Gross national income

(Redirected from Gross national product)

The gross national income (GNI), previously known as gross national product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents.[2]: 44 

World Bank's income groups as of 2021[1]

Comparing GNI to GDP shows the degree to which a nation's GDP represents domestic or international activity. GNI has gradually replaced GNP in international statistics.[3][4] While being conceptually identical, it is calculated differently.[5] GNI is the basis of calculation of the largest part of contributions to the budget of the European Union.[6] In February 2017, Ireland's GDP became so distorted from the base erosion and profit shifting ("BEPS") tax planning tools of U.S. multinationals, that the Central Bank of Ireland replaced Irish GDP with a new metric, Irish Modified GNI (or "GNI*"). In 2017, Irish GDP was 162% of Irish Modified GNI.[7]

Comparison of GNI and GDP

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Comparison of GNI (Atlas method), GNI and GDP
2018 World Bank (millions of current US$)
No. Country GNI (Atlas method)[8] GNI[9] GDP[10]
value (a) a - GDP value (b) b - GDP
1   United States 20,636,317 91,974 20,837,347 293,004 20,544,343
2   China 13,181,372 -426,779 13,556,853 -51,298 13,608,151
3   Japan 5,226,599 255,276 5,155,423 184,100 4,971,323
4   Germany 3,905,321 -42,299 4,058,030 110,410 3,947,620
5   France 2,855,844 -45,685 2,832,584 43,684 2,804,484
6   United Kingdom 2,777,405 -77,891 2,816,805 -38,491 2,855,296
7   India 2,727,893 9,161 2,691,040 -27,692 2,718,732
8   Italy 2,038,376 -45,488 2,106,525 22,661 2,083,864
9   Brazil 1,902,286 16,804 1,832,170 -53,312 1,885,482
10   Canada 1,665,565 -47,776 1,694,054 -19,287 1,713,341

GNI (Atlas method) nominal

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Nominal, Atlas method – millions of current US$ (top 15)[3]

Rank 2023 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
1   United States 26,894,543   United States 25,526,912   United States 23,684,736   United States 21,445,453   United States 21,734,159   United States 20,709,155   United States 19,224,810   United States 18,433,936   United States 18,124,086   United States 17,725,039   United States 17,023,066
2   China 18,899,260   China 18,206,073   China 16,883,573   China 14,843,775   China 14,512,889   China 13,385,455   China 12,104,948   China 11,387,927   China 10,883,163   China 10,246,590   China 9,193,838
3   Japan 4,859,878   Japan 5,324,575   Japan 5,487,896   Japan 5,169,146   Japan 5,315,223   Japan 5,300,391   Japan 4,943,005   Japan 4,887,582   Japan 5,006,472   Japan 5,656,061   Japan 6,225,973
4   Germany 4,559,133   Germany 4,527,641   Germany 4,329,964   Germany 3,989,008   Germany 4,105,522   Germany 3,937,444   Germany 3,617,063   Germany 3,646,623   Germany 3,740,019   Germany 3,858,306   Germany 3,807,840
5   India 3,630,237   India 3,394,542   India 3,064,476   India 2,661,734   United Kingdom 2,890,071   United Kingdom 2,792,597   United Kingdom 2,752,284   United Kingdom 2,818,536   United Kingdom 2,890,071   United Kingdom 2,879,862   France 2,890,903
6   United Kingdom 3,266,990   United Kingdom 3,297,427   United Kingdom 3,052,770   France 2,651,967   India 2,878,536   France 2,764,774   France 2,564,094   France 2,608,889   France 2,737,258   France 2,874,055   United Kingdom 2,744,028
7   France 3,072,464   France 3,078,221   France 2,968,919   United Kingdom 2,599,175   France 2,861,603   India 2,713,330   India 2,439,594   India 2,246,784   India 2,097,598   Brazil 2,457,007   Brazil 2,571,101
8   Italy 2,244,585   Italy 2,261,746   Italy 2,153,654   Italy 1,928,007   Italy 2,085,349   Italy 2,045,243   Italy 1,899,454   Italy 1,938,263   Brazil 2,084,247   Russia 2,137,991   Russia 2,179,425
9   Canada 2,162,633   Canada 2,075,404   Canada 1,865,477   South Korea 1,712,697   Brazil 1,953,067   Brazil 1,920,050   Brazil 1,808,497   Brazil 1,839,992   Italy 2,004,023   Italy 2,122,305   Italy 2,142,306
10   Russia 2,084,758   Russia 1,879,408   South Korea 1,821,293   Brazil 1,686,363   Canada 1,752,253   South Korea 1,688,927   Canada 1,567,890   Canada 1,585,229   Russia 1,725,234   India 2,020,998   India 1,941,117
11   Brazil 1,962,339   South Korea 1,868,327   Russia 1,725,858   Canada 1,669,281   South Korea 1,750,992   Canada 1,670,517   South Korea 1,555,716   South Korea 1,502,019   Canada 1,698,849   Canada 1,849,754   Canada 1,852,426
12   South Korea 1,835,476   Brazil 1,774,307   Brazil 1,689,214   Russia 1,575,000   Russia 1,655,618   Russia 1,505,175   Russia 1,352,319   Russia 1,426,946   South Korea 1,465,140   Australia 1,531,471   Australia 1,528,597
13   Australia 1,681,999   Australia 1,582,214   Australia 1,470,331   Australia 1,375,626   Spain 1,431,194   Spain 1,372,430   Australia 1,267,317   Australia 1,309,602   Australia 1,441,971   South Korea 1,428,957   Spain 1,362,931
14   Spain 1,556,447   Spain 1,533,031   Spain 1,426,623   Spain 1,287,271   Australia 1,392,624   Australia 1,326,718   Spain 1,263,572   Spain 1,281,503   Spain 1,321,902   Spain 1,355,256   South Korea 1,360,191
15   Mexico 1,554,336   Mexico 1,378,549   Mexico 1,256,693   Mexico 1,129,323   Mexico 1,241,846   Mexico 1,191,161   Mexico 1,143,310   Mexico 1,190,381   Mexico 1,280,512   Mexico 1,311,930   Mexico 1,267,698

GNI (Atlas method) PPP

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PPP – millions of international dollars (top 15)[4]

Rank 2023 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
1   China 34,388,534   China 31,576,043   China 28,620,862   China 25,044,516   China 24,232,656   China 22,355,235   China 20,567,696   China 19,169,812   United States 18,608,138   United States 17,984,237   United States 17,140,708
2   United States 27,525,100   United States 25,926,000   United States 23,777,600   United States 21,479,588   United States 21,760,847   United States 20,883,383   United States 19,837,150   United States 18,983,369   China 18,129,539   China 17,445,351   China 16,241,642
3   India 14,324,038   India 12,858,238   India 11,250,341   India 9,639,773   India 9,837,436   India 9,131,972   India 8,264,362   India 7,706,181   India 7,120,994   India 6,732,248   India 6,416,831
4   Japan 6,554,254   Japan 6,254,021   Japan 5,866,681   Japan 5,554,842   Japan 5,616,185   Japan 5,548,453   Japan 5,456,930   Japan 5,338,419   Japan 5,404,453   Japan 5,221,591   Japan 5,194,308
5   Russia 6,366,121   Russia 5,884,375   Russia 5,598,676   Germany 4,952,942   Germany 5,021,459   Germany 4,730,328   Germany 4,491,248   Germany 4,268,496   Germany 3,977,709   Germany 3,883,390   Germany 3,712,582
6   Germany 6,092,387   Germany 5,799,414   Germany 5,351,636   Russia 4,542,377   Russia 4,434,791   Russia 4,128,705   Russia 3,705,398   Russia 3,440,587   Russia 3,428,610   Russia 3,639,325   Russia 3,611,853
7   Brazil 4,325,589   Brazil 4,055,711   France 3,728,403   France 3,370,362   France 3,527,047   France 3,197,838   France 3,050,429   France 2,924,693   Brazil 2,932,875   Brazil 3,107,798   Brazil 3,077,182
8   France 4,235,079   France 3,984,079   Brazil 3,669,595   Brazil 3,289,682   United Kingdom 3,332,513   Brazil 3,098,566   United Kingdom 3,009,162   Brazil 2,846,198   France 2,777,205   France 2,719,730   France 2,666,952
9   Indonesia 4,221,517   Indonesia 3,870,444   United Kingdom 3,561,213   United Kingdom 3,151,687   Brazil 3,244,271   United Kingdom 3,087,113   Brazil 2,924,571   United Kingdom 2,824,431   United Kingdom 2,706,923   United Kingdom 2,619,025   United Kingdom 2,516,787
10   United Kingdom 3,974,003   United Kingdom 3,866,883   Indonesia 3,434,771   Indonesia 3,134,896   Indonesia 3,166,892   Indonesia 2,978,437   Indonesia 2,766,769   Indonesia 2,628,825   Indonesia 2,538,121   Indonesia 2,518,157   Indonesia 2,448,797
11   Turkey 3,729,107   Italy 3,324,775   Italy 2,988,508   Italy 2,660,830   Italy 2,797,692   Italy 2,629,049   Italy 2,531,220   Italy 2,427,622   Mexico 2,251,300   Mexico 2,200,816   Italy 2,183,587
12   Italy 3,446,469   Turkey 3,227,873   Turkey 2,627,527   Mexico 2,375,085   Mexico 2,564,439   Mexico 2,538,888   Mexico 2,464,263   Mexico 2,393,565   Italy 2,225,429   Italy 2,200,447   Mexico 2,088,045
13   Mexico 3,207,460   Mexico 2,972,064   Mexico 2,608,640   Turkey 2,362,958   Turkey 2,313,729   Turkey 2,271,021   Turkey 2,235,991   Turkey 2,094,056   Turkey 1,999,739   Turkey 1,844,207   South Korea 1,737,910
14   South Korea 2,846,253   South Korea 2,706,619   South Korea 2,542,823   South Korea 2,360,461   South Korea 2,290,264   South Korea 2,229,385   South Korea 2,112,226   South Korea 2,034,378   South Korea 1,939,637   South Korea 1,801,276   Saudi Arabia 1,730,115
15   Spain 2,535,604   Canada 2,384,385   Canada 2,114,747   Spain 1,850,441   Spain 2,065,307   Spain 1,908,195   Spain 1,843,464   Spain 1,738,407   Spain 1,621,469   Saudi Arabia 1,777,122   Turkey 1,688,340

Gross national product

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Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike gross domestic product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP indicates allocated production based on location of ownership. In fact it calculates income by the location of ownership and residence, and so its name is also the less ambiguous gross national income.

GNP is an economic statistic that is equal to GDP plus any income earned by residents from overseas investments minus income earned within the domestic economy by overseas residents.

GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".[11]

When a country's capital or labour resources are employed outside its borders, or when a foreign firm is operating in its territory, GDP and GNP can produce different measures of total output. In 2009 for instance, the United States estimated its GDP at $14.119 trillion, and its GNP at $14.265 trillion.[12]

The term gross national income (GNI) has gradually replaced the Gross national product (GNP) in international statistics.[3][4] While being conceptually identical, the precise calculation method has evolved at the same time as the name change.[5]

Use of GNP

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The United States used GNP as its primary measure of total economic activity until 1991, when it began to use GDP.[13] In making the switch, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) noted both that GDP provided an easier comparison of other measures of economic activity in the United States and that "virtually all other countries have already adopted GDP as their primary measure of production".[14] Many economists have questioned how meaningful GNP or GDP is as a measure of a nation's economic well-being, as it does not count most unpaid work and counts much economic activity that is unproductive or actually destructive.[15]

GNI vs GDP

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While GDP measures the market value of all final goods and services produced in a given country, GNI measures income generated by the country's citizens, regardless of the geographic location of the income. In many states, those two figures are close, as the difference between income received by the country versus payments made to the rest of the world is not significant. According to the World Bank, the GNI of the US in 2016 was 1.5% higher than GDP.[16]

In developing countries, on the other hand, the difference might be significant due to a large amount of foreign aid and capital inflow. In 2016, the GNI[17] of Armenia was 4.45% higher than GDP.[18] Based on the OECD reports, in 2015 alone, Armenia has received a total of US$409 million development assistance. Over the past 25 years, USAID has provided more than one billion USD to improve the living of the people in Armenia. GNI equals GDP plus wages, salaries, and property income of the country's residents earned abroad that also constitutes the higher GNI figure. According to the UN report on migration from Armenia in 2015–17, every year around 15–20 thousand people leave Armenia permanently,[19] and roughly 47% of those are working migrants that leave the country to earn income and sustain the families left in Armenia. In 2016 Armenian residents received in a total of around $150 million remittances.[20] Armenia's GNI, measured in US dollars, amounted to USD 13.5 billion in 2021, according to the National Statistical Office. This is an 8.23% increase over the prior year. GNI in USD terms in Armenia has historically ranged from a record high of USD 13.8 billion in 2019 to a record low of USD 1.06 billion in 1992. Regarding interest rates on GNI expressed in USD, Armenia is ranked 119th out of the 155 monitored nations.[21]

Lists of GNI per capita

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ "World Bank's Income Groups". Our World in Data. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  2. ^ Todaro, Michael P.; Smith, Stephen C. (2012). Economic development (11 ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-13-801388-2.
  3. ^ a b c World Bank. "GNI, Atlas method". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  4. ^ a b c World Bank. "GNI, PPP (international $)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  5. ^ a b "Glossary:Gross national income (GNI)". Eurostat Statistic Explained. Eurostat. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  6. ^ "Monitoring GNI for own resource purposes". Eurostat Statistic Explained. Eurostat. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  7. ^ Heike Joebges (January 2017). "CRISIS RECOVERY IN A COUNTRY WITH A HIGH PRESENCE OF FOREIGN-OWNED COMPANIES: The Case of Ireland" (PDF). IMK Macroeconomic Policy Institute, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung.
  8. ^ "GNI, Atlas method (current US$)". World Bank.
  9. ^ "GNI (current US$)". World Bank.
  10. ^ "GDP (current US$)". World Bank.
  11. ^ Daly, Herman E. (1996), Beyond Growth. Beacon Press
  12. ^ "Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States" (PDF). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 17 September 2010. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  13. ^ "BEA: Glossary "G"". Bureau of Economic Analysis. 5 September 2007. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007.
  14. ^ "Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of U.S. Production" (PDF). August 1991.
  15. ^ "Beyond GDP". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  16. ^ "BEA: The World Bank - US figures". the World Bank. 2017.
  17. ^ "BEA: Armenia GNP". Macrotrends. 2019.
  18. ^ "BEA: Armenia GDP". Macrotrends. 2019.
  19. ^ "BEA: Migration Rate and Associated Issues in Armenia in 2016–2017". UN Armenia. 2017.
  20. ^ "BEA: Inflow of Remittances by Balance of Payments". Central Bank of Armenia. 2019.
  21. ^ "GNI (Current USD) in Armenia".