, typically when the organism has between 8 and 64 cells.[8] Later stages produce a more random pattern.[citation needed]

Causes of gynandromorphismEdit

The cause of this phenomenon is typically, but not always, an event in mitosis during early development. While the organism contains only a few cells, one of the dividing cells does not split its sex chromosomes typically. This leads to one of the two cells having sex chromosomes that cause male development and the other cell having chromosomes that cause female development. For example, an XY cell undergoing mitosis duplicates its chromosomes, becoming XXYY. Usually this cell would divide into two XY cells, but in rare occasions the cell may divide into an X cell and an XYY cell. If this happens early in development, then a large portion of the cells are X and a large portion are XYY. Since X and XYY dictate different sexes, the organism has tissue that is female and tissue that is male.[9]

A developmental network theory of how gynandromorphs develop from a single cell based on internetwork links between parental allelic chromosomes is given in.[10] The major types of gynandromorphs, bilateral, polar and oblique are computationally modeled. Many other possible gynandromorph combinations are computationally modeled, including predicted morphologies yet to be discovered. The article relates gynandromorph developmental control networks to how species may form. The models are based on a computational model of bilateral symmetry.[11]

Gynandromorphs as a research toolEdit

Gynandromorphs occasionally afford a powerful tool in genetic, developmental, and behavioral analyses. In Drosophila melanogaster, for instance, they provided evidence that male courtship behavior originates in the brain[12], that males can distinguish conspecific females from males by the scent of the posterior, dorsal, integument of females, that the germ cells originate in the posterior-most region of the blastoderm,[13] and that somatic components of the gonads originate in the mesodermal region of the fourth and fifth abdominal segment.[14]

In popular cultureEdit

In his autobiography, Speak, Memory, the writer and lepidopterist Vladimir Nabokov describes a gynandromorph butterfly, male on one side, female on the other, that he caught as a youth on his family's Russian estate.[15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chen, Xuqi; Agate, Robert J.; Itoh, Yuichiro; Arnold, Arthur P. (2005). "Sexually dimorphic expression of trkB, a Z-linked gene, in early posthatch zebra finch brain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (21): 7730–5. PMC 1140405 . PMID 15894627. doi:10.1073/pnas.0408350102. Lay summaryScientific American (March 25, 2003). 
  2. ^ Gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae Gynandromorph
  3. ^ Powderhill Banding Fall 2004
  4. ^ A Gender-bender Colored Cardinal, by Tim Wall, Discovery News, 31 May 2011 [1]
  5. ^ "Half-cock chicken mystery solved". BBC News. 11 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Arnold, Arthur P. (2004). "Sex chromosomes and brain gender". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 5 (9): 701–8. PMID 15322528. doi:10.1038/nrn1494. 
  7. ^ Ian Sample, science correspondent (12 July 2011). "Half male, half female butterfly steals the show at Natural History Museum". London: The Guardian. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  8. ^ Malmquist, David (June 15, 2005). "Rare crab may hold genetic secrets". Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 
  9. ^ Adams, James K. "Gynandromorphs". Department of Natural Sciences, Dalton State College. 
  10. ^ Werner, Eric (2012). "A Developmental Network Theory of Gynandromorphs, Sexual Dimorphism and Species Formation". arXiv:1212.5439 . 
  11. ^ Werner, Eric (2012). "The Origin, Evolution and Development of Bilateral Symmetry in Multicellular Organisms". arXiv:1207.3289 . 
  12. ^ Hotta, Y, and S. Benzer (1972). "Mapping of Behaviour in Drosophila mosaics". Nature. 240: 527–535. doi:10.1038/240527a0. 
  13. ^ "Cell lineage analysis of germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster". Nature. 265: 729 – 731. 1977. doi:10.1038/265729a0. 
  14. ^ "Gynandromorphs of Drosophila suggest one common primordium for the somatic cells of the female and male gonads in the region of abdominal segments 4 and 5" (PDF). Development. 115: 527–533. 1992. 
  15. ^ Nabokov, Vladimir (1967). Speak, Memory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 97. 

External linksEdit