Gurudongmar Lake

Gurudongmar Lake is one of the highest lakes in the world and in India, at an elevation of 5,430 m (17,800 ft) according to the Government of Sikkim.[1][2][a] It is located in the Great Himalayas in the Mangan District in Indian state of Sikkim,[1] and considered sacred by Buddhists, Sikhs and Hindus.[2] The lake is named after Guru Padmasambhava—also known as Guru Rinpoche—founder of Tibetan Buddhism, who visited in the 8th century.

Gurudongmar Lake
Buddhist Holy Lake -Gurudongmar Lake
Buddhist Holy Lake -Gurudongmar Lake
Location of Gurudongmar Lake
Location of Gurudongmar Lake
Gurudongmar Lake
Location of Gurudongmar Lake
Location of Gurudongmar Lake
Gurudongmar Lake
LocationMangan District, Sikkim, India
Coordinates28°01′N 88°43′E / 28.02°N 88.71°E / 28.02; 88.71Coordinates: 28°01′N 88°43′E / 28.02°N 88.71°E / 28.02; 88.71
Basin countriesSikkim, India
Max. lengthGurudongmar Lakeʍ
Surface area118 hectares (290 acres)
Shore length15.34 kilometres (3.32 mi)
Surface elevation16,909 ft (5,154 m)
SettlementsMangan, North Sikkim 122 km. Lachen, North Sikkim 67 km.
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

GeographyEdit

 
The lake in November 2015.

The high altitude lake is located 190 kilometres (120 mi) away from Gangtok, the capital city of Sikkim, and about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the Tibetan (Chinese) border, in the district of North Sikkim. The lake can be reached by road from Lachen via Thangu Valley. The road from Thangu to Gurudongmar passes through rugged terrain with moraine, which has high alpine pastures covered with many rhododendron trees.[4][2] While Indian tourists are allowed to visit the lake, foreigners need to get a special permit from the Ministry of Home Affairs in Delhi.[5]

FeaturesEdit

 
Gurudongmar in April
 
Gurudongmar lake on 23rd May 2022

The lake, fed by glaciers, is located to the north of the Kanchendzonga range, in a high plateau area connected with the Tibetan Plateau. It provides one of the source streams which joins the Tso Lahmu and then form the source of the Teesta River. The lake remains completely frozen in the winter months, from November to Mid-May.[4][6]

The lake has an area of 118 hectares (290 acres) and its peripheral length is 5.34 kilometres (3.32 mi).[4] However, the size of the lake appears small at the place where the devotees offer worship because the larger part of the lake is not visible due to hilly topography obstructing the view.[1] The area surrounding the lake, also known as Gurudongmar, is inhabited by Yaks, blue sheep and other wildlife of high altitude.[4]

The lake is fresh water and used to be very clear; the bed of the lake could even be seen from the middle of the lake. Pollution has muddied the waters in recent years, and the lake has taken on a white tinge and has obscured visibility.[1]

In folkloreEdit

 
Gurudongmar Lake in Sikkim
 
Gurudongmar Lake in late October

A legend related to the frozen condition of the lake is linked to the visit of Guru Padmasambhava to the lake, on his way back from Tibet. When he saw it, he felt that it was worthy of veneration, as it represented the divine location of Dorje Nyima or Chhoedten Nyima. Because the lake remained frozen most of the year with no possibility of providing for drinking water needs, the people of the area appealed to Padmasambhva to help them. The guru agreed to help and placed his hands on a small part of the lake area, which stopped freezing during winter, facilitating drinking water to the people. Since then, the lake has been considered sacred and devotees carry this sacred water in containers.[2]

According to another legend, when Padmasambhava visited the lake he saw an auspicious phenomenon and then he considered it a good augury to enter the mainland of Sikkim, then known as Demojong.[1]

DisputeEdit

 
Gurudongmar Lake
 
Panorama view of frozen Gurudongmar Lake in May 2015
 
At the end of October,2010.

A dispute arose when on the bank of the lake an Indian Army regiment of Sikhs—located at the border with China—considering the lake as the place visited by their saint Guru Nanak, constructed a Gurudwara in 1997–1998. This created anger among the Sikkimese people of the area, who considered the Gurudwara an illegal construction, because their ancient sacred lake had been sanctified by the visit of their Guru Padmasambhava. The government of Sikkim then constituted a high level committee to examine the issue and submit a report. Documents furnished to the committee by the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, Gangtok, agreed with the claim of the local people that it was without a doubt a Buddhist religious place. This was accepted by the committee. The building constructed by the Sikh regiment was then handed over by the Army to the Lachen Monastery on 6 July 2001, in the presence of the Sub Divisional Magistrate, Chungthang, North Sikkim. The monastery placed a lama as a watchman at the lake, entrusted with the task of maintaining it.[1][7]

ImagesEdit

Panoramic view of Gurudongmar Lake, North Sikkim, India.
 
Sarv Dharm Sthal near Gurudongmar Lake, November 2010.
 
At Gurudongmar lake, photo taken in late December, when the lake just begins to freeze.
 
Gurudongmar Lake in May 2012, North Sikkim.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Terrain maps indicate an elevation under 5,150 metres (16,900 ft).[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Gurudongmar Lake (North Sikkim Tourist Places)". District North Sikkim, Government of Sikkim.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ a b c d "Gurudongmar Lake". Official website of Sikkim Tourism, Government of Sikkim.
  3. ^ Gurudongmar, OpenStreetMap, retrieved 18 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d Panigrahy, S; Patel, J G; Parihar, J S (September 2012). "National Wetland Atlas: High Altitude Lakes Of India" (PDF). Gurudongmar Lake. Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Government of India. p. 83.
  5. ^ Vanessa Betts; Victoria McCulloch (10 February 2014). Indian Himalaya Footprint Handbook: Includes Corbett National Park, Darjeeling, Leh, Sikkim. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 352. ISBN 978-1-907263-88-0.
  6. ^ Husain, Majid (2012). Understanding Geographical Map Entries. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-1-259-00090-4.
  7. ^ Mohinder Singh (1 January 2001). Punjab 2000: Political and Socio-economic Developments. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-81-86565-90-2.

External linksEdit