Greek royal family
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The Greek royal family (Greek: Ελληνική Βασιλική Οικογένεια) is a branch of the House of Glücksburg that reigned in Greece from 1863 to 1924 and again from 1935 to 1973. Its first monarch was George I, the second son of King Christian IX of Denmark. He and his successors styled themselves "Kings of the Hellenes".
After the overthrow in 1862 of the first king of the independent Greek state, Otto of Bavaria, a plebiscite in Greece was initiated on 19 November 1862[note 1], with the results announced in February the following year[note 2], in support of adopting Prince Alfred of the United Kingdom, later Duke of Edinburgh, to reign as king of the country. The candidacy of Prince Alfred was rejected by the Great Powers. The London Conference of 1832 had prohibited any of the Great Powers' ruling families from accepting the crown of Greece, while Queen Victoria was opposed to such a prospect.
A search for other candidates ensued, and eventually, Prince William of Denmark, of the Danish Glücksburg Dynasty, the second son of King Christian IX and younger brother of the new Princess of Wales, was appointed king. The Greek Parliament unanimously approved on 18 March 1863[note 3] the ascension to the Greek throne of the prince, then aged 17, as King of the Hellenes under the regnal name of George I. George arrived in Greece in October 1863.
George I married Grand Duchess Olga Constaninovna of Russia, and they had seven surviving children. After a reign of almost fifty years, George I was succeeded by his eldest son, Constantine I, who had married, in 1913, Princess Sophia of Prussia, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and sister of Kaiser Wilhelm II. In turn, all three of Constantine's sons, George II, Alexander and Paul, would occupy the throne.
The dynasty reigned in Greece during the Balkan Wars, World War I, World War II (during which Greece experienced occupation by the Axis), the Greek Civil War, and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.
Following the National Schism during World War I and the subsequent Asia Minor Disaster, the monarchy was deposed in March 1924 and replaced by the Second Hellenic Republic. Between 1924 and 1935 there were in Greece twenty-three changes of government, a dictatorship, and thirteen coups d'etat. In October 1935, General Georgios Kondylis, a former Venizelist, overthrew the government and arranged for a plebiscite to end the republic. On 3 November 1935, the official tally showed that 98% of the votes supported the restoration of the monarchy. The balloting was not secret, and participation was compulsory. As Time described it at the time, "As a voter, one could drop into the ballot box a blue vote for George II and please General George Kondylis, or one could cast a red ballot for the Republic and get roughed up."  George II returned to the Greek throne on 25 November 1935.
On 4 August 1936, the King endorsed the establishment of a dictatorship led by veteran army officer Ioannis Metaxas, signing decrees that dissolved the parliament, banned political parties, abolished the constitution, and purported to create the "Third Hellenic Civilization." An Index of banned books during that period included the works of Plato.
George II followed the Greek government in exile after the German invasion of Greece in 1941 and returned to the throne in 1946, after a referendum that resulted in the restoration of constitutional monarchy. He died in 1947 and was succeeded by his brother Paul. The new King reigned from the time of Greek civil war until his death in 1964, and was succeeded by his son, Constantine II.
On 21 April 1967, the elected government of Greece was overthrown by a group of middle-ranking army officers led by Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos, and a military dictatorship was established. The military junta formed a new government that was sworn in by Constantine II. On 13 December 1967, the King launched a counter-coup that failed and he, together with his family, fled to Rome and soon after to London.
The dictatorship nominally retained the monarchy but on 1 June 1973, Constantine II was declared "deposed" and Papadopoulos appointed himself "President of the Republic." Some two months later, on 29 July 1973, the military regime held a referendum whose official result confirmed, according to the junta, the abolition of the monarchy.
After the July 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the dictatorship fell. The military handed power over to Konstantinos Karamanlis, a conservative[note 4] politician who had been prime minister in the 1950s and early 60s. Karamanlis formed a "government of national unity" and held a constitutional referendum on 8 December 1974. The voters confirmed the abolition of the monarchy by a vote of 69% to 31% and the establishment of a parliamentary democracy in Greece.
In 2013, after being declared personae non gratae in the 1980s, having the palaces of the family and other estates expropriated in 1994, and then their passports annulled, Constantine and his wife Anne-Marie were once again living in Greece.
As male-line descendants of King Christian IX of Denmark, members of the dynasty bear the title of Prince or Princess of Denmark and thus are traditionally referred to as "Princes" or "Princesses of Greece and Denmark".
- King Constantine II
- Queen Anne-Marie
- Crown Prince Pavlos, born on 20 May 1967
Crown Princess Marie-Chantal, born on 17 September 1968
- Prince Nikolaos, born on 1 October 1969
Princess Tatiana of Greece and Denmark, born 28 August 1980
- Prince Philippos, born on 26 April 1986
- Princess Alexia, born on 10 July 1965
- Princess Theodora, born on 9 June 1983
- Crown Prince Pavlos, born on 20 May 1967
The extended members of the Greek royal family are:
- Queen Sofía of Spain, eldest daughter of King Pavlos I and sister of King Constantine II
- Princess Irene, youngest child of King Pavlos I and younger sister of King Constantine II
- Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (grandson of King George I and thus King Constantine II's first cousin-once-removed and his wife). The Duke discontinued using his Greek and Danish titles shortly before his 1947 marriage.
- Prince Philip's family form the senior part of the British Royal Family.
- Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark and Marina, his consort (grandson of King George I and King Constantine II's first cousin-once-removed and his wife)
- Princess Alexandra, born on 15 October 1968
- Princess Olga Isabelle, Duchess of Apulia, born on 17 November 1971
- The descendants of the daughters of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (Prince Philip's sisters) which were: Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark, Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark (1906–1969) and Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark
- The descendants of Princess Katherine of Greece and Denmark (1913 – 2007)
- The descendants of Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark (1910 – 1989)
- The descendants of King George's children not stated above, including: Princess Alexandra of Greece, Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and Princess Maria of Greece and Denmark
- The descendants of Helen of Greece and Denmark, who married king Carol II of Romania
Family tree of membersEdit
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|King George I||Queen Olga|
|King Constantine I||Queen Sophia||Prince Christopher||Princess Françoise|
|Queen Frederica||King Pavlos||Marina, consort of Prince Michael*||Prince Michael*|
|Queen Sofía of Spain*||The King||The Queen||Princess Irene*||Princess Alexandra, Mrs Mirzayantz*||The Duchess of Apulia*|
|Princess Alexia||The Crown Prince||The Crown Princess||Prince Nikolaos||Princess Tatiana||Princess Theodora||Prince Philippos|
|Princess Maria-Olympia||Prince Constantine-Alexios||Prince Achileas-Andreas||Prince Odysseas-Kimon||Prince Aristidis-Stavros|
* Member of the extended royal family
- "Greece:The Rise of Nationalism". MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
- "Constitutional History". Hellenic Parliament. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Clogg, Richard (1979). A Short History of Modern Greece. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521295178.
- Van der Kiste, John (1994). Kings of the Hellenes. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-0525-5.
- "By the Grace of God", TIME, 18 November 1935
- The Third Hellenic Civilization, The Metaxas Project, 15 December 2012
- "Italy Tried to Invade Greece in World War II: It Was a Disaster", The National Interest, 28 July 2017
- "Greece : Aftermath of the Civil War". MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
- "Greece's former king goes home after 46-year exile" by Helena Smith, The Guardian, 15 December 2013
- Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XV, C.A. Starke Verlag, 1997, p.20.
- Greek Royal family official website