Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann

Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann (9 June [O.S. 28 May] 1861 – 17 December 1938)[1] was a prominent Baltic German chemist-physicist who made important contributions in the fields of glassy and solid solutions, heterogeneous equilibria, crystallization, and metallurgy.[2]

Gustav Tammann
Voit 221 Gustav Tammann.jpg
Gustav Tammann in 1913
Born(1861-06-09)9 June 1861
Died17 December 1938(1938-12-17) (aged 77)
NationalityBaltic German
CitizenshipRussian Empire
German Confederation
German Empire
Weimar Republic
Nazi Germany
Alma materUniversity of Dorpat
AwardsLiebig Medal, Eagle Shield of the German Empire
Scientific career
FieldsPhysical chemistry
Academic advisorsCarl Schmidt
Doctoral studentsIris Runge

BiographyEdit

Tamman was born in Yamburg (now Kingisepp, Leningrad Oblast). His father, Heinrich Tammann (1833–1864) was of Estonian peasant origin and his mother, Matilda Schünmann, was of German origin.[2] Tamman graduated from University of Dorpat in chemistry.[3] He came to Göttingen University in 1903 where he established the first Institute of Inorganic Chemistry in Germany. In 1908 he was appointed director of the Physico-Chemical Institute. His interests focused on the physics and physical chemistry of metals and alloys (metallurgy). In 1925 Tammann was awarded Liebig Medal. On 28 May 1936, Tammann was awarded the shield of nobility of the German Empire (Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches),[4] with dedication "The Doyen of German Metallurgy".[5] He also known for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation, named after him. Tammann died in Göttingen at age 77.

AwardsEdit

Tammann was awarded the following prizes:

  • Liebig Medal in 1925
  • Heyn Medal of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde in 1929[6]
  • Eagle Shield of the German Empire[4]

The Tammann Commemorative Medal of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde is named after him.[7]

BibliographyEdit

  • (1890) On Metamerism of Metaphosphates[8][9]
  • (1903) Crystallization and melting: a contribution to the teaching of the change in the physical state (Kristallisieren und Schmelzen: ein Beitrag zur Lehre der Ånderungen des Aggregatzustandes)
  • (1907) About the relations between internal forces and properties of the solution: a contribution to the theory of homogeneous systems (Uber die Beziehungen zwischen den inneren Kräften und Eigenschaften der Lösung: ein Beitrag zur Theorie homogener Systeme)
  • (1914) Textbook of Metallography: chemistry and physics of metals and their alloys (Lehrbuch der metallographie: chemie und physik der metalle und ihrer legierungen)
  • (1922) State of Matter (Aggregatzustände)
  • (1923) Textbook of Metallography (Lehrbuch der Metallographie)
  • (1925) The states of aggregation: the changes in the state of matter in their dependence upon pressure and temperature
  • (1925) Textbook of metallography: chemistry and physics of the metals and their alloys
  • (1932) Textbook on Metals: chemistry and physics of metals and their alloys (Lehrbuch der metallkunde: chemie und physik der metalle und ihrer legierungen)
  • Tammann, Gustav; Bandel, Gerhard (1934). Die Schmelz- und Umwandlungskurven der Eisarten aus schwerem Wasser. Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen : Mathematisch-physikalische Klasse (in German). Berlin: Weidmann.
  • Tammann, Gustav; Bandel, Gerhard (1933). Wärmeinhalt und spezifisches Volumen der Eisen-Kohlenstoff-Legierungen [Specific heat capacity and volume of the iron-carbon alloys]. Bericht des Werkstoffausschusses des Vereins deutscher Eisenhüttenleute (in German). Düsseldorf: Verl. Stahleisen.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Gustav Tammann". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b Morachevskii, A.G (2001). "Professor Gustav Tammann (To 140th Birthday Anniversary)". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 74 (9): 1610–1615. doi:10.1023/A:1017420113016. ISSN 1070-4272. S2CID 195241283.
  3. ^ R. A. Vikhalemm (2001). Estonian studies in the history and philosophy of science. Springer. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7923-7189-2.
  4. ^ a b "Scientific Notes and News". Science. New Series. 84 (2170): 115–116. Jul 31, 1936. Bibcode:1936Sci....84..115.. doi:10.1126/science.84.2170.115. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 1661607.
  5. ^ Forschung als Waffe: Rüstungsforschung in der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Metallforschung 1900-1945/48 (in German). Wallstein Verlag. 2007. p. 466. ISBN 978-3-8353-0109-2.
  6. ^ "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V.: Heyn-Denkmünze". www.dgm.de. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  7. ^ "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V.: Tamann Commemorative Medal". www.dgm.de. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  8. ^ On Metamerism of Metaphosphates
  9. ^ Gustav Tammann (1890). "Ueber die Metamerie der Metaphosphate" (in German). Tartu University Library: Dorpat. hdl:10062/3029. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External linksEdit