The Gulf or Bay of Honduras is a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting the coasts of Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras. From north to south, it runs for approximately 200 km (125 miles) from Dangriga, Belize, to La Ceiba, Honduras.

Gulf of Honduras
Bay of Honduras
Gulf of Honduras shown centre-right
Locationnorthwestern Caribbean
Coordinates16°09′05″N 88°15′06″W / 16.1514°N 88.2517°W / 16.1514; -88.2517
Etymologylas honduras (Spanish) / ie the depths
River sources
Primary outflowsCaribbean Sea
Basin countries
Max. length150 mi (240 km)
Max. width105 mi (169 km)
Surface area7,380 sq mi (19,100 km2)
Average depth
  • 98 ft (30 m) / on continental shelf
  • 6,600 ft (2,000 m) / off continental shelf
ReferencesMeasurements for largest current demarcation[note 1]
The Gulf of Honduras is shown in the centre of this map

The inner Gulf of Honduras is lined by the Belize Barrier Reef which forms the southern part of the 900 km (600 mile) long Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, the second-largest coral reef system in the world. The Belize Barrier Reef includes a number of small islands, called cays, and collectively known as the Pelican Cays.[1]

The Gulf of Honduras is marked by complex dynamics of coastal and open waters, and ocean currents, which have produced a very diverse and unique ecosystem with a wide variety of coastal marine waters, including coastline estuaries, barrier beaches, lagoons, intertidal salt marshes, mangrove forests, seagrass beds, keys and barrier reefs.[2]

The gulf receives the runoff from the watersheds of 12 rivers with an estimated discharge of 1,232,000 litres (approx. 300,000 gallons) per second.[3]

Tourists are often taken on boat trips to the Pelican Cays, notably Caye Caulker and Ambergris Caye.

In 1961 Hurricane Hattie swept across the Gulf of Honduras, destroying buildings in Belize.

The infamous pirate Blackbeard spent the winter of 1717–1718 harassing shipping boats sailing to and from the port of Vera Cruz, Mexico and traversing the Bay of Honduras.[4] In April 1718, at Turneffe Atoll, Blackbeard captured the logwood cutting sloop Adventure and forced its captain, David Herriot, to join him. Blackbeard then made Israel Hands captain of the Adventure and began sailing for North Carolina.[5]

Extent edit

Current edit

The Gulf's limits have not been demarcated by the International Hydrographic Organization.[6] Its northernmost point is variously given as Belize City, Dangriga, or Gladden Spit; its easternmost point as Punta Sal, Punta Izopo, or La Ceiba.[1][7][8] The northern limits are in the Belize or Stann Creek districts of Belize, while the eastern ones are in the Atlántida Department of Honduras.[citation needed][note 2]

Historical edit

During the 16th through 20th centuries, the Gulf's limits were thought to run from Cape Catoche to Cape Gracias a Dios.[citation needed]

History edit

Pre-Columbian edit

Columbian edit

20th century edit

In 10‍–‍12 December 1989, the Central American Integration System established the Commission for the Environment and Development, a body charged with coordinating environmental protection policies, projects, and programmes across the region.[9][10] Upon the 12 October 1994 signing of the Alliance for the Sustainable Development of Central America, the Commission adopted its first regional environmental management plan.[11][10] In 1995 and 2005, the Commission secured grant financing for its work in the Gulf.[12][note 3]

In 1996, nine NGOs in Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras established the Trinational Alliance for the Conservation of the Gulf of Honduras (aka TRIGOH).[13][12] The alliance seeks to harmonise members' management policies for marine and coastal protected areas in the Gulf, and to coordinate their management and research activities.[14][12]

Geography edit

Political edit

Physical edit

Terrestrial edit

The Gulf's northern (ie Belizean) shores consist mostly of sandy beach ridges, saline tidal swamps, and shelf lagoons. It is dotted with small estuaries, mangrove forests, seagrass beds, patch and barrier reefs, and mangrove and coral cayes.[15] The coast in the mouth of the Gulf (ie Guatemalan coastline) consists mainly of mangrove thickets, large estuaries, seagrass beds, and beaches.[15] The southern coast (in Honduras) is marked by long beaches, vast mangroves, and mangrove and coral cays.[15]

Marine edit

The Gulf's continental shelf extends some 9.32–24.85 miles (15–40 km) from shore.[15] The northern shelf holds part of the Belize Barrier Reef, which stretches to the Sapodilla Cayes. The shelf in the mouth of the Gulf holds five parallel submarine ridges of continental origin, which jut out towards the north-northeast.[15][16] It is cleaved by the Swan Island fault, which divides the North American and Caribbean tectonic plates, and forms the southern boundary of the Cayman Trough.[17][18]

Climate edit

The Gulf's climate is tropical or sub-tropical (ie Am and Af Köppen climate classifications).[15][19] Temperature varies little throughout the year, averaging 82 °F (28 °C), though this is slightly moderated to 73 °F (23 °C) by cold northerlies and trade winds blowing from North America during the winter months.[20][21] Rainfall and humidity are seasonal; rainfall averages 1.98 inches (50 mm) per month during the June‍–‍October wet season, and 10.83 inches (275 mm) per month during the November‍–‍May dry season.[22] The wet season is brought by the annual northern migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[22] Rainfall and humidity additionally vary by location, with some 118–157 inches (3,000–4,000 mm) of annual rainfall in the coastal areas, and some 394 inches (10,000 mm) in the Maya Mountains.[22][21] The northeasterly trade winds are the most dominant influence on the Gulf's annual wind pattern; their speeds range from 9.84 feet (3 m) to 26.25 feet (8 m) per second.[23] Tropical storms and hurricanes are regular between August and October, with the Gulf's northeastern (ie Belizean) section averaging 60 storms per century, and the southwestern coast (ie Guatemalan and Honduran) averaging 20 storms per century.[24][25][26]

Geology edit

Terrestrial edit

The Gulf's northern (ie Belizean) coast consists primarily of three geologic formations‍–‍ metamorphosed sediments (ie metasediments) and granite intrusions in the Maya Mountains, and coastal alluvial sediments east, southeast, and south of this range.[27] The metasediments are the oldest rocks in Belize, formed during the Palaeozoic era some 300 mya.[27] They form part of the Santa Rosa Group, and are composed of fine-grained phyllites, slates, and mudstones. The alluvial sediments formed during the Tertiary period some 10 mya.[27] Primary soil types are Ossory (from metasediments), Stopper (from granite), Melinda and Puletan (from alluvial sediment), and tintal soils (ie wet, swampy type soils).[27] The Belize Barrier Reef protects this coast from open sea waves.[28] As such, the north-south littoral drift along this coast is primarily driven by waves formed within the reef.[28]

The coast at the mouth of the Gulf (ie Guatemalan coast) consists primarily of alluvial material from the Quaternary era.[27] The southern (ie Honduran) coast consists primarily of sedimentary alluvium (surficial bounders, cobbles, gravel, sand, and mud) and intrusive plutonic formations of granite, granodiorite, and diorite.[27] These formed during the Quaternary and Cretaceous eras.[27] The west-east littoral drift along this coast is driven mainly by open sea waves, which tend to approach the shoreline from east to west.[28]

Marine edit

The Gulf is part of the Cayman Trench, one of five deepwater basins in the Caribbean Sea.[29] It contains the open-sea lagoon formed by the Belize Barrier Reef, the Amatique Bay, the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, and the eastern part of the coast of Honduras.[29] The western part of the Gulf sits on the continental shelf, which extends 37 miles (60 km) offshore, and so is rather shallow, with mean depths of less than 98 feet (30 m).[29] Large freshwater discharge from the Sarstoon, Dulce, and Motagua rivers limit coral development in the mouth of the Gulf to a few isolated patches, as at Hunting Caye, for instance.[29] Towards the northeastern section of the Gulf, the continental shelf drops off abruptly, from some 98 feet at the shelf break to some 6,560 feet in the Cayman Trench.[29][note 4]

Formation edit

The Gulf's northern coast, upon the Yucatan Peninsula, reached its present location during the Late Jurassic age some 150 Mya.[30][31] It was joined by the Central American platform during the Eocene epoch some 40 Mya, thereby forming a gulf or bay in or about the present location of the Gulf of Honduras.[32][33]

Hydrology edit

Watersheds edit

Eight primary, and 17 subsidiary, watersheds replenish the Gulf.[34][35] These cover some 20,730 square miles (53,700 km2), with 2,240 sq. mi. in Belize, 7,070 sq. mi. in Guatemala, and 11,430 sq. mi. in Honduras.[36][37] They contain 13 major, and various minor, rivers, with the former discharging some 77,690 cubic feet (2,200 m3) of freshwater per second, on average, and the latter, some 7,060 cubic feet per second, on average.[38] Annually, the Gulf receives some 17.75–18.23 cubic miles (74–76 km3) of water from its watersheds.[38] Sedimentary discharge from Belizean rivers into the Gulf was, on average, 80, 15, and 5 per cent mud, clay, and sand, respectively.[39] Peak freshwater and sedimentary discharge occurs in the wet season, which usually exceeds dry season discharge by a factor of 5‍–‍9.[37][note 5]

Major watersheds of the Gulf of Honduras.[40][41]
Watershed Country Area km2 Rivers major
Maya Mountains Belize 5,800 Sittee, Swasey, Grande, Moho
Sarstoon Belize 2,218 Sarstoon
Dulce–Izabal Guatemala 3,435 Dulce
Motagua Guatemala 12,670 Motagua, San Francisco, Piteros, Ingleses
Chamelecon Honduras 4,350 Chamelecon
Cumayel Honduras 2,141 Motagua
Ulua Honduras 21,230 Ulua
Lean Honduras 3,045 Lean
Major rivers entering the Gulf of Honduras.[42][43]
River Country Discharge mean, m3 per sec.
Water Sediment
Sittee Belize 32 na
Stann Creek Belize 40 1.7
Swasey Belize 27 na
Monkey Belize 63 2.7
Grande Belize 26 1.1
Moho Belize 37 1.6
Sarstoon Belize 160 6.9
Dulce Guatemala 300 13.0
Motagua Guatemala 530 22.9
San Francisco Guatemala na na
Piteros Guatemala na na
Ulua Honduras 690 29.8
Chamelecon Honduras 370 15.1

Currents edit

The Gulf's open sea experiences the Caribbean Current and a quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy generated in the southwest corner of the Cayman Tranch.[44][45] The latter is centred at about 19°N 86°W, generating a sea surface height anomaly of negative 7.9 inches (0.2 m), with peripheral current velocities of 7.9 to 15.8 inches per second (0.2–0.4 m/s).[44]

The Caribbean Current flows from east to west in the deep waters off the continental shelf of Honduras.[26] In doing so, every few months, it generates cyclonic, counterclockwise gyres, characterised by a central water level depression of 8‍–‍12 inches (20‍–‍30 cm), which take 2‍–‍3 months to progress westwards along the Honduran coast towards the Belize Barrier Reef.[26]

Along the Gulf's northern (ie Belizean) coast, persistent northeasterly trade winds maintain a constant southerly downwelling, with speeds of 3.9 to 7.9 inches per second (0.1–0.2 m/s).[46][47] This southern drift, in turn, drives a counterclockwise eddy along the Gulf's mouth, and along its southern coast (ie the Guatemalan and Honduran coasts).[46][note 6]

Tides edit

The Gulf experiences a mixed, mainly semidiurnal microtide with a mean sea surface elevation range of some 7.9 inches (0.2 m).[48][46] The semidiurnal and diurnal constituent amplitudes range within 1.18‍–‍2.76 inches (0.03‍–‍0.07 m).[48] The dominant semidiurnal and diurnal tidal constituents propagate westwards along the coast of Honduras, and northwards along the Belize Barrier Reef.[48] Currents induced by the tide may be appreciable in constricted channels along the Belize Barrier Reef, reaching 15.75 inches per second (0.4 m/s) here.[49] Astronomical tides are weak, and at times completely dominated by meteorological tides.[49] For instance, the storm surge associated with Hurricane Mitch raised the mean water level at Gladden Spit 9.2 feet (2.8 m) on 27 October 1998.[49]

Waves edit

The northeasterly and easterly trade winds give rise to both wind waves and swell, especially during December–May.[50] These are intensified by cold northerlies and north-westerlies blowing in from North America during November–April in bursts lasting one to three days.[26] Waves are typically 3.28–9.84 feet (1–3 m) high, with periods of 3–7 seconds, though hurricanes may increase their height to 32.81 feet (10 m), and their period to 12.7 seconds.[50] Mean wave direction is towards 255° (ie towards the west-southwest).[50] The wet season's thunderstorms are often accompanied by intense gusts from varying directions, followed by periods of calm.[26]

Water edit

Sea-surface temperatures in the Gulf range from 81 °F (27 °C) in January‍–‍February to 84 °F (29 °C) in August‍–‍September, with the former lower temperatures associated with coastal upwelling driven by intensified trade winds.[51] The Gulf's upper mixed layer, which has uniform temperature and salinity, is about 49 feet (15 m) in its northwest section, featuring temperatures of 83 °F (28 °C) to 88 °F (31 °C).[51] A thermocline develops offshore at 49 to 66 feet (15 to 20 m).[52] Sea-surface salinity in the Gulf averages 36,200 parts per million (36.2 g per kg) offshore, but drops off closer towards the coast, and especially near estuaries like the Amatique Bay, where salinity dips to 5,000–10,000 ppm (5–10 g/kg) during the wet season.[52][19] Visibility in the Gulf ranges from less than 3.28 feet (1 m) near estuaries to a maximum of 108.27 feet (33 m) inside the Belize Barrier Reef. Dissolved oxygen ranges from 0.9 ppm (0.9 mg/L) near coastal areas of wastewater discharge, to 5.2–9.6 ppm (5.2–9.6 mg/L) near the Belize Barrier Reef.[53] pH ranges from 5.8 in areas without marine vegetation (eg seagrass beds), to 7.4 in lagoons and estuaries, to 8.8 near coral reefs.[53] Nitrate and phosphate concentrations range from levels below the detection threshold (near coral reefs), to 7.0 μM and 1.0 μM respectively (near estuaries).[44] Chlorophyll-a concentrations range from undetectable to 0.55 ppm (0.55 mg/L).[44]

Ecology edit

Ecosystems edit

The most significant ecosystems in the Gulf are mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and coral reefs, these being some of the most productive ecosystems on Earth, in terms of mean net primary productivity, and some of the most vulnerable to changes in water quality.[50][48]

Mangrove forests edit

The Gulf's mangrove forests are dominated by red mangroves, though black, white, and buttonwood mangroves are also present.[50] Mangrove stands act as sediment traps in estuaries, thereby protecting coral reefs from sedimentation, and providing a primary source of nutrition and a nursery habitat for coastal marine life.[50] They also act as a physical buffer from tropical storms for inland settlements.[50] The largest forests sit on the Sarstoon–Temash, and the Port Honduras–Payne's Creek areas (on the southern coast of Belize, and the Atlantic coast of Guatemala).[50] Smaller forests are located near Livingston, Dulce River, Puerto Barrios, Punta de Manabique, and in the Jeanette Kawas National Park.[50] Mangrove stands cover at least 130,000 hectares (1,300 km2) of land in Belize, and some 708 hectares (7 km2) of Guatemala's Atlantic coast.[50]

Seagrass beds edit

The Gulf's seagrass beds are dominated by turtle grass, though shoal, manatee, and tape grasses also appear.[54] Seagrass meadows are predominantly found in clear, sandy-bottomed, surf-free, shallow waters, as found off the coast of Belize, in the Amatique Bay, and in Graciosa Bay.[54] They cover some 3,750 hectares (37.5 km2) of the Gulf, reaching a density of some 133 plants per square foot (1,433 plants per m2).[54] They provide a source of nutrition for marine life, and help stabilise the coast.[54] In Belize, they serve as an important habitat for queen conch, the country's second-most important commercial fish species.[54]

Coral reefs edit

The most significant coral reefs in the Gulf are those of the Belize Barrier Reef, itself part of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, the second-largest reef in the world.[54][55] It is composed of lagoon patch reefs, fringing reefs, and offshore atolls.[54] It is home to some 60 coral, 350 mollusc, and 500 fish species.[54] Isolated coral patches dot the Guatemalan and Honduran coasts of the Gulf.[54]

Biodiversity edit

The Gulf's marine life is particularly diverse.[56] It is home to a number of threatened and endangered marine species, most notably West Indian manatees, and green, leatherback, and hawksbill turtles.[57]

Genera and species tallies in coastal and marine areas of Belize in 1998.[57]
Taxa Coastal Marine
Genera Species Genera Species
Fish 37 173 229 472
Invertebrates 29 45 296 456
Reptiles 17 124 5 7
Amphibians 6 7 0 0
Insects 152 240 0 0
Birds 128 177 34 47
Mammals 37 39 4 5
Plants 188 235 66 315
Total 594 627 338 1,302

Protection edit

Belize was the first country in the Gulf to establish a system of protected areas.[58] The Crown Lands Ordinance of 1924 authorised the Governor-in-Council to classify some Crown land as protected areas.[59] The first area so classified was the Half Moon Caye Crown Reserve, a bird sanctuary established on 1 September 1928.[citation needed] Guatemala and Honduras established protected areas by the 1990s.[58] Over 43, 29, and 27 per cent of the territory of Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras, respectively, are under some form of protection.[60] Efforts to establish an international protected area in the Gulf have been hindered by the Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute.[61]

Marine and terrestrial protected areas in the Gulf of Honduras in 2003.[62]
Name Country Area ha
Swasey Bladen Belize 5,981
Maya Mountains Belize 51,845
Columbia River Belize 41,658
Monkey Caye Belize 591
Deep River Belize 31,798
Machaca Creek Belize 1,520
Rio Blanco Belize 40
Sarstoon Temash Belize 16,956
Aguacaliente Belize 2,222
Paynes Creek Belize 12,819
Port Honduras Belize 40,468
Gladden Spit & Silk Cayes Belize 10,510
Sapodilla Cayes Belize 13,517
Rio Dulce Guatemala 7,200
Rio Sarstoon Guatemala 9,600
Chocón Machacas Guatemala 6,265
Manantiales Cerro San Gil Guatemala 47,433
Cierra Santa Cruz Guatemala 46,600
Sierra Caral Guatemala 25,200
Punta de Manabique Guatemala 139,300
Santo Tomás de Castilla Guatemala 1,000
Cusuco Honduras na
Jeannette Kawas Honduras na
Punta Izopo Honduras na
Lancetilla Honduras na

Economy edit

Demographics edit

The Gulf proper encompasses the Toledo and Stann Creek districts of Belize, the Izabal department of Guatemala, and the Cortés and Atlántida departments of Honduras, though the Gulf's watersheds encompass additional districts and departments.[63] These districts are predominantly rural, ethnically diverse, and agrarian.[63]

Agriculture edit

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the Gulf, employing over 30 per cent of the labour force in Belize's southern districts, for instance.[64] Agriculture is undertaken both for subsistence and for commerce, with coffee, cacao, and bananas being the lead exports.[64] Bananas are an important export in all three countries of the Gulf, while coffee is a major product of Guatemala and Honduras.[64] Smallholders tend to focus on maize, beans, and maicillo.[64]

Fisheries edit

The Gulf sustains a number of commercially-fished species, including shrimp, spiny lobster, queen conch, and scale fish (eg swordfish, jurel, sea bass, barracuda, tuna, pejerrey, and anchovy).[64] Some 14.3 million pounds of fish are caught in the Gulf each year, worth some $22.8 million (11.4 million USD), with spiny lobster, queen conch, shrimp, and sardines being the major earners.[64][65] The Belizean coast is particularly known for its shrimping grounds, especially off the Moho, Temash, and Sarstoon rivers, where over 150,000 pounds of shrimp are caught annually by some 200 small-scale fishermen and 10 large-scale trawlers.[64] In the southern coast of the Gulf, some 1,415 Guatemalan and 647 Honduran small-scale fisherman are active.[66]

Aquaculture edit

Four aquaculture farms operate on the Belizean coast of the Gulf.[66] These predominantly grow whiteleg shrimp. In 1999, these farms grew prawn in 107 ponds spanning 722 acres, with an annual production of over two million pounds for local consumption and export.[67]

Tourism edit

Tourism is the second-largest foreign exchange earner in the Gulf countries.[68] In Belize, tourism has historically focussed on cayes and reefs in the northern part of the country, outside the Gulf.[68] In 2001, for instance, only 11.1 per cent of tourists were destined towards the country's southern districts, accounting for only 6 per cent of income derived from tourist accommodation.[68] Activities were primarily eco-cultural, with the main attractions being Mayan archaeological sites and various marine and coastal parks.[68] Tourism infrastructure in the Guatemalan and Honduran coasts is more limited (with the exception of the Honduran Bay Islands).[69]

Transport edit

The major port facilities in the Gulf are the Big Creek and Belize City ports in Belize, Puerto Barrios and Puerto Santo Tomás in Guatemala, and Puerto Cortés in Honduras, with the Honduran port being the only deepwater port in Central America, and one of the best equipped for cargo.[70] In 2001, these ports accommodated nearly 4,000 ships and 12 million metric tonnes of cargo.[70]

Number of ship calls at, and quantity of cargo handled by, five major ports in the Gulf of Honduras.[71]
Port Calls Cargo metric tn
1996 2001 1996 2001
Belize City 231 196 449,378 704,837
Big Creek 54 77 65,868 90,232
Santo Tomás na 1,263 3,185,949 4,245,118
Puerto Barrios 462 535 1,152,000 1,679,700
Puerto Cortés 1,325 1,786 3,992,700 5,661,940
Total > 2,072 3,857 8,845,895 12,381,827

Industry edit

Industrial manufacturing is limited in the Gulf, particularly in the Belizean coast, where the only major factories in 2003 were two citrus and one rice processing plants.[71] Guatemalan and Honduran manufacturing are heavily concentrated on the Gulf's watersheds.[72]

Notes edit

  1. ^ That is, with the Gulf's limits running from Belize City to La Ceiba; data from, SIC 2009b, para. 6. Alternative demarcations may yield different measurements. For instance, the limits used by the 2005‍–‍2012 Gulf of Honduras Project, from Belize City to Punta Izopo, produce an area of some 5,320 sq mi (13,800 km2) (HP 2010, cap. 2 p. 13).
  2. ^ The Bay Islands are often claimed to lie in the Gulf or Bay of Honduras, despite contemporary demarcations of the Gulf excluding most of these (eg Goldberg 2008, para. 1).
  3. ^ Namely, the 1995‍–‍2001 Central American Regional Environmental Programme (aka the PROARCA/Costas Project), and the 2005‍–‍2012 Environmental Protection and Maritime Transport Pollution Control in the Gulf of Honduras Project (aka the Gulf of Honduras Project) (CRC 2022, GEF 2012, IDB 2022a, IDB 2022b, SIC 2009a).
  4. ^ The Caribbean Sea contains five deep basins separated by sills of less than 6,560 feet (2,000 m) in depth (HP 2003, p. 22).
  5. ^ The 2005‍–‍2012 Gulf of Honduras Project demarcated the Gulf from Belize City to Punta Izopo (SIC 2009b, para. 4). As such, its reports (eg HP 2003) concern this area only.
  6. ^ The southerly flow along the Belizean coast is sometimes reversed during September–October, becoming a northerly flow, as during these months, the trade winds tend to blow onto the coast more from the east than the northeast (HP 2003, p. 32).

Citations edit

  1. ^ a b Goldberg 2008, para. 1.
  2. ^ HP 2007, p. ???.
  3. ^ Thattai, Kjerfve & Heyman 2003, p. ???.
  4. ^ Woodard 2008, para. ???.
  5. ^ Downey 2012, p. 44.
  6. ^ IHO 1953, pp. 14–15.
  7. ^ SIC 2009b, para. 3.
  8. ^ Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 17.
  9. ^ SIC 2013b, para. 1.
  10. ^ a b SIC 2013a, para. 1.
  11. ^ SIC 1994.
  12. ^ a b c Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 30.
  13. ^ HP 2003, p. 117.
  14. ^ HP 2003, pp. 117–118.
  15. ^ a b c d e f HP 2003, p. 15.
  16. ^ Bundschuh & Alvarado 2012, pp. 82–83.
  17. ^ Bundschuh & Alvarado 2012, p. 3.
  18. ^ Mann 1999, p. 197.
  19. ^ a b Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, pp. 18–19.
  20. ^ HP 2003, pp. 15–17, 19.
  21. ^ a b HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 2.
  22. ^ a b c HP 2003, pp. 16–17.
  23. ^ HP 2003, pp. 18–19.
  24. ^ HP 2003, pp. 19–20.
  25. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 4.
  26. ^ a b c d e Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 19.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g HP 2003, p. 20.
  28. ^ a b c HP 2003, p. 21.
  29. ^ a b c d e HP 2003, p. 24.
  30. ^ CPG 2013a.
  31. ^ Mann 1999, pp. 20–21, figs. 13-15.
  32. ^ CPG 2013b.
  33. ^ Mann 1999, pp. 24–25, figs. 18-21.
  34. ^ HP 2003, pp. 5–6.
  35. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 9.
  36. ^ HP 2003, p. 4.
  37. ^ a b Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 18.
  38. ^ a b HP 2003, pp. 6–7.
  39. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 19.
  40. ^ HP 2003, p. 5.
  41. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 11.
  42. ^ HP 2003, p. 6.
  43. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 pp. 13-14.
  44. ^ a b c d HP 2003, p. 31.
  45. ^ HP 2010, cap. 3 p. 48.
  46. ^ a b c HP 2003, p. 32.
  47. ^ Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, pp. 19–21.
  48. ^ a b c d Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 21.
  49. ^ a b c HP 2003, pp. 32–33.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j HP 2003, p. 33.
  51. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 25.
  52. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 26.
  53. ^ a b HP 2003, pp. 30–31.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i HP 2003, p. 34.
  55. ^ Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 25.
  56. ^ HP 2003, p. 35.
  57. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 36.
  58. ^ a b HP 2003, pp. 38–39.
  59. ^ Francis 1924, pp. 532–557, pt. XV cap. 88.
  60. ^ HP 2003, p. 39.
  61. ^ HP 2003, p. 41.
  62. ^ HP 2003, p. 40.
  63. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 42.
  64. ^ a b c d e f g HP 2003, p. 47.
  65. ^ Seeliger & Kjerfve 2001, p. 27.
  66. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 48.
  67. ^ HP 2003, pp. 48–49.
  68. ^ a b c d HP 2003, p. 49.
  69. ^ HP 2003, pp. 49–50.
  70. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 50.
  71. ^ a b HP 2003, p. 51.
  72. ^ HP 2003, p. 52.

References edit

News edit

Journals edit

  1. Scocca, Grazia (29 May 2020). "The Preservation of Coral Reefs as a Key Step for Healthy and Sustainable Oceans: The Belize Case". Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy. 23 (1): 27–43. doi:10.1080/13880292.2020.1768691. S2CID 219751527.
  2. Thattai, Deeptha; Kjerfve, Björn; Heyman, W. D. (1 December 2003). "Hydrometeorology and Variability of Water Discharge and Sediment Load in the Inner Gulf of Honduras, Western Caribbean". Journal of Hydrometeorology. 4 (6): 985–995. Bibcode:2003JHyMe...4..985T. doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<0985:HAVOWD>2.0.CO;2.

Print edit

  1. Bird, E., ed. (2010). Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms. Springer reference. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8639-7. ISBN 9781402086403. OCLC 891677622.
  2. Bundschuh, J.; Alvarado, G. E., eds. (2012) [First published 2007]. Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards (Reprint of 1st ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1201/9780203947043. ISBN 9780203947043. OCLC 905983675.
  3. Downey, Cristopher Byrd (22 May 2012). Stede Bonnet: Charleston's Gentleman Pirate. Charleston: The History Press. ISBN 9781609495404. LCCN 2012016826. OCLC 788250735.
  4. Francis, C. B., ed. (1924). Ordinances, Chapters 1–152. The New Edition of the Consolidated Laws of British Honduras 1924 containing the Ordinances of the colony in force on the 21st day of July, 1924. Vol. 1. London: Waterlow & Sons. hdl:2027/mdp.35112101939298. OCLC 4143433.
  5. Goldberg, M. (17 January 2008). "Gulf of Honduras | gulf, Caribbean Sea". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  6. Mann, P., ed. (1999). Caribbean Basins. Sedimentary Basins of the World. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0444826491. OCLC 43540498.
  7. Seeliger, U.; Kjerfve, B., eds. (2001). Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America. Ecological Studies; vol. 144. Vol. 144. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-04482-7. ISBN 9783642086571. OCLC 851369098. S2CID 45188725.

Web edit

  1. CRC (2022). "Central American Regional Environmental Program Coastal Component". Coastal Resources Center of the Graduate School of Oceanography of the University of Rhode Island. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  2. GEF (28 November 2012). "Environmental Protection and Maritime Transport Pollution Control in the Gulf of Honduras". gef. Project No. 963. Global Environment Facility. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  3. IDB (31 May 2022a). "Maritime Transport Pollution Control in the Gulf of Honduras". Inter-American Development Bank. Project No. RS-X1009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  4. IDB (31 May 2022b). "Environmental Management of Ports in the Gulf of Honduras". Inter-American Development Bank. Project No. RS-T1086. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  5. IHO (19 January 2022). "Meso American & Caribbean Sea HC". International Hydrographic Organization. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  6. SIC (12 October 1994). "Alianza Centroamericana para el Desarrollo Sostenible (ALIDES)". Documentos. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  7. SIC (2009a). "Proyecto Protección Ambiental y Control de la Contaminación originada por el Transporte Marítimo en el Golfo de Honduras". Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  8. SIC (2009b). "Acerca del Proyecto". Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  9. SIC (2013a). "CCAD en breve". Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  10. SIC (2013b). "Central American Commission for Environment and Development - CCAD". Regional directory. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  11. SIC (2013c). "Comisión Centroamericana de Transporte Marítimo - COCATRAM". Regional directory. Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. Retrieved 18 June 2022.
  12. Woodard, Colin (14 May 2008). "A Blackbeard mystery solved". Republic of Pirates Blog. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016.

Maps edit

  1. anon. (c. 1536). [Portolan chart of the Atlantic] (Map). [scale not provided]. Portolano containing eleven coloured charts; British Library Add MS 19927. sp.
  2. anon. (1550). [Map of North and Central America] (Map). [scale not provided]. Manuscript portolan atlas of the world; Newberry Library Ayer MS map 13. sp.
  3. anon. (c. 1560). [Portolan chart of the Caribbean and Americas] (Map). [scale not provided]. Portolano containing ten charts; British Library Add MS 9814. sp.
  4. anon. (1565). [Chart of the Americas and Caribbean] (Map). [scale not provided]. Manuscript portolan atlas of the world; Newberry Library Ayer MS map 26. sp.
  5. Allen, G.; Purdy, J. (1825). A Chart of the Bay of Honduras, &c (Map). 1:1,092,960. Enclosure to Letter of 9 July 1825 from the Colonial Office; The National Archives MPK 1/48. sp.
  6. AM (2018). "Maps : Interactive Map : Columbus' Fourth Voyage". Age of Exploration (Interactive map and timeline). Adam Matthew. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  7. Case, J. E.; Holcombe, T. L. (1980). Geologic-tectonic map of the Caribbean region (Map). 1:2,500,000. Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-1100. U.S. Geological Survey.
  8. CPG (2013a). Late Jurassic -- 150 Ma (Map). 1:1,000,000. North American Key Time Slices Series. Colorado Plateau Geosystems.
  9. CPG (2013b). Paleogene (Eocene) -- 40 Ma (Map). 1:1,000,000. North American Key Time Slices Series. Colorado Plateau Geosystems.
  10. Hulsius, L. (1613a). Description del destricto del avdencia de Gvatimala (Map). [scale not provided]. Sammlung von sechs und zwanzig Schiffahrten in verschiedene fremde Länder, volume 2. sp.
  11. Hulsius, L. (1613b). Description del destricto del avdencia de Nveva Espana (Map). [scale not provided]. Sammlung von sechs und zwanzig Schiffahrten in verschiedene fremde Länder, volume 2. sp.
  12. Jefferys, T. (1775). 18th Century, Gulf of Honduras (Map). [scale not provided]. The West-India atlas, or, A compendious description of the West-Indies. Printed for Robert Sayer and John Bennett, Fleet-Street.
  13. Martines, J. (1578). [Portolan chart of the Caribbean] (Map). [scale not provided]. Eighteen very curious geographical charts, elegantly drawn on vellum, in colors and gilding, ...; British Library Harley MS 3450. sp.
  14. Ortelius, A. (1573). Americae sive novi orbis, nova descripto (Map). [scale not provided]. Theatrum oder Schawplatz des erdbodems warin die Landttafeil der gantzen weldt, mit sambt aine der selben kurtze erklarung zu sehen ist durch Abrahamum Ortelium. sp.
  15. Stobnicy, J. ze (1519). [Map of the Americas, East and South East Asia] (Map). [scale not provided]. Introductio in Ptolomei cosmographiam cum longitudinibus & latitudinibus regionum & ciuitatum celebriorum. Hieronymum Vietorem Calcographum.
  16. Thornton, J. (1689a). A chart of the sea coasts of Europe, Africa and America (Map). [scale not provided]. Massachusetts Historical Society Cyprian Southack letters, 1697-1705 Ms. N-949 (Oversize). sp.
  17. Thornton, J. (1689b). A General Chart of the West India (Map). [scale not provided]. Massachusetts Historical Society Cyprian Southack letters, 1697-1705 Ms. N-949 (Oversize). sp.
  18. Willis, B. (1912). Index to the stratigraphy of North America accompanied by a geologic map of North America (Map). 1:5,000,000. Professional Paper 71. U.S. Geological Survey.

Reports edit

  1. HP (August 2003). Preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (PDF) (Report). Environmental Protection and Maritime Transport Pollution Control Program in the Gulf of Honduras. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  2. HP (November 2007). Designation of the Gulf of Honduras as Particular Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) (PDF) (Report). Technical Sheet No. 1. Environmental Protection and Maritime Transport Pollution Control Program in the Gulf of Honduras. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  3. HP (March 2010). Data and Information Management System, Establishment of a Base Line, Preparation of a Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and a Strategic Action Plan (Report). Environmental Protection and Maritime Transport Pollution Control Program in the Gulf of Honduras. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  4. IHO (1953). Limits of Oceans and Seas (Report). Special Publication No. 23 (3rd ed.). International Hydrographic Organization. hdl:10013/epic.37175.d001.

External links edit