Green Lawn Cemetery (Columbus, Ohio)

Green Lawn Cemetery is a historic private rural cemetery located in Columbus, Ohio in the United States. Organized in 1848 and opened in 1849, the cemetery was the city's premier burying ground in the 1800s and beyond. An American Civil War memorial was erected there in 1891, and chapel constructed in 1902. With 360 acres (150 ha), it is Ohio's second-largest cemetery.

Green Lawn Cemetery
Greenlawn Cemetery.jpg
Main (east) entrance of Green Lawn Cemetery
EstablishedJuly 9, 1849
1000 Greenlawn Avenue, Columbus, Ohio
CountryUnited States
CoordinatesCoordinates: 39°56′25″N 83°01′56″W / 39.940389°N 83.032324°W / 39.940389; -83.032324
TypePrivate nonprofit
Owned byGreen Lawn Cemetery Association
Size360 acres (150 ha)
No. of graves155,000 (as of 2017)
WebsiteGreen Lawn Cemetery
Find a GraveGreen Lawn Cemetery
The Political GraveyardGreen Lawn Cemetery


Franklinton Cemetery was the first cemetery established in what later became Columbus. It was built on land donated by Lucas Sullivant on River Street near Souder Avenue in 1799. Many of the early settlers of Franklinton and Columbus were buried there.[1] The 11.5-acre (4.7 ha)[2] North Graveyard followed in 1812, and the 11.25-acre (4.55 ha) East Graveyard in 1841.[3] A 3-acre (1.2 ha) Roman Catholic cemetery opened in 1848[4] (although it had been in use as early as 1846).[5][a]

Establishment of Green LawnEdit

By the mid-1840s, growing settlement in the area left the Franklinton, North, and East cemeteries too small to accommodate more burials.[6] On February 24, 1848, the Ohio General Assembly enacted a law providing for the incorporation of cemetery associations by 10 or more people.[7] On August 2, 1848,[8] a group of Columbus area business and civic leaders that included A.C Brown, William G. Deshler, William A. Platt, Thomas Sparrow, Alfred P. Stone, Joseph Sullivant, William B. Thrall, and others formed the Green Lawn Cemetery Association. The group secured a charter from the Ohio General Assembly on March 23, 1849, incorporating the "Green Lawn Cemetery of Columbus".[9][10] A public meeting was held on July 12,[3] and a committee of 11 local leaders appointed to select a site and draft articles of incorporation.[11][b] The committee presented the public with draft articles of incorporation on August 2. These were accepted, and the first board of directors organized on August 26.[11]

The board sought a site of about 50 to 100 acres (20 to 40 ha) of gently rolling land well-covered in trees and shrubs.[12] The first purchase of 83 acres (34 ha) of forested land was made in the early spring of 1849 at a cost of $3,750 ($100,000 in 2021 dollars).[13] This consisted of a 39-acre (16 ha) tract obtained from Judge Gershom M. Peters[c] and a 44-acre (18 ha) tract from William Miner.[11][d] A public picnic was held on the ground on May 23, during which a partial clearing of a small portion of the land occurred.[9][14] Architect Howard Daniels was hired to lay out the roads, paths, and plots.[8] Daniels had spent several months in Europe studying rural cemetery design there, and had recently designed his first cemetery, Cincinnati's widely praised Spring Grove Cemetery.[15] A formal dedication of the cemetery occurred on July 9.[9] A superintendent's cottage was erected near the main gate on Brown Road,[11] and Richard Woolley appointed the first superintendent.[16]

Growth of the cemeteryEdit

At the time, the cemetery was located 2.5 miles (4.0 km) west of the nascent village of Columbus.[9] The first burial at Green Lawn Cemetery was that of a child, Leonora Perry, on July 7, 1849.[11] The second, and first adult, was Dr. B. F. Gard on July 12.[17] The first headstone or other monument in the cemetery was erected the second week of October 1849 by William G. Deshler. It was for his wife, Olive, who had died at the age of 19. The monument consisted of an upright stone slab depicting a rose branch. The bloom itself was carved on the plinth on which the slab stood, and was inscribed "Olive, wife of William G. Deshler, age 19".[18] After Green Lawn opened, most of the families with graves at Franklinton Cemetery moved their ancestral remains to Green Lawn.[1][e] Franklinton Cemetery quickly fell out of favor as a place to be buried.[8] Those buried at North Graveyard also disinterred loved ones' remains and moved them to Green Lawn. By 1869, about half of those buried at North Graveyard had been reinterred at Green Lawn.[18]

Green Lawn Cemetery lotholders voted to bar non-whites from being buried at Green Lawn in 1856.[19][f] It was not until 1872 that this restriction was lifted, and a segregated section set aside for African Americans.[18]

In February 1864, the trustees of Green Lawn Cemetery offered to exchange burial lots with those individuals who still retained plots at North Graveyard. Green Lawn intended to build homes on the site of the abandoned North Graveyard and lease them in order to generate income. In addition, the Columbus, Chicago and Indiana Central Railway sought to condemn a portion of the burying ground for a railroad right of way. The two offers generated extensive litigation, as lotholders sought to prevent the disinterment of loved ones and those who had deeded land to the city tried to regain title to it. This litigation was not resolved until the late 1870s, and it was not until 1881 that most graves were removed from North Graveyard.[21][g]

On April 1, 1872, the cemetery purchased a 32-acre (13 ha) tract from Samuel Stimmel and a 30-acre (12 ha) tract from John Stimmel, bringing the cemetery's total size to 147 acres (59 ha).[11] In 1887, Green Lawn expanded to 275 acres (111 ha), and Green Lawn Avenue opened to create an eastern entrance to the cemetery.[23] In 1898, an iron bridge was built over a ravine between sections 54 and 55.[24] By 1919, all the roads in the cemetery were of macadam, and had gutters.[25]

The Soldiers and Sailors' Memorial was erected at Green Lawn Cemetery in 1891.[26] Cemetery officials first set aside a section (M) for military burials on June 10, 1862.[18] The Ex-Soldiers and Sailors' Association of Franklin County, a group of Civil War veterans, purchased four lots in section 28 in November 1881 for the interment of veterans.[26][27] Two years later, the association began a campaign to raise funds for the design and erection of a veterans memorial in that section.[26] Another four lots in section 28 were purchased in January 1886,[27] and in March 1886 the Ohio General Assembly authorized the commissioners of Franklin County to levy a tax to aid in the construction of the memorial.[26][28] A memorial design was approved in October 1886, and the memorial erected by the New England Granite Works of Hartford, Connecticut. The $8,900 ($300,000 in 2021 dollars) memorial was completed in November 1890.[28]

21st Century VandalismEdit

In 2012 metal thieves damaged numerous family mausoleums, in some cases stealing entire door and window grates and in one case breaking into crypts in a family mausoleum. The perpetrators were never caught, and the cemetery extended fences to prevent after hours vehicular entry and contract random security patrols. These measures proved insufficient when the next acts of vandalism occurred.

A vandal struck Green Lawn Cemetery more than a dozen times beginning in the fall of 2014. The vandal initially knocked over gravestones, but over time the damage worsened. By early 2016, more than 600 monuments were damaged as well as glass and the historic bust of Gustavus Swan.[29] Cemetery officials estimated the cost of repairs at more than $1.25 million ($1,400,000 in 2021 dollars).[29] Cemetery officials contracted full nighttime security patrols in the cemetery and installed numerous security cameras which resulted in identifying the vandal, but he was never charged by law enforcement. By 2021 most of the damage was repaired except a few broken obelisks.

The enhanced security measures have, as of 2021, curtailed any similar vandalism after hours.

In the wake of the vandalism, cemetery volunteers and instructors at Columbus State Community College created a geographic information system capstone course. Taught by Doreen Whitley Rogers, nonprofit executive and wife of a cemetery trustee, students in the course donated more than $10,000 ($11,055 in 2021 dollars) in free consulting services to the cemetery. Damaged graves were identified and damage documented, potential vandal points of entry noted, repair cost analyses generated, and patterns of criminal activity in the cemetery identified.[29]

Starting in 2020, a vandal damaged nearly 100 trees over a period of several months during mornings shortly after the grounds opened. As of September 2021 evidence is being processed and charges are pending against an identified suspect.

Huntington ChapelEdit

Huntington Chapel

Green Lawn officials had long desired to build a chapel at the cemetery ever since its formation in 1848. A site was selected, but cemetery expansion made it less than ideal. A second site was selected, but again expansion rendered the site inappropriate. After the 1887 expansion, the board of directors felt secure enough to select a permanent location for the new chapel. Design and construction were put off until enough funds had been raised to erect a substantial building of excellent materials and workmanship. The fundraising effort neared completion in 1899, at which time the board selected architect Frank Packard to design the chapel. Packard was a natural choice, as he had advised the board for several years on the landscape design and aesthetics of the cemetery.[25]

This structure, originally called the Mortuary Chapel,[30] was dedicated on November 11, 1902.[8] The chapel is in the Renaissance Revival style, and features a rotunda[31] capped in red vitrified tile.[32] The dome bears a resemblance to the Ohio Statehouse (then still under construction).[31] The structure rests on a bed of gravel 8 feet (2.4 m) below the surface. The foundations are of concrete and stone, and arches of brick and concrete support the building above. The exterior walls are of white marble, while the interior walls are clad in "English vein" Italian marble.[32][h] The main entry doors are bronze and flanked by Ionic columns, while the interior floor is a geometric pattern of black and white tile. The dome, made of leaded art glass, supported by interior pilasters of bronze and marble.[32]

The chapel contains two murals (depicting Truth and Wisdom), a number of mosaics, and windows of both leaded and stained glass.[35] The art glass murals were designed by Frederick Wilson and executed by Tiffany & Co.[36] The stained glass windows were designed by Tiffany & Co.[24] The north window depicts Peggy Thompson, the first white woman known to die in the area,[37] and the south window Isaac Dalton,[37] a superintendent of the Soldier's Home in Columbus who took special care of wounded soldiers during the American Civil War.[38] Peletiah Huntington, founder of what became Huntington Bancshares, donated the mosaics, murals, and stained glass windows. The rest of the chapel cost $24,000 ($800,000 in 2021 dollars).[31] The funeral space in the chapel was dedicated to Huntington in 1902 with the placement of a bronze tablet there.[39]

The Mortuary Chapel was designed to be a place where funerals could be held. Over time, few funerals were held there. Instead, the public began using the chapel as a meditative space, and requesting to be buried inside it.[31] The chapel was renovated, a west wing with service room and bathrooms added, and a carillon with bells constructed in 1963. The leaded glass rotunda was capped with a concrete dome to protect it. The addition and carillon were in the Neoclassical style.[8] A north wing was completed in 1979. The Thompson stained glass window was removed, and a door cut through to the new wing. The historic window was relocated to the east wall of the new wing, while a new stained glass window and fountain were placed at the west wall of the wing. The north wing serves as an indoor mausoleum.[citation needed]

The chapel was rededicated in the early 2000s as Huntington Chapel.[24]

About Green Lawn CemeteryEdit

Section 51, one of six sections at Green Lawn Cemetery set aside for war dead and veterans

Green Lawn Cemetery is privately owned by the nonprofit Green Lawn Cemetery Association.[40] The cemetery is one of Ohio's most prominent rural (or "garden") cemeteries.[41] Any member of the public may purchase a plot.

As of 2021, Green Lawn Cemetery contained 360 acres (1.5 km2), making it Ohio's second-largest cemetery.[42] About 80 acres (32 ha) were undeveloped, which cemetery officials said should provide burial space for another 100 to 150 years.[24] About 27 miles (43 km) of roads wind through the burying ground.[43]

There are roughly 7,000 trees[43] belonging to 150 species at the cemetery. This includes four "state champion" trees (the largest and tallest trees of their species anywhere in the state).[24] In 1999, the Audubon Society recognized Green Lawn Cemetery as part of the Lower Scioto River Ohio "Important Bird Area".[44]

According to cemetery records in 2021, more than 155,000 people were buried at Green Lawn Cemetery.[29] This included 6,000 veterans buried in seven military sections (thousands more are buried on private lots), of which 15 were generals[24] and five Medal of Honor recipients.[29] Portions of two of the military sections are National Cemeteries.

Sections at Green Lawn Cemetery were originally lettered in the order in which they were developed. The cemetery's rapid expansion forced the cemetery to begin numbering sections after running through the alphabet.[24]

Notable structures and artEdit

The Hayden family mausoleum is the cemetery's largest. Designed by local architect Frank Packard,[45] it was completed for banker Charles H. Hayden in early 1905.[46] Built at a cost of about $80,000 to $100,000 ($2,400,000 to $3,000,000 in 2021 dollars), the Neoclassical style tomb had a granite foundation, interior and exterior walls of white Vermont marble, and two Ionic columns on each side of the main entrance. The structure is 45 feet (14 m) wide, 55 feet (17 m) deep, and has a 45-foot (14 m) high dome. The interior is octagonal, and features two columns of marble with a hue like alabaster in each corner. The tomb originally contained eight marble sarcophagi, carved in Italy. The main doors were of bronze. Hayden wanted the construction of the mausoleum to be a surprise for his family, so Packard refused to tell the press or cemetery officials who commissioned the work until it was completed.[46]

A row of small, Egyptian Revival mausoleums in section 65 contains the Packard mausoleum. Architect Frank Packard designed the Packard family mausoleum himself.[47]

Notable burialsEdit

Grave of Governor William Dennison Jr.
Grave of Alfred Kelley and his immediate descendants
Grave of World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker

Notable individuals buried at the cemetery include:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ This cemetery had no name,[5] but was generally referred to as the "Catholic Burying-Ground" and later the "Old Catholic Burying-Ground".[4]
  2. ^ The committee consisted of William B. Hubbard, William Kelsey, Robert McCoy, John Miller, A.F. Perry, William A. Platt, Joseph Ridgway Jr., Joseph Sullivant, William B. Thrall, and John Walton.[3]
  3. ^ The purchase was announced on January 25, 1849.[12]
  4. ^ Purchase of additional land was not originally contemplated, but moved and authorized at a board of directors on April 16, 1849.[12]
  5. ^ Not all family plots were moved, and many individual graves also remained at Franklinton Cemetery.[1]
  6. ^ The North Graveyard was only partially racially integrated when it opened. Although African Americans could be buried there, they were buried in a separate section.[2] When the East Graveyard opened in 1841, the city required that it be racially integrated.[3] This land was marshy, and was used as a potter's field.[20]
  7. ^ Not all bodies were removed. Several hundred bodies were never removed, and lay just 2 to 3 feet (0.61 to 0.91 m) below the surface.[22]
  8. ^ White Italian marble comes in three classes: Sicilian (also known as Bianco Chiaro), with cloudy and irregular veins; Statuary, which has no clouds or veins; and Vein.[33] In the United States, Sicilian and Vein are lumped together into a single category, known as English vein. English vein is classified as grade one (no clouds, well-defined light or heavy veins), grade two (light clouds, with well-defined light or heavy veins), and grade three (clouds and veins, light or heavy, well- or ill-defined).[34]
  1. ^ a b c Lehosit 2015, p. 32.
  2. ^ a b Martin 1993, p. 161.
  3. ^ a b c d Lee 1892, p. 723.
  4. ^ a b Studer 1873, p. 225.
  5. ^ a b Miller 2008, p. 7.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Lehosit 2015, p. 33.
  7. ^ Acts of a General Nature Passed by the Forty-Sixth General Assembly 1848, pp. 97–100.
  8. ^ a b c d e Samuelson 1976, p. 249.
  9. ^ a b c d Martin 1993, p. 162.
  10. ^ Acts of a Local Nature Passed by the Forty-Eighth General Assembly 1850, pp. 583–584.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Studer 1873, p. 219.
  12. ^ a b c Lee 1892, p. 724.
  13. ^ Studer 1873, pp. 219, 223.
  14. ^ Lee 1892, pp. 724–725.
  15. ^ Cothran & Danylchak 2018, p. 148.
  16. ^ Martin 1993, p. 163.
  17. ^ Martin 1993, p. 164.
  18. ^ a b c d Lee 1892, p. 725.
  19. ^ Martin 1993, pp. 163–164.
  20. ^ Lee 1892, p. 727.
  21. ^ Lee 1892, p. 726.
  22. ^ Hendren, Sam (April 27, 2017). "A Tower Will Rise Above North Market. Below, A Graveyard Awaits". WOSU. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  23. ^ Leland 1919, pp. 146, 147.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "A Peaceful Interlude". Smart Business Magazine. May 2015. pp. 14–15. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  25. ^ a b Leland 1919, p. 146.
  26. ^ a b c d Hooper 1920, p. 54.
  27. ^ a b Strader 1899, p. 50.
  28. ^ a b Strader 1899, p. 49.
  29. ^ a b c d e Thompson, Emily (May 22, 2017). "To Save Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus State Students Track The Damage". WOSU. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  30. ^ Leland 1919, pp. 147, 148.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Blundo, Joe (November 29, 2012). "Cemetery, chapel teeming with history". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  32. ^ a b c "Mortuary Chapel, Greenlawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The Monumental News. June 1901. p. 349. hdl:2027/uc1.c2558857. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  33. ^ Renwick 1909, p. 73.
  34. ^ McClymont, J.J. (May 1924). "List of the World's Marbles (cont.)". Through the Ages Magazine. p. 39.
  35. ^ Leland 1919, p. 148.
  36. ^ Thomas, W.H. (May 1906). "Glass Mosaic—An Old Art With a New Distinction". The International Studio: 74–78. hdl:2027/gri.ark:/13960/t5bd0dw7d. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  37. ^ a b Bentley 1984, p. 240.
  38. ^ Wooley & Van Brimmer 2006, p. 191.
  39. ^ Bentley 1984, p. 239.
  40. ^ Zachariah, Holly (May 26, 2017). "Green Lawn Cemetery wants to recapture founders' original intent". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 13, 2018; "Three offbeat tours of Columbus". Columbus Monthly. March 9, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  41. ^ Division of Geological Survey (1992). Report on Ohio Mineral Industries: With Directories of Reporting Coal and Industrial Mineral Operators (Report). Columbus, Ohio: Ohio Department of Natural Resources. p. 6.
  42. ^ McCormac, Jim (November 19, 2017). "Nature: Green Lawn Cemetery's majestic old trees leave lasting impression". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  43. ^ a b c Hendren, Sam (February 6, 2017). "Grave Concern: The Million-Dollar Destruction of Green Lawn Cemetery". WOSU. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
  44. ^ Deitch, Linda (August 25, 2013). "Did You Know? Park is hot spot for migrating birds". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  45. ^ Wartenberg, Steve (September 29, 2013). "Century-old Atlas Building bringing more upscale living Downtown". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  46. ^ a b "Mausoleum With Unknown Owner". The Reporter. September 1904. p. 43. Retrieved July 31, 2018.
  47. ^ Darbee & Recchie 2008, p. 229.
  48. ^ United States Congress. "De Witt Clinton Badger (id: B000021)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  49. ^ United States Congress. "John W. Bricker (id: B000820)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  50. ^ United States Congress. "James E. Campbell (id: C000087)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  51. ^ Andrews, William D. (Summer 1972). "William T. Coggeshall: 'Booster' of Western Literature". Ohio History Journal: 213. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 684.
  53. ^ Hannan & Herman 2008, p. 157.
  54. ^ United States Congress. "George L. Converse (id: C000711)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  55. ^ Phillips, David E. (January 1908). "Monumental Inscriptions From Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly: 53. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  56. ^ Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 206.
  57. ^ Barrett 2012, pp. 22–24.
  58. ^ United States Congress. "Daniel S. Earhart (id: E000006)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  59. ^ Wilson & Mank 2016, p. 216.
  60. ^ Eicher & Eicher 2001, pp. 240–241.
  61. ^ United States Congress. "Samuel Galloway (id: G000027)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  62. ^ Lee 2009, p. 146.
  63. ^ Eagle & LeBlanc 2013, pp. 81–82.
  64. ^ a b Reitzel, Rick (May 29, 2017). "Memorial Day services in Columbus' honor decorated Buffalo Soldier". WCMH-TV. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  65. ^ Smith, Joseph P. (January 1896). "Henry Howe, The Historian". Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly: 336. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  66. ^ Phillips, David E. (October 1907). "Monumental Inscriptions From Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly: 357. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  67. ^ Johnson, Alan (November 25, 2011). "Statehouse architect finally to get marker in Green Lawn Cemetery". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  68. ^ United States Congress. "John J. Lentz (id: L000244)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  69. ^ Lentz, Ed (August 19, 2013). "Martin legacy: Early Columbus history". ThisWeek. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  70. ^ "Judge Matthias Services Set For Thursday". Sandusky Register Star News. November 3, 1953. p. 3. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  71. ^ Phillips, David E. (July 1907). "Monumental Inscriptions From Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly: 252. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  72. ^ United States Congress. "Herman A. Moore (id: M000899)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  73. ^ "Proclamation of Governor Herrick". Xenia Daily Gazette. October 29, 1904. p. 1. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  74. ^ Phillips, David E. (October 1907). "Monumental Inscriptions From Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly: 359. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  75. ^ "General Edward Orton, Jr.—Our Tribute". The Clay-Worker. February 1932. pp. 74–75.
  76. ^ United States Congress. "Joseph H. Outhwaite (id: O000136)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  77. ^ Oliphint, Joel; Rogers, Jenny; Schmidt, Kristen; Sullivan, Michelle; Thompson, Emily; Tiberio, Tom; Tonguette, Peter (December 2013). "Storied Buildings". Columbus Monthly. p. 67. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  78. ^ Eicher & Eicher 2001, p. 437.
  79. ^ United States Congress. "Joseph Ridgway (id: R000247)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  80. ^ Decker, Theodore (December 22, 2016). "Green Lawn vandals steal peace from families". Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  81. ^ "Ex-Manager Southworth Dies at 76". Zanesville Times Recorder. November 16, 1969. p. 25. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  82. ^ United States Congress. "Alfred P. Stone (id: S000952)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  83. ^ Phillips, David E. (July 1907). "Monumental Inscriptions From Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio". The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Quarterly: 352–353. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  84. ^ United States Congress. "Edward L. Taylor Jr. (id: T000071)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  85. ^ Lentz, Ed (August 7, 2016). "Minister left lasting OSU legacy". ThisWeek. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  86. ^ United States Congress. "Allen G. Thurman (id: T000251)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  87. ^ Boardman, Mark (April 24, 2010). "Tracking a Vendetta Rider". True West Magazine. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  88. ^ "Judge Turner Rites to be Held Saturday". Columbus Dispatch. September 14, 1950. pp. A1, A6.
  89. ^ United States Congress. "John Martin Vorys (id: V000119)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  90. ^ United States Congress. "David K. Watson (id: W000200)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  91. ^ "Obituary: Westlake". Columbus Dispatch. December 11, 1978. p. B7.
  92. ^ Lee 2009, p. 428.


External linksEdit