Grits is a porridge made from boiled cornmeal. Hominy grits is a type of grits made from hominy – corn that has been treated with an alkali in a process called nixtamalization, with the pericarp (ovary wall) removed. Grits is often served with other flavorings[1] as a breakfast dish. Grits can be either savory or sweet, with savory seasonings being more common. The dish originated in the Southern United States but is now available nationwide. Grits is often part of a dinner entrée shrimp and grits, served primarily in the South.[1]

Grits
Grits1.jpg
Grits, as a breakfast side-dish with bacon, scrambled eggs and toast
TypePorridge
Place of originUnited States
Main ingredientsGround corn
VariationsHominy grits
Yellow speckled grits
Cheese grits
Grits with cheese, bacon, green onion and a basted egg

Grits is similar to other thick maize-based porridges from around the world, such as polenta and mieliepap. In the Charleston, South Carolina area, cooked grits is called "hominy" and uncooked grits is called "grist."[2] The word "grits" is derived from the Old English word grytt, meaning "coarse meal".[3]

OriginEdit

The dish originated with the Native American Muscogee tribe using a corn similar to hominy.[4] American colonists learned to make the dish from the Native Americans, and it quickly became an American staple.[5]

At that time, the hominy for grits was ground on a stone mill. The ground hominy was then passed through screens, the finer sifted material used as grit meal, and the coarser as grits.[6]

Three-quarters of the grits sold in the U.S. are bought in the South, in an area stretching from Lower Texas to Washington, D.C., that is sometimes called the "grits belt".[7] The state of Georgia declared grits to be its official prepared food in 2002.[8] A similar bill was introduced in South Carolina to name it the official state food,[9] but it did not advance.[10] Nevertheless, South Carolina still has an entire chapter of legislation dealing exclusively with corn meal and grits.[11] State law in South Carolina requires grits and rice meal to be enriched, similar to the requirement for flour.[11]

Grits may be either yellow or white, depending on the color of the corn used. The most common version in supermarkets is "quick" grits, which have the germ and hull removed. Whole kernel grits is sometimes called "speckled".[12]

PreparationEdit

 
Prepared grits

Grits are prepared by mixing water or milk and cornmeal, and stirring them over heat.[13][14] Whole grain grits require much longer to become soft than "quick grits".

Some people serve grits with sugar, while others object to sweetened grits. They are often served with butter. They are served with grated cheese, sausage, bacon, salt and pepper, or red-eye gravy.

Left-over grits congeal and can be sliced then fried either plain or with a breading, making "fried grits", "fried hominy", or "grit cakes".[citation needed][15]

DishesEdit

Grits are eaten with a wide variety of foods, such as eggs and bacon, fried catfish, shrimp, salmon croquettes, or country ham.[16]

Shrimp and grits is a traditional dish in the coastal communities in the South Carolina Lowcountry and Georgia's Lower Coastal Plain.[17] While shrimp and grits may have come from the South Carolina Lowcountry, particularly the Gullah people, the Shrimp and grits dishes eaten by most people trace a much more recent heritage to the Crooks Corner restaurant in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, in 1982.[18]

Solidified cooked grits can be sliced and fried in vegetable oil, butter, or bacon grease, or they can first be breaded in beaten egg and bread crumbs.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Moss, Robert. "The Surprisingly Recent Story of How Shrimp and Grits Won Over the South". Serious Eats. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  2. ^ Huguenin, Mary Vereen and Stoney, Anne Montague, eds. Charleston Receipts. The Junior League of Charleston:1950. P. 153
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "grits". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
  4. ^ "Shrimp and Grits: A History – Deep South Magazine". Archived from the original on March 7, 2016.
  5. ^ Wulff, Alexia (November 7, 2016). "A Brief History Of Grits". Culture Trip. Retrieved July 31, 2021.
  6. ^ Marcus, Erica (May 3, 2006). "Newsday, Melville, N.Y., Burning Questions column: Kernels of Truth on Ground Corn". Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Washington. p. 1 – via ProQuest.
  7. ^ Cutler, Charles L. (2002). Tracks that Speak: The Legacy of Native American Words in North American Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 28. ISBN 0-618-06510-5.
  8. ^ Georgia Secretary of State, State Prepared Food. Retrieved December 14, 2007.
  9. ^ South Carolina General Assembly 113th Session, 1999–2000, Bill Number: 4806. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  10. ^ "A Bill to Amend the Code of Laws of South Carolina, 1976, By Adding Section 1-1-703 So As To Recognize Grits As the Official Food of the State. Session 113 - (1999-2000). 4806 General Bill, By Altman". scstatehouse.gov. South Carolina Legislature. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Code of Laws. Title 39. Trade and Commerce. Chapter 29. "Corn Meal and Grits"". scstatehouse.gov. South Carolina Legislature. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  12. ^ Lee, Matt; Lee, Ted (April 26, 2000). "A Taste of Charleston; Corn's Highest Calling: Grits". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  13. ^ "How to Make Grits". Better Homes & Gardens. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  14. ^ "Repeat After Me: Grits and Polenta Are Not the Same Thing". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  15. ^ "9 Mistakes You Might Be Making With Grits". HuffPost. September 26, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  16. ^ "How To Cook Grits Like A Southerner". HuffPost. October 29, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  17. ^ "The Surprisingly Recent Story of How Shrimp and Grits Won Over the South". www.seriouseats.com. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  18. ^ "Shrimp and Grits a History". Deep South Magazine. Deep South Media, LLC. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  19. ^ "Southern Fried Grit Patties". Just A Pinch Recipes. Retrieved October 29, 2019.