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Guardians of Religion Organization

The Guardians of Religion Organization (Arabic: تنظيم حراس الدينTanẓīm Ḥurrās ad-Dīn) is an armed insurgent group affiliated with Al-Qaeda and fighting in the Syrian Civil War. The head of the group, Abu Humam al-Shami, was formerly a member of Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham and previously the al-Nusra Front, al-Qaeda's branch in Syria between 2013 and 2016.[8][better source needed] Abu Jilibib Tubas and Abu Khadija al-Urduni, members of the Guardians of Religion's shura council, left Jabhat Fateh al-Sham in 2016 due to its reported disassociation from al-Qaeda.[22] Tubas, al-Shami, and Sami al-Oraydi were arrested by HTS in November 2017,[23][24] in an attempt to stave off the formation of another al-Qaeda affiliated group in Syria.[25] Also, in November 2017, Jaysh al-Badia and Jaysh al-Malahim were formed.[16] The group also rejects infighting against other groups, but has had some tensions with Hayat Tahrir al-Sham on a few occasions.[12]

Guardians of Religion Organization
Arabic: تنظيم حراس الدين
Tanẓīm Ḥurrās ad-Dīn
Participant in the Syrian Civil War and the Iraqi insurgency (2017–present)
Flag of the group[1][2]
Logo of the group
Active27 February 2018–present
IdeologySalafist jihadism
Group(s)
Leaders
Area of operationsSyria
Size1,000–2,000[11]
Part of al-Qaeda[8][12]
Alliance to Support Islam[13][14]
Rouse the Believers Operations Room[15]
Split from Tahrir al-Sham
Allies Turkistan Islamic Party[16]
Tahrir al-Sham[17]
Ansar al-Tawhid[13]
Ansar al-Islam
Ansar al-Din Front
Firqat al-Ghuraba
Jaysh al-Izza[18]
Opponent(s) Syria
Russia[19]
 Iran
 United States[20][21]
Hezbollah
Battles and war(s)Syrian Civil War

HistoryEdit

In February 2018, the group stated that it is opposed to the fighting between the Syrian Liberation Front and Tahrir al-Sham.[3] However Jaysh al-Sahel, which is part of the Guardians of Religion Organization said that it will fight the SLF if the towns of Muhambal, Bisanqul, and Kafr Shalaya are attacked.[26]

On 26 April 2018, the Guardians of Religion Organization, along with Ansar al-Tawhid, and Jaysh al-Izza, launched a joint attack against Syrian Government forces in the northern countryside of the Hama Governorate.[18]

On 12 October 2018, the Russian government's reconciliation center in Syria accused the group of hoarding materials needed to develop chemical weapons for a false flag attack as well as being an ISIL affiliate.[27] Along with Russian officials accusing the group of being an ISIL affiliate Iraqi media has claimed the group is also an ISIL affiliate operating along the Syrian-Iraqi border, however the group's base of operations is in the Idlib governorate of Syria, the group has not claimed any attacks outside the region nor have any other reports of activity outside of Syria been reported.[28][29]

On 15 October 2018, the group published a video filmed in Saraqib which showed the group's religious police, the hisbah, driving around the city with loudspeakers calling on people to adhere to sharia.[2]

On 29 December 2018, one of the groups founders, named Abu Julaybib, was killed by government forces in the Daraa Governorate while preparing to establish an insurgent cell linked to the group in southern Syria.[10]

On 30 June 2019, in a rare operation against non-ISIL elements, the U.S. carried out a strike against an al-Qaeda in Syria (AQ-S) leadership meeting at a training facility west of Aleppo,[21] which killed eight jihadists from the Guardians of Religion Organization, including six commanders: two Tunisians, two Algerians, an Egyptian and a Syrian.[20] It was the first known U.S. strike in western Syria since February 2017 due to the U.S. and Russia arranging an unofficial deconfliction boundary that largely bars any substantial U.S. forces from venturing into the region. The U.S. did not specify what assets were used in the strike.[30]

On 31 August 2019, the U.S. carried out a series of airstrikes on a Rouse the Believers Operations Room meeting between Kafriya and Maarrat Misrin, killing over 40 Guardians of Religion militants, including several leaders.[31][32]

On 27 October 2019, members of the group were killed during a US raid targeting ISIL's leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in Barisha. A commander of the group named Abu Muhammad al-Halabi, the owner of the house Baghdadi was staying at, was killed during the raid.[33] An Iraqi intelligence official and Hisham al-Hashimi have stated to The Independent that Halabi was also a smuggler, which is why the ISIL head and his family utilized his services.[34]

Relations with other groupsEdit

The Guardians of Religion Organization is part of the Rouse the Believers Operations Room alongside three other Jihadist factions based in northwestern Syria, and alongside Ansar al-Tawhid, which is also part of the Rouse the Believers Operations Room and largely consists of former Jund al-Aqsa elements, established the Alliance to Support Islam in early 2018.[35]

al-QaedaEdit

The group broke away from Hayat Tahrir al-Sham in 2018 a year after the formation of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham due to internal tensions in the organization over issues including its allegiance to al-Qaeda and its leaders, furthermore the Khorasan Group that believed by several intelligence agencies and analysts to be part of al-Nusra which later became HTS, is thought to have evolved into becoming part of the Guardians of Religion Organization.[36] Al-Qaeda also reportedly sent senior cadres from its central command nodes in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran to support the foundation of the Guardians of Religion Organization.[37]

ISILEdit

The group has instructed its members not to associate with ISIL with threat of expulsion from the group and prosecution,[38] while ISIL declared the group to be heretical in its weekly newspaper al-Naba.

However, there is believed to be ISIL-sympathizers in the Guardians of Religion Organization, and prior to the group's foundation as it began as a sub faction of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham in 2017 the year of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham's inception, ISIL reportedly began building ties with these elements prior to the group's formal foundation.

ISIL also began building a contingency plan upon their decline that involved regrouping in opposition held parts of Idlib, including asking the Syrian Democratic Forces during the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani for passage out of the area to Idlib,[39] and the group playing a role in the process, with ISIL infiltrating it, by recruiting members of the group to act as agents including senior leadership, as well as facilitating a flow of displaced fighters from former ISIL-held territories and strongholds to Idlib to join the Guardians of Religion Organization, then carrying out assassinations and sabotage campaigns against individuals in the group and other groups and individuals opposed to ISIL, then formally declaring allegiance to ISIL, when ISIL saw the time as right.[37]

In 2018, Iraqi media and security officials claimed to have captured members of the Guardians of Religion Organization embedded with ISIL fighters from the Syrian border town of Abu Kamal on the Iraqi border heading towards Iraq's Anbar Governorate, and that the group was seeking to expand its presence to northern and central Iraq, and that is was also working with the Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order, which is led by former Saddam Hussein-era Baathist officers, including Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, the Iraqi government also claimed local political parties were financing the group to help it expand into former ISIL-held territories, however the validity of the reports has been questioned.[37][40]

Prior the foundation the Guardians of Religion Oeganization, Sami al-Oraydi who holds an influential position in the group criticzed ISIL and claimed they were Kharijites, and called them "Muslim Killers", he also said that Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, ISIL's official spokesman at the time, was ignorant and didn't understand the things he said, as well as several posts on Twitter critical of ISIL, during his tenure as al-Nusra's top Sharia official.[41]

In 2016, Saif al-Adel, an Egyptian al-Qaeda member who later became part of the Guardians of Religion Organization's leadership also criticized ISIL saying they were twisted and had perverted thoughts.[42]

In January 2019, as part of a campaign a formation called "Free the female prisoners" was established, with the stated goals of freeing female ISIL prisoners held in Syrian Democratic Forces-run internment camps such as the Al-Hawl refugee camp. The formation is believed to be associated with the Guardians of Religion Organization. However a separate campaign with the same goal launched by ISIL itself called "Kafel" has denounced the Free the Female Prisoners campaign as apostates. Free the Female Prisoners has denied being linked to either ISIL or the Guardians of Religion Organization and claims to be an independent organization willing to work with any faction to achieve their goal of freeing female ISIL prisoners.[43]

In August 2019, an unofficial ISIL media outlet called the Muhajireen Foundation, which provides reports and updates on events that may affect ISIL foreign fighters displaced in Syria, released an infographic showing three separate anti-ISIL operations by HTS in Idlib. One the raids carried out by HTS targeted members of the Guardians of Religion Organization and Ansar al-Tawhid who had ties to ISIL. Two of the arrested individuals were Egyptians.[44][45] However previously in January 2019, the same foundation cautioned ISIL members displaced in Idlib to avoid large gatherings and avoid Hayat Tahrir al-Sham and the Guardians of Religion Organization, because HTS and the Guardians of Religion had arrested several ISIL members, the warning also called both HTS and the Guardians apostates.[46][47]

In October 2019, based on a receipt book of ISIL reportedly found by associates of former American intelligence official Asaad Almohammad, analysts have stated that Baghdadi was paying the members of the group in exchange for hiding him. According to the receipts, ISIL paid at least $67,000 to them from early 2017 to mid-2018, including $7,000 in summer 2018 to prepare bases for ISIL fighters from "al-Khair province", hinting that they helped in smuggling ISIL members. Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi pointed to the fact that two groups opposition towards each other.[48] However, Tamimi also speculated that some of the receipts obtained were fabrications, except the ones from March to July 2018 that he was shown.[38]

It is also believed that some members might also be part of a pro-ISIL faction despite the group's official stance regarding ISIL which is critical and generally opposed to it, including reportedly instructing its members not to associate with ISIL members, and ISIL viewing the group as heretical due to their support of the Taliban and al-Qaeda, as well as the group's hesitance to confront Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, despite tensions between the two.[49][50][51]

AnalysisEdit

It is thought by the Israeli Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center that the formation of the group will weaken HTS.[52] Alexander Sehmer of the Jamestown Foundation has stated that Guardians of the Religion Organization gives Al Qaeda the best opportunity to improve its fortunes in Syria.[53]

OrganizationEdit

LeadershipEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://news.siteintelgroup.com/images/obgrabber/2018-08/15903338df.jpeg
  2. ^ a b "New video message from Ḥurās al-Dīn: "Part of the Works of the Ḥisbah in Sarāqib"". Jihadology/. 15 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Seven Al-Qaeda-Affiliated Groups Form New Force In Northern Syria". South Front. 28 February 2018.
  4. ^ Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad. "Jama'at Ansar al-Haq's Separation from Hurras al-Din: Translation and Analysis". Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi.
  5. ^ "al-Qa'ida loyalists reacted strongly against the NLF merger, saying it's a implemention of Astana & warns of impending attack on them & HTS shouldn't be trusted to defend them. Related, 2 more small groups (Ansar al-Haqq, Abna al-Sharia) join Hurras al-Din along with some jurists". Twitter. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  6. ^ "You sure about this? The statement say "مجموعة" i.e. group, not "كتائب" (brigades). Also their leader haven't shared anything on this on his social media accounts". Twitter. 31 August 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  7. ^ Thomas Joscelyn (15 August 2019). "Wanted al Qaeda leader warns of Turkish influence on jihad in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d e Joško Barić (28 February 2018). "Syrian War Daily – 28th of February 2018". Syrian War Daily.
  9. ^ "Landmine explosion kills and injures Guardians of Religion members in Latakia". SMART News Agency. 16 October 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  10. ^ a b Thomas Joscelyn (29 December 2018). "Jihadis claim US-designated terrorist killed in Syria". Long War Journal. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  11. ^ Mohammad Abdulssattar Ibrahim (22 September 2019). "Is HTS benefitting from Coalition airstrikes against foreign jihadists?". Syria Direct. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  12. ^ a b Sultan Al Kanj (April 2018). "Jihadist In-fighting and the Birth of Horas ad-Deen". Chatham House. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b Joško Barić (29 April 2018). "Syrian War Daily – 29th of April 2018". Syrian War Daily.
  14. ^ "Airstrike targeted Al Qaeda leadership in Syria, U.S. military says". Long War Journal. 1 September 2019.
  15. ^ "Military groups calling themselves "the finest factions of the Levant" form joint operations room". Syria Call. 15 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Explainer: Who are the jihadist groups fighting in Syria's Idlib?". BBC Monitoring. 13 January 2018.
  17. ^ "At least 17 Syria pro-regime fighters killed in rebel attacks". Al Jazeera. 27 April 2019.
  18. ^ a b "After military operation for it, violent attack by Horas Al-Din and Ansar Al-Tawheed and Jaysh Al-Izza in northern Hama and heavy aerial and ground shelling target the area". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 26 April 2018.
  19. ^ Mais Noor Aldeen (24 September 2018). "Guardians of Religion shells Russian monitoring outpost, Eastern Idlib". SMART News Agency. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  20. ^ a b "About 8 persons mostly commanders of non-Syrian nationalities were killed in aerial bombardment believed to be caused by the International Coalition warplanes that targeted a headquarters of Hurras Al-Din organization in the "Putin – Erdogan" area". Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 1 July 2019.
  21. ^ a b "Statement from U.S. Central Command on strike against al-Qaida in Syria". United States Central Command. 30 June 2019.
  22. ^ "How al-Qa`ida Lost Control of its Syrian Affiliate: The Inside Story". Combating Terrorism Center. February 2018.
  23. ^ "Former Al-Qaeda in Syria Branch Arrests Members of Al-Qaeda in Syria". The Syrian Intifada. 28 November 2017.
  24. ^ "Tahrir al-Sham Arrests of Qaeda Leaders Cranks up Zawahiri- Julani Dispute". Asharq Al-Awsat. 30 November 2017.
  25. ^ Mona Alami (6 December 2017). "Syria's Largest Militant Alliance Steps Further Away From al-Qaida". Syria Deeply.
  26. ^ Joško Barić (2 March 2018). "Syrian War Daily – 2nd of March 2018". Syrian War Daily.
  27. ^ "Russia blames western states for terrorists obtaining chemical weapons". Al-Masdar News. 12 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  28. ^ https://www.alghadpress.com/news/أخبار-العراق/170445/حذر-من-عودة-داعش-للأنبار-مصدر-قوة-خاصة-عراقية-تطيح
  29. ^ "قوة خاصة عراقية تقتل العشرات من تنظيم حراس الدين". 12 August 2018.
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  32. ^ "Syria war: US missile strike on 'al-Qaeda leaders' in Idlib". BBC. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
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  39. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; Prickett, Ivor (6 February 2019). "A Desperate Exodus From ISIS' Final Village" – via NYTimes.com.
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  44. ^ "(Infographic) Islamic State supporters Al Muhajireen Foundation (unofficial): "Violations of the apostate Hayyat Tahrir Al-Sham" - 27 August 2019". Terrorism Research & Analysis Consortium.
  45. ^ https://pbs.twimg.com/media/EDAotSnXUAE4z80.jpg
  46. ^ "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. November 1, 2019.
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External linksEdit