Greek mythology in popular culture

Elements of Greek mythology appear many times in culture, including pop culture.[2][need quotation to verify] The Greek myths spread beyond the Hellenistic world when adopted (for example) into the culture of ancient Rome, and Western cultural movements have frequently incorporated them ever since,[3] particularly since the Renaissance.[4] Mythological elements feature in Renaissance art and in English poems,[5] as well as in film and in other literature,[6] and in songs and commercials.[7] Along with the Bible and the classics-saturated works of Shakespeare, the myths of Greece and Rome have been the major "touchstone" in Western culture for the past 500 years.[8][need quotation to verify]

The 19th-century statue of Athena, in front of the Austrian Parliament Building, illustrates "myth fill[ing] in where history failed" to provide an appropriate local personification of the political rise of the Parliament over the power of Emperor Franz Joseph (r. 1848–1916).[1]
Pegasus has frequently appeared on airmail stamps, such as this early example from Italy, 1930.

Elements appropriated or incorporated include the gods of varying stature, humans, demigods, titans, giants, monsters, nymphs, and famed locations. Their use can range from a brief allusion to the use of an actual Greek character as a character in a work. Some types of creatures—such as centaurs and nymphs—are used as a generic type rather than individuated characters out of myth.

Use by governments and public institutionsEdit

A coin, featuring the profile of Hera on one face, and Zeus on the other side, c. 210 AC

Roman conquerors allowed the incorporation of existing Greek mythological figures such as Zeus into their coinage in places like Phrygia, in order to "augment the fame" of the locality, while "creating a stronger civil identity" without "advertising" the imposition of Roman culture.[9]

In modern times, the initial Greek 2 Euro coin featured the myth of Zeus and Europa, and sought to connect the new Europe through Western history to the ancient culture of Greece.[10] As of December 2012, the European Central Bank has plans to incorporate Greek mythological figures into the designs used on its bank notes.[11]

The American colonial revolutionary, Thomas Greenleaf, subtitled his newspaper "The Argus" after the mythological watchman and took the slogan "We Guard the Rights of Man."[12]

The Pegasus appears frequently on stamps, particularly for air mail.[13] In 1906, Greece issued a series of stamps featuring the stories from Hercules' life.[14] Australia commemorated the laying of an underwater cable linking it to the island of Tasmania through a stamp featuring an image of Amphitrite.[15]

The United States military has used Greek mythology to name its equipment such as the Nike missile project[16] and the Navy having over a dozen ships named from Greek mythology.[i][17][18] Greek mythology has been the source for names for a number of ships in the British navy,[ii][19][20] as well as the Australian Royal Navy[iii][21] which has also named a training facility in Victoria called HMAS Cerebus.[22] The Canadair CP-107 Argus of the Royal Canadian Air Force is named in honor of both the hundred eyed Argus Panoptes the "all seeing" and Odysseus' dog Argus who was the only one who identified Odysseus upon his return home.[23]

In science and technologyEdit

The Apollo 16 lunar module on the moon

The elements tantalum and niobium are always found together in nature, and have been named after the King Tantalus and his daughter Niobe.[24][25] The element promethium also draws its name from Greek mythology,[24][25] as does titanium, which was named after the titans who in mythology were locked away far underground, which reflected the difficulty of extracting titanium from ore.[26]

Oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau named his research ship, a former British Royal Navy minesweeper, RV Calypso after the sea nymph Calypso.[27] The ship later inspired the John Denver song "Calypso".[28]

The Trojan Horse, a seemingly benign gift that allowed entrance by a malicious force, gave its name to the computer hacking methodology called Trojans.[29]

Biology and medicineEdit

The medical profession is symbolized by the snake-entwined staff of the god of medicine, Asclepius. Today's medical professionals hold a similarly honored position as did the healer-priests of Asclepius.[30]

The Gaia hypothesis proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating, complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. The hypothesis was formulated by the scientist James Lovelock[31] and co-developed by the microbiologist Lynn Margulis[32] and was named after Gaia, the mother of the Greek gods.[33]

Astronomy and astrologyEdit

Many celestial bodies have been named after elements of Greek mythology.

Social scienceEdit

In psychoanalytic theory, the term "Oedipus complex", coined by Sigmund Freud, denotes the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrate upon a child's desire to sexually possess his/her mother, and kill his/her father.[38][39] In his later writings Freud postulated an equivalent Oedipus situation for infant girls, the sexual fixation being on the father. Though not advocated by Freud himself, the term 'Electra complex' is sometimes used in this context.[40]

A "Medea complex" is sometimes used to describe parents who murder or otherwise harm their children.[41]

In film and televisionEdit

A director providing instructions to actors during a film production of the story of Orpheus


  • The Battlestar Galactica franchise (particularly the 2004 television series)[42] developed from concepts that utilized Greek mythology.[43]
  • Heroes is a series that plays on the concept of the new generation of gods overthrowing the old.[44]
  • The television series Lost uses Greek mythology, primarily in its online Lost Experience.[42]
  • The television Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and its spin-off Xena: Warrior Princess are set in a fantasy version of ancient Greece and play with the legends, rewriting and updating them for a modern audience. [45][46][47]
  • The use of Greek mythology in children's television shows is credited with helping to bring "the great symbols of world literature and art" to a mass audience of children who would otherwise have limited exposure.[48] Children's programming has included items such as a recurring segment on CKLW-TV[clarification needed] where Don Kolke would be dressed up as Hercules and discuss fitness and Greek mythology.[49]
  • Netfix's original animated TV series Blood of Zeus featured Greek gods and goddess such as Hermes it premiered on 27 October 2020.


  • Amazons, prior to their appearance in American Hollywood films where they have been presented in "swimsuit-style costume without armor" and "western lingerie combined with various styles of 'tough' male" clothing, had been traditionally depicted in classical Greek warrior armor.[50]
A 15th century depiction of Amazons in battle armor
  • Jean Cocteau regarded Orpheus as "his myth," and used it as the basis for many projects, including Orphée.[51]
  • The film Orfeu Negro is Marcel Camus' reworking of the Cocteau film.[51]
  • The 2001 film Moulin Rouge! is also based on the Orpheus story,[52] but set in 1899, and containing modern pop music.[53]
  • The Disney production of Hercules (1997) was inspired by Greek myths, but "greatly modernizes the narrative" as it goes "to great lengths to spice up its mythic materials with wacky comedy and cheerfully anachronistic dialogue," which, Keith Booker says, is playing a part in the "slow erosion of historical sense."[54] Moreover, though the film depicts Greek mythology, the title character is named after the Roman hero, rather than the Greek "Heracles".

In gamesEdit

Tabletop Roleplaying GamesEdit

  • Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition Age of Heroes Campaign Sourcebook (1994).
  • Dungeons & Dragons HWR3: The Milenian Empire (1992). A Greek-inspired country within the Hollow World setting.
  • Dungeons & Dragons Mythic Odysseys of Theros (2020). Based on the Greek-inspired Theros setting from the Magic: The Gathering collectible card game.

Video GamesEdit

  • The 1988 arcade game Altered Beast is set in Ancient Greece and follows a player character resurrected by Zeus to rescue his daughter Athena from the ruler of the underworld, Neff.
  • The 1996 video game Wrath of the Gods is an adventure game set in mythical Greece, including an educational component where players can learn about Greek myths and history and see images of Greek art in cut-a-ways.[55]
  • The 2006 game Persona 3 includes many personae based on mythical Greek figures, using Tartarus in particular as the game's main dungeon.
  • In 2003, GameSpy remarked that the 1986 video game Kid Icarus follows a trajectory similar to its namesake, Icarus, who had escaped imprisonment when his father created wings from feathers and wax.[56] The same could be said of the sequel, Kid Icarus: Uprising.
  • The God of War franchise of video games is loosely based on Greek mythology, with the main character being named after Kratos (though not the same character).[57] The video game Kratos is a warrior from Sparta and the son of King of the Greek Gods, Zeus and is the personification of power. The series follows Kratos, who initially serves the Gods and later becomes a God himself but later goes on a path of vengeance against them after they betray and try to kill him.
  • Koei Tecmo's Warriors Orochi 4 follows a theme of mythology, and is set with combination between Asian Mythology, three kingdoms era, Japanese Warring States period, and Greek Mythology. Characters of this game are also focused in Greek Mythology, such as Zeus, Athena, Perseus, and Ares.[58]
  • The Ubisoft game Assassin's Creed Odyssey is set in the mythological history of the Peloponnesian War. The game features a DLC pack titled "Fate of Atlantis" in which Hermes appears, revealing himself to be a member of the precursor race, the Isu.
  • The 2020 game Hades incorporates gods and other figures of Greek mythology into narrative as a "dysfunctional family", which the player learns as they guide their character Zagreus to leave his father Hades and battle out of the underworld with the help of the other Olympian gods.[59]
  • In the 2002 Ensemble Studios game Age of Mythology, Greek mythology plays a large role. The Greek culture can utilize creatures from Greek mythology such as the cyclopses, chimeras, and centaurs in combat, and worship twelve different Greek gods such as Ares, Poseidon, or Hephaestus, gaining different advantages depending on the chosen god. The main campaign, which centers around an original character named Arkantos, features figures from many Greek mythological tales, with Chiron and Ajax playing the greatest roles among the Greek heroes.[60][61]

In marketingEdit

  • Corporations have used images and concepts from Greek mythology in their logos and in specific advertisements.

In painting and sculptureEdit

Particularly starting in the Renaissance, artists across Europe produced thousands of works of art depicting the Greek deities and their myths, for reasons ranging from the erudite to the political to the erotic. In particular, in certain periods it was permissible to depict pagan deities nude when it would have been scandalous to so depict a human model or character.

Romans would frequently keep statuary of the Greek god Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and pleasure, in their homes to use as a method of sanctioning relaxation without "any intellectual demands."[66]

Medusa's likeness has been featured by numerous artists including Leonardo da Vinci, Peter Paul Rubens, Pablo Picasso, Auguste Rodin and Benvenuto Cellini.[67]

In literatureEdit

Percy Shelley's work translating the poem Prometheus Unbound (depicted here by Joseph Severn) also helped inspire Mary Shelley to write Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus

Some stories in the Arabian Nights, such as the story of Sinbad blinding a giant, are thought to have been inspired by Greek myths.[68]

In 1816, Percy Shelley had been working on a translation of Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound for Lord Byron.[69] That summer, Shelley and his lover, Mary Godwin, as well as others, stayed with Lord Byron in Switzerland. As a contest, Byron suggested that they each write a ghost story. Mary, who would eventually adopt the name Mary Shelley, began writing her Gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, which was declared the winner of the contest.[70][71] The fact that she overtly subtitled the novel emphasizes Shelley's inspiration from the story of Prometheus, drawing particular attention to the "metaphorical parallels."[72]

In Irish literature, writers such as Seamus Heaney have used the Greek myths to "intertextualize" the actions of the British Government.[73]

Andrew Lang rewrote the tale of Perseus as the anonymous "The Terrible Head" in The Blue Fairy Book.[74]

In C. S. Lewis's retelling of Cupid and Psyche, Till We Have Faces, the narrator is Psyche's sister.[75]Roberta Gellis's Shimmering Splendor is a retelling of Cupid and Psyche.[76][unreliable source?]

In poetryEdit

A draft of the Keat's poem, Endymion.

The Italian poet Dante Alighieri used characters from the legend of Troy in his Divine Comedy, placing the Greek heroes in hell to show his contempt for their actions.[8] Poets of the Renaissance began to widely write about Greek mythology, and "elicited as much praise for borrowing or reworking" such material as they did for truly original work.[8] The poet John Milton used figures from classical mythology to "further Christianity: to teach a Christian moral or illustrate a Christian virtue."[8][77] Euphrosyne, Hymen and Hebe appear in his L'Allegro.[78] Works of Alexander Pope, such as "The Rape of the Lock", parody classical works, even as the income from his translations of Homer allowed him to become "the first English writer to earn a living solely through his literature."[8]

In Ode to a Nightingale, John Keats rejects "charioted by Bacchus and his pards."[79] In his poem "Endymion", the "song of the Indian Maid" recounts how "Bacchus and his crew" interrupted the maid in her solitude.[80] He titled an 1898 narrative poem Lamia.[81]

Alfred, Lord Tennyson's "Oenone" is her lament that Paris deserted her for Helen.[82]

When poets of the German Romantic tradition, such as Friedrich Schiller, wrote about the Greek gods, their works were frequently "erotically charged," as they were "openly sensual and hedonistic."[83]

In "The Waste Land", T. S. Eliot incorporates a range of elements and inspirations from Greek mythology to pop music to Elizabethan history to create a "tour-de-force exposition of Western culture, from the elite to the folk to the utterly primitive."[84] The work of Indian poet Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was heavily influenced by Greek mythology.[85]

Nina Kosman published a book of poems inspired by Greek myths created by poets of the twentieth century from around the world which she intended to show not only the "durability" of the stories but how they are interpreted by "modern sensibility."[86]

In theatreEdit

Clio-Danae Othoneou as Medea in a 2005 production in Epidaurus

In children's and young-adult literatureEdit

The Midas myth, from Nathaniel Hawthorne's A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys. Illustration by Walter Crane, published 1893.
The rainbow effect frequently seen at Niagara Falls had inspired the use of "Iris", the goddess of the rainbow, for local geographical features
Hydra the Revenge roller coaster
  • In the 19th century, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote children's versions of the Greek myths,[96] which he intended to "entirely revolutionize the whole system of juvenile literature."[97] His work, along with the works of Bulfinch and Kingsley, have been credited with "recast[ing] Greek mythology into a genteel Victorian subject.[97]"
  • The Percy Jackson & the Olympians series by Rick Riordan follows Percy Jackson as the son of Poseidon.[98] Riordan states that he created the character of Percy when trying to tell a story to help his son who has ADHD get interested in reading. In the stories, Percy's ADHD characteristics are explained as being caused by his Olympian blood, thus Riordan was uses Greek mythology "as it has always been used: to explain something that is difficult to understand."[99] Riordan continues exploring Greek mythology in his subsequent series The Heroes of Olympus and The Trials of Apollo, the latter being in the perspective of the Greek god Apollo.

In comics and graphic novelsEdit

In geography, architecture, and other constructionsEdit

  • At Niagara Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls had previously been called Iris Falls,[102] and Goat Island had previously been called Iris Island[103] as namesakes of the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris, because of the rainbow effects that appear in the mists at the falls.[104] A local newspaper which was published from 1846-1854 was also called The Iris, and the publication The Daily Iris became the Bingham Daily Republican.[105]
  • Francisco de Orellana gave the Amazon river its name after reporting pitched battles with tribes of female warriors, whom he likened to the Amazons.[107]
  • The original interior of the Glyptothek, the first public sculpture museum, was adorned with frescoes of Norse mythology by Peter Cornelius and his students which provided a "lively dialogue" between the building and its contents. When the building was repaired after war-time damage, the frescoes were not restored.[108]

In musicEdit

Rejection of useEdit

During the Middle Ages, writers disdained the use of "pagan" influences such as Greek mythology which were seen to be a "slight to Christianity."[8] From a current cultural perspective, the Greek Orthodox metropolitan Agustinos Kantiotis has denounced the use of Greek mythology such as the use of Hermes on a postage stamp and the incorporation of images from Greek mythology into universities' logos and buildings.[120]

Within the cultures of Latin America, beginning in the 19th Century, the inspiration for culture has been dominated by elements from the Native American cultural myths, rather than those of the Greco-Roman inspiration.[4]

Greek women poets of the modern era; such as Maria Polydouri, Pavlina Pamboudi, Myrtiotissa, Melissanthi and Rita Boumi-Pappa; rarely use mythological references, which Christopher Robinson attributes to the "problem of gender roles, both inside and outside the myths."[121]

Martin Winter says that the idea that many commentaries about the widespread use of Greek myths throughout Western culture does not take into account the vast difference between what a modern viewer takes from the story and what it would have meant to an ancient Greek.[122]

See alsoEdit

The myth of the titan Cronus eating his children was the subject of works by Rubens (above) and Francisco de Goya (below)[123]
The champion Thoroughbred horse, Poseidon, had 11 wins as a 3-year-old racer. In Greek mythology, the god Poseidon was credited with the creation of horses.[124]




  1. ^ Schwartz, Vanessa R.; Przyblyski, Jeannene M. (2004). The Nineteenth-century Visual Culture Reader. Psychology Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 9780415308663. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  2. ^ Roger D. Woodard, ed. (2007-11-12). The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521845205. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  3. ^ Burn, Lucilla (1990). Greek Myths. University of Texas Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780292727489. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  4. ^ a b Fong, Timothy P. (2008-04-30). Ethnic Studies Research: Approaches and Perspectives. Rowman Altamira. pp. 281–. ISBN 9780759111424. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  5. ^ Batchelor, Stephen (2011-02-15). The Ancient Greeks For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119998143. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
  6. ^ Garland, Robert (2008-12-30). Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks. ABC-CLIO. pp. 306–. ISBN 9780313358159. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b Clark, Matthew (2012-03-02). Exploring Greek Myth. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 148–. ISBN 9781444362138. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Osborn, Kevin; Burgess, Dana (1998). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Classical Mythology. Penguin. p. 270. ISBN 9780028623856. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  9. ^ Katsari, Constantina; Lightfoot, Christopher S; Özme, Adil (2013-01-30). The Amorium Mint and the Coin Finds: Amorium Reports 4. Akademie Verlag. pp. 38–. ISBN 9783050058283. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
  10. ^ Morales, Helen (2007-08-23). Classical Mythology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 9780192804761. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  11. ^ "Cold, hard cash may soon be dead & buried". The Budapest Times. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  12. ^ Young, Alfred F.; Nash, Gary B.; Ray Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation (First ed.). New York, N.Y.: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0307-27110-5.
  13. ^ The Classical World. Classical Association of the Atlantic States. 1952.
  14. ^ New England Stamp Monthly. 1913. pp. 35–.
  15. ^ Boy Scouts of America (July 1936). Boys' Life. Boy Scouts of America, Inc. pp. 46–. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  16. ^ Berhow, Mark (2012-09-18). US Strategic and Defensive Missile Systems 1950-2004. Osprey Publishing. pp. 18–. ISBN 9781782004363. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  17. ^ Urwin, Gregory J. W. (2002). Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 9780803295629. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  18. ^ Neeser, Robert Wilden (1921). Ship Names of the United States Navy: Their Meaning and Origin. Moffat, Yard and Company. pp. 16. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  19. ^ Brown, Anthony Gary; White, Colin (2006). The Patrick O'Brian Muster Book: Persons, Animals, Ships And Cannon in the Aubrey-Maturin Sea Novels. McFarland. pp. 28–. ISBN 9780786424825. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  20. ^ Bishop, Chris; Chant, Chris (2004-10-15). Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and Their Aircraft. Zenith Imprint. pp. 48–. ISBN 9780760320051. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  21. ^ "HMAS Psyche". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  22. ^ "HMAS Cerberus". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  23. ^ Pigott, Peter (2005-03-01). On Canadian Wings: A Century of Flight. Dundurn. pp. 167–. ISBN 9781550029963. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  24. ^ a b Emsley, John (2011-08-25). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. pp. 355–. ISBN 9780199605637. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  25. ^ a b Quadbeck-Seeger, Hans-Jürgen (2008-01-08). World of the Elements. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 51–. ISBN 9783527611584. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  26. ^ Leyens, Christoph; Peters, Manfred (2006-03-06). Titanium and Titanium Alloys. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–. ISBN 9783527605200. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  27. ^ Olmstead, Kathleen (2008). Jacques Cousteau: A Life Under the Sea. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 56–. ISBN 9781402760587. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  28. ^ Kumar, Satish; Whitefield, Freddie (2007). Visionaries: The 20th Century's 100 Most Important Inspirational Leaders. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 30–. ISBN 9781933392530. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  29. ^ Ec-Council (2009-09-07). Threats and Defensive Mechanisms: Ec-council Press. Cengage Learning. pp. 1–. ISBN 9781435483613. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  30. ^ Ashley, Benedict M.; O'Rourke, Kevin D. (2002-08-01). Ethics of Health Care: An Introductory Textbook. Georgetown University Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780878403752. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  31. ^ Lovelock, J.E. (1 August 1972). "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment. Elsevier. 6 (8): 579–580. Bibcode:1972AtmEn...6..579L. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5. ISSN 1352-2310.
  32. ^ Lovelock, James E.; Margulis, Lynn (1 February 1974). "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis". Tellus. Series A. Stockholm: International Meteorological Institute. 26 (1–2): 2–10. Bibcode:1974TellA..26....2L. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x. ISSN 1600-0870.
  33. ^ Macauley, David (1996). Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology. Guilford Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781572300583. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  34. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia: The Ultimate Desk Reference. Merriam-Webster. 2000-10-01. pp. 1445–. ISBN 9780877790174. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  35. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
  36. ^ Byrnes, Mark E. (1994). Politics and Space: Image Making by Nasa. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780275949501. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  37. ^ Tichi, Cecelia (2004). Embodiment of a Nation: Human Form in American Places. Harvard University Press. pp. 128–. ISBN 9780674013612. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  38. ^ Rycroft, Charles. 1995. A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (2nd ed.). London.
  39. ^ Childers, Joseph, and Gary Hentzi, eds. 1995. Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism. New York: Columbia University Press.
  40. ^ Freud S. An Outline of Psychoanalysis, pp. 193–194.
  41. ^ Lucire, Yolande. 1993. "Medea: Perspectives on a Multicide." Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 25(2):74–82. Archived from the original 2010-02-05. ISSN 0045-0618.
  42. ^ a b López, Antonio (2008-05-01). Mediacology: A Multicultural Approach to Media Literacy in the 21st Century. Peter Lang. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780820497075. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  43. ^ Storm, Jo (2007-10-01). Frak You!: The Ultimate Unauthorized Guide to Battlestar Galactica. ECW Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 9781550227895. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  44. ^ Perlich, John R.; Whitt, David (2010). Millennial Mythmaking: Essays on the Power of Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, Films and Games. McFarland. pp. 144–. ISBN 9780786445622. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  45. ^ Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1075–7. ISBN 9780313329531. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  46. ^ Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1355–. ISBN 9780313329531. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  47. ^ Newcomb, Horace (2004). Encyclopedia of television: A-C. CRC Press. pp. 2603–. ISBN 9781579584115. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  48. ^ Singer, Jerome Leonard; Singer, Dorothy G. (1981). Television, Imagination, and Aggression: A Study of Preschoolers' Play and Television-viewing Patterns. Psychology Press. pp. 12–. ISBN 9780898590609. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  49. ^ Kiska, Tim; Golick, Ed (2010-04-21). Detroit Television. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780738577074. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  50. ^ Schubart, Rikke (2007). Super Bitches and Action Babes: The Female Hero in Popular Cinema, 1970-2006. McFarland. pp. 35–. ISBN 9780786429240. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  51. ^ a b Hart, Stephen M. (2004). Companion to Latin American Film. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 43–. ISBN 9781855661066. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  52. ^ Billboard. 113. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. December 18, 2001. pp. 79. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  53. ^ Krenn, Sylvia (March 2012). Postmodern and Oriental Elements in 'Moulin Rouge!': Film Analysis. Diplomarbeiten Agentur. pp. 8–. ISBN 9783863411442. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  54. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2010). Disney, Pixar, and the Hidden Messages of Children's Films. ABC-CLIO. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780313376726. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  55. ^ Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. July 30, 1994. p. 70. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  56. ^ William Cassidy (Sep 14, 2003). "GameSpy: Kid Icarus - Page 1". GameSpy. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  57. ^ Stang, Bendik; Osterholt, Morten A.; Hoftun, Erik (2007-10-28). The Book of Games Volume 2: The Ultimate Reference to Videogames. Book of Games. pp. 120–. ISBN 9788299737821. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  58. ^ "無双OROCHI3 公式サイト". 無双OROCHI3 公式サイト (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  59. ^ Francis, Bryant (January 17, 2019). "Supergiant's fourth outing Hades introduces a more mature, organized dev process". Gamasutra. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  60. ^
  61. ^,review-2161.html
  62. ^ Bowcher, Dr Wendy L. (2012-07-24). Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 107. ISBN 9780230357808. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  63. ^ Jandt, Fred E. (2003-08-14). Intercultural Communication: A Global Reader. SAGE. pp. 273–. ISBN 9780761928997. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  64. ^ Wire, Elinor De (2002). The Florida Night Sky: A Guide to Observing from Dusk Til Dawn. Pineapple Press Inc. p. 186. ISBN 9781561642380. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  65. ^ Nardo, Don (2011-08-01). The Epics of Greek Mythology. Capstone. p. 29. ISBN 9780756544829. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  66. ^ Kemp, Martín (2000). The Oxford History of Western Art. Oxford University Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780198600121. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  67. ^ Wilk, Stephen R. Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon, June 26, 2000, Front matter, ISBN 0-19-512431-6.
  68. ^ Irwin, Robert (2004-01-17). The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 216. ISBN 9781860649837. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  69. ^ Mellor, Anne K. (2012-08-06). Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters. Psychology Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 9780415901475. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  70. ^ Angelo, Joseph A. (2007). Robotics: A Reference Guide to the New Technology. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 81–. ISBN 9781573563376. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  71. ^ Joshua, Essaka (2008). Mary Shelley: 'Frankenstein'. Humanities-Ebooks. pp. 23–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  72. ^ Joshi, S. T. (2007). Icons of Horror and the Supernatural: An Encyclopedia of Our Worst Nightmares. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 342–. ISBN 9780313337819. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  73. ^ McLeod, John (2007). The Routledge Companion to Postcolonial Studies. Routledge. pp. 115–. ISBN 9781134344024. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  74. ^ Matthew Hodgart, "The Witches’ Secrets" December 21, 1967
  75. ^ Schakel, Peter. (2003) Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold. Retrieved on August 5, 2008.
  76. ^ "Shimmering Splendor Archived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine"
  77. ^ Osgood, Charles Grosvenor (1900). The classical mythology of Milton's English poems. William C. Brown Reprint Library n. d. pp. 9–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  78. ^ "Milton, L'Allegro and Il Penseroso"
  79. ^ John Keats, Ode To A Nightingale
  80. ^ "John Keats: Poetry, Song of the Indian Maid, from Endymion"
  81. ^ Keats's poem Lamia
  82. ^ "RPO -- Alfred, Lord Tennyson Oenone Archived 2011-05-18 at the Wayback Machine"
  83. ^ Murray, Christopher John (2004). Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850: L-Z. Index. Taylor & Francis. pp. 778–. ISBN 9781579584221. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  84. ^ Bell, Michael; Poellner, Peter (1998). Myth and the Making of Modernity: The Problem of Grounding in Early Twentieth-Century Literature. Rodopi. pp. 164–. ISBN 9789042005839. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  85. ^ Singh, Kanwar Dinesh (2004-01-01). New Explorations In Indian English Poetry. Sarup & Sons. pp. 1–. ISBN 9788176254458. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  86. ^ Kosman, Nina (2001-03-22). Gods and Mortals: Modern Poems on Classical Myths. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 9780195133417. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  87. ^ "The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21). Vol. 6. The Drama to 1642, Part Two"
  88. ^ Shamas, Laura Annawyn (2007). "We Three": The Mythology of Shakespeare's Weird Sisters. Peter Lang. pp. 34–. ISBN 9780820479330. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  89. ^ "As You Like It: A Study Guide"
  90. ^ Lloyd-Jones, Hugh (1991). Greek in a Cold Climate. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 155–. ISBN 9780389209676. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  91. ^ Gassner, John (2002-05-09). The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 201–. ISBN 9780486420646. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  92. ^ Scott, Jill (2005). Electra After Freud: Myth And Culture. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801442612. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  93. ^ Miller, Ann Stamp; Miller, G. Ann Stamp (2004-05-30). The Cultural Politics of the German Democratic Republic: The Voices of Wolf Biermann, Christa Wolf, and Heiner Müller. Universal-Publishers. pp. 156–. ISBN 9781581124149. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  94. ^ "The Architects is a very modern play steeped in Greek mythology". Metro. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  95. ^ McPhee, Ryan (27 November 2018). "Hadestown Musical Sets Broadway Dates and Theatre". Playbill. Retrieved 2018-12-14.
  96. ^ Reid, Robin Anne (2009). Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy. ABC-CLIO. pp. 261–. ISBN 9780313335914. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  97. ^ a b Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox; Pfeiffer, Julie (2002). Children's Literature. Yale University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 9780300094893. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  98. ^ Reid, Rob (2009). Reid's Read-Alouds: Selections for Children and Teens. ALA Editions. pp. 77–. ISBN 9780838997512. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  99. ^ Graves, Robert (2012-04-24). The Greek Myths (Classics Deluxe ed.). Penguin. pp. 14–. ISBN 9781101580509. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  100. ^ "Annotations to the Girl Genius Comic"
  101. ^ Littleton, C. Scott (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology: Gorgons-Inanna. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 688–. ISBN 9780761475590. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  102. ^ Tieck, Sarah (2008-01-01). Niagara Falls. ABDO. pp. 7–. ISBN 9781599289380. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  103. ^ Worcester, Joseph Emerson (1823). A Geographical Dictionary Or Universal Gazetteer, Ancient and Modern. Cummings & Hilliard. pp. 663–. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  104. ^ Olmanson, Eric D. (2007). The Future City on the Inland Sea: A History of Imaginative Geographies of Lake Superior. Ohio University Press. pp. 50–. ISBN 9780821417072. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  105. ^ Place, J. H. French, Frank (1995). Gazetteer of the State o... Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 452–. ISBN 9780806314563. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  106. ^ Moores, Eldridge M.; Twiss, Robert J. (1995-11-15). Tectonics. Macmillan. pp. 360–. ISBN 9780716724377. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  107. ^ Britannica
  108. ^ Watkin, David (2010-06-09). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. pp. 484–. ISBN 9781856694599. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  109. ^ "Wearing its holiday finest, former Bass Mansion on USF campus open to public -". Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  110. ^ Moss, Roger W.; Crane, Tom (2008-10-10). Historic Landmarks of Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 9780812241068. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  111. ^ "'Two leaves' adorns facade of renovated MGR memorial". The Hindu. December 10, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  112. ^ Julie Mariappan (Sep 12, 2012). "MGR Memorial to wear a new look with added wings". The Times of India. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  113. ^ Paulsen, Emily; Paulsen, Faith; O'Toole, Christine H. (2007-08-01). Insiders' Guide Fun With the Family Pennsylvania: Hundreds of Ideas for Day Trips With the Kids. Globe Pequot. pp. 66–. ISBN 9780762743971. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  114. ^ Littleton, C. Scott (2005-01-01). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 600–. ISBN 9780761475590. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
  115. ^ Morford, Mark Percy Owen; Lenardon, Robert J. (1999). Classical Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 9780195143386. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  116. ^ Schickele, Peter (1976). The definitive biography of P. D. Q. Bach, 1807-1742?. Random House. ISBN 9780394465364. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  117. ^ "Slough Feg - Atavism - 2005 - Cruz Del Sur". 27 June 2005. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  118. ^ a b Ewans, Michael (2007-10-30). Opera from the Greek: Studies in the Poetics of Appropriation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 118–. ISBN 9780754660996. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  119. ^ "Mother of Muses: From Mnemosyne to Elvis, Talking Heads to Leonard Cohen | Untold Dylan". Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  120. ^ Makrides, Vasilios (2009). Hellenic temples and Christian churches: a concise history of the religious cultures of Greece from antiquity to the present. NYU Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 9780814795682. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  121. ^ Christopher Robinson (1996). "Helen or Penelope? Women writers, myth and the problem of gender roles". In C. A.: Festschrift Trypanis, Peter A.. Mackridge (ed.). Ancient Greek Myth in Modern Greek Poetry: Essays in Memory of C.A. Trypanis. p. 109. ISBN 9780714647517.
  122. ^ Winkler, Martin M. (2001). Classical Myth and Culture. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 9780195130041. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  123. ^ C Scott Littleton, ed. (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 339–. ISBN 9780761475590.
  124. ^ Alexander, Heather; Hamilton, Meredith (2011-05-04). A Child's Introduction to Greek Mythology: The Stories of the Gods, Goddesses, Heroes, Monsters, and Other Mythical Creatures. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 9781579128678. Retrieved 15 December 2012.


  1. ^ Walsh, J. (2021). The Poppies of Troy. Kendall Hunt. pp. 216-. ISBN 9781792447143.