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The Great Swamp Fight or the Great Swamp Massacre was a crucial battle fought during King Philip's War between colonial militia of New England and the Narragansett tribe in December 1675. It was fought near the villages of Kingston and West Kingston in present-day South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The combined force of the New England militia, including 150 Pequots, inflicted a huge number of Narragansett casualties, including many hundred women and children. The battle has been described as "one of the most brutal and lopsided military encounters in all of New England's history."[2] Since the 1930s, Narragansett and Wampanoag people commemorate the battle annually, in a ceremony initiated by Narragansett-Wampanoag scholar Princess Red Wing.

Great Swamp Massacre
Part of King Philip's War
Great Swamp Fight painting.jpg
A painting of the Great Swamp Fight.
Date December 19, 1675
Location South Kingstown, Rhode Island
Result New England victory
Belligerents
New England pine flag.svg New England Confederation
Pequot
Mohegan
Narragansett
Commanders and leaders
Governor Josiah Winslow (Commander-in-chief)[1]
Major Samuel Appleton (Massachusetts commander)[1]
Governor Robert Treat (Connecticut commander)[1]
Major William Bradford (Plymouth commander)[1]
Uncas (Mohegan Sachem)
Canonchet (Narragansett Sachem)
Strength
1,000 militia
150 warriors
1,000 warriors
1 fort
Casualties and losses
~70 killed
~150 wounded
~ 97 warriors killed, plus 300-1000 women, children and elderly[2]
~300 captured
1 fort destroyed[3]

Contents

Historical contextEdit

The Pokanoket Indians had helped the original pilgrim settlers survive,[4] under the leadership of Massasoit. His sons Wamsutta and Metacom took on the English names of Alexander and Philip, respectively. Alexander became sachem of the Pokanokets on the death of his father, but he died within a year and Philip succeeded him in 1662.

Philip began laying plans to attack the colonists in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and he slowly built a confederation of neighboring Indian tribes. He also gathered muskets and gunpowder for the eventual attack, but only in small numbers in order that the colonists would not be alarmed.[5]

Several Wampanoag men attacked and killed colonists in Swansea, Massachusetts on June 20, 1675, and that began King Philip's War. The Indians laid siege to the town, then destroyed it five days later and killed several more people. On June 27, 1675 (O.S.) (July 7, 1675 N.S.; See Old Style and New Style dates), a full eclipse of the moon occurred in the New England area.[6] Various tribes in New England looked at it as a good omen for attacking the colonists.[7] Officials from the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies responded quickly to the attacks on Swansea; on June 28, they sent a punitive military expedition that destroyed the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope (modern Bristol, Rhode Island).

The Indians waged successful attacks on settlements in Massachusetts and Connecticut, but Rhode Island was spared at the beginning, as the Narragansetts remained officially neutral.[8] In October, the Indians struck again with raids on the towns of Hatfield, Northampton, and Springfield, where almost the entire settlement was burned to the ground. As winter set in, the attacks diminished.

On November 2, 1675, Josiah Winslow led a combined force of over 1,000 colonial militia, including about 150 Pequot and Mohegan Indians, against the Narragansetts living around Narragansett Bay. The Narragansett tribe had not yet been directly involved in the war, but they had sheltered many of King Philip's men, women, and children, and several of their warriors had participated in Indian raiding parties.[9] The colonists distrusted the Narragansetts and feared that the tribe would join King Philip's cause in the spring, which caused great concern due to the tribe's location.

On November 2, Plymouth Colony governor Josiah Winslow led a combined force of colonial militia against the Narragansett tribe. They burned several abandoned Narragansett villages as they marched through the cold winter around Narragansett Bay, as the tribe had retreated to a large fort in the center of a swamp near Kingston.

 
"Philip. King of Mount Hope", caricature by Paul Revere, illustration from the 1772 edition of Benjamin Church's "The Entertaining History of King Philip's War."

There was at least one colonial resident who fought on the Indian side of the battle. Records indicate that Joshua Tefft wounded Captain Nathaniel Seely of Connecticut (son of Captain Robert Seeley), who subsequently died. An Indian spy reported that Joshua "did them good service & killed & wounded 5 or 6 English in that fight & before they would trust him he had killed a miller an English man at Narragansett and brought his scalpe to them." [10]

BattleEdit

On December 15, 1675, Narraganset warriors attacked Bull's Garrison and killed at least 15 people. One of the individuals to escape this attack was a 15 year-old boy named James Eldred. He survived a harrowing escape from the blockhouse and was pursued a considerable distance; he survived having a tomahawk thrown at him at close range and a hand-to-hand encounter with a Narraganset warrior. This occurred along what is now known as Indian Run Brook in Wakefield-Peacedale, Rhode Island.[11]

Four days later, the Great Swamp Battle took place on the bitterly cold and stormy day of December 19, 1675. The colonial militia from Plymouth Colony, Connecticut Colony, and Massachusetts Bay Colony were led to the main Narragansett settlement in South Kingstown, Rhode Island by an Indian guide named Indian Peter.[12] The massive fort occupied about 5 acres (20,000 m2) of land and was initially occupied by over a thousand people, but it was eventually overrun after a fierce fight. The settlement was burned, its inhabitants (including women and children) killed or evicted, and most of the tribe's winter stores destroyed. It is believed that at least 97 Narragansett warriors and 300-1,000 non-combatants were killed, though exact figures are unknown.[2]

Many of the warriors and their families escaped into the frozen swamp; hundreds more died there from wounds combined with the harsh conditions. The colonists lost many of their officers in this assault, and about 70 of their men were killed and nearly 150 more wounded. The dead and wounded colonial militiamen were evacuated to the settlements on Aquidneck Island in Narragansett Bay where they were buried or cared for by many of the Rhode Island colonists.[13]

 
Benjamin Church, the first American ranger.

AftermathEdit

The Great Swamp Fight was a critical blow to the Narragansett tribe from which they never fully recovered.[14] In April 1676, the Narragansetts were completely defeated when their chief sachem Canonchet was captured and executed. Female sachem Queen Quaiapen drowned on July 2, 1676 attempting to cross a river. Philip himself was shot and killed on August 12, 1676 by John Alderman, an Indian soldier in Benjamin Church's company.

Legacy and monumentEdit

 
The Great Swamp Fight Monument located in the Great Swamp State Management Area, West Kingston, Rhode Island

A memorial marker was placed at the presumed site of the battle in 1906. The rough granite shaft stands about 20 feet high on a mound, erected by the Rhode Island Society of Colonial Wars to commemorate this battle. Four roughly squared granite markers stand around the mound engraved with the names of the colonies which took part in the encounter; two tablets on opposite sides of the shaft give additional data. The markers are near West Kingston, Rhode Island.

 
The Great Swamp Fight roadside marker formerly located on Rhode Island Route 2 in West Kingston, Rhode Island

The dedication of the monument was attended by descendents of both sides of the battle.[15] The dedication speaker said of the monument, "We dedicate this rugged granite shaft, frost-riven from the native hills, untouched by the tool of man, as a fitting emblem of the rugged and unadorned Pilgrim and Puritan of 16 hundred and 75." Three members of the modern Narragansett tribe pulled the veil from the stone before the sky opened and the rain poured down.[16] The inscription states:

Attacked within their fort upon this island the Narragansett Indians made their last stand in King Philip’s War and were crushed by the united forces of the Massachusetts Connecticut and Plymouth Colonies in the “Great Swamp Fight” Sunday 19 December 1675. This record was placed by the Rhode Island Society of Colonial Wars 1906.

A second marker was placed there in 1916 which has since gone missing. The inscription was:

In memory of Major Samuel Appleton of Ipswich, Massachusetts who commanded the Massachusetts forces and led the victorious storming column at the Great Swamp Fight Dec. 19, 1675. This Tablet placed by the Rhode Island Historical Society 1916.

In the 1930s, Narraganssett-Wampanoag scholar Princess Red Wing initiated an annual commemorative ceremony at the site of the battle.[17]

Order of battle of the army of the United ColoniesEdit

The army of the United Colonies which fought at the Great Swamp Fight consisted of three regiments of unequal strength, each regiment containing companies raised from one of the three colonies.[18]

HeadquartersEdit

Commander - General Josiah Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony

Massachusetts RegimentEdit

Commander - Major Samuel Appleton

  • 1st Company - Major Samuel Appleton
  • 2nd Company - Captain Samuel Mosely
  • 3rd Company - Captain James Oliver
  • 4th Company - Captain Isaac Johnson
  • 5th Company - Captain Nathaniel Davenport
  • 6th Company - Captain Joseph Gardner
  • Cavalry troop - Captain Thomas Prentice

Plymouth RegimentEdit

Commander - Major William Bradford, Jr.

  • 1st Company - Captain Robert Barker
  • 2nd Company - Captain John Gorham

Connecticut RegimentEdit

Commander - Major Robert Treat

  • 1st Company - Captain John Gallup
  • 2nd Company - Captain Samuel Marshall
  • 3rd Company - Captain Nathaniel Seely
  • 4th Company - Captain Thomas Watts
  • 5th Company - Captain John Mason
  • Pequot Indian Company - Captain James Avery

Notable officers and Indian chiefsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Eric B. Schultz; Michael J. Tougias (2000). King Philip's War. Woodstock, VT: The Countryman Press. pp. 181–182. 
  2. ^ a b c Drake, James D. (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675-1676. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 119. ISBN 1-55849-224-0. 
  3. ^ http://www.historynet.com/blood-and-betrayal-king-philips-war.htm
  4. ^ Mayflower by Nathaniel Philbrick
  5. ^ http://burnpit.us/2012/12/great-swamp-fight-colonial-militia-assault-indian-stronghold
  6. ^ Moon Eclipse calculation [1] Accessed December 22, 2011
  7. ^ Leach, Douglas Edward; Flintlock and Tomahawk; p. 46; Parnassus Imprints, East Orleans, Massachusetts; 1954; ISBN 0-940160-55-2
  8. ^ http://minerdescent.com/2011/11/19/great-swamp-fight/
  9. ^ David Lindsay, PhD., Mayflower Bastard: A Stranger amongst the Pilgrims (St. Martins Press, New York, 2002) p. 205-206
  10. ^ http://www.westernrihistory.org/uploads/6/5/0/9/6509445/western_ri_newsletter_8-11.pdf
  11. ^ Jo Anne Butler. "The Great Swamp Fight". The Rebel Puritan. Retrieved 15 Oct 2017. 
  12. ^ "Letter of John Dudley, Narragansett Campaign and the Great Swamp Fight". 15 Dec 1675. Retrieved 15 Oct 2017. 
  13. ^ Axelrod, p. 104
  14. ^ "Flintlock and Tomahawk--New England in King Philip's War" by Douglas Edward Leach, New York: MacMillan, 1958, pg. 130-132
  15. ^ "Great Swamp Fight Monument, South Kingstown, Rhode Island". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 15 Oct 2017. 
  16. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=8jd1AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=great+swamp+fight+memorial&source=bl&ots=2AM4IpjLoR&sig=DkY0_jSLBan39tD-BARERIkOctg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JUnsUJLQE6y-0QHj1YGQDQ&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBTgK
  17. ^ Rubertone, Patricia. 2012. "Monuments and Sexual Politics in New England Indian Country", In The Archaeology of Colonialism Voss, Barbara L. & Conlin Casella, Eleanor. p. 245
  18. ^ http://minerdescent.com/2011/12/04/great-swamp-fight-regiments/#Staff
  19. ^ Josiah Pierce. A History of the town of Gorham, Maine. p. 169.
  20. ^ Hugh Davis McLellan, History of Gorham, Maine; Smith & Sale, printers; Portland, Maine 1903.

Further readingEdit

  • Church, Benjamin, as told to Thomas Church, The History of Philip's War, Commonly Called The Great Indian War of 1675 and 1676, edited by Samuel G. Drake,(Exeter, NH: J & B Williams, 1829); Facsimile Reprint by Heritage Books, Bowie, Maryland, 1989.
  • Mather, Increase, A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New-England (Boston, 1676; London, 1676).
  • ______. Relation of the Troubles Which Have Happened in New England by Reason of the Indians There, from the Year 1614 to the Year 1675 (Kessinger Publishing, [1677] 2003).
  • ______. The History of King Philip's War by the Rev. Increase Mather, D.D.; also, a history of the same war, by the Rev. Cotton Mather, D.D.; to which are added an introduction and notes, by Samuel G. Drake (Boston: Samuel G. Drake, 1862).
  • Leach, Douglas Edward, Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip's War; Parnassus Imprints, East Orleans, Massachusetts; 1954; ISBN 0-940160-55-2
  • Mandell, Daniel R. King Philip's War: Colonial Expansion, Native Resistance, and the End of Indian Sovereignty (Johns Hopkins University Press; 2010) 176 pages
  • Schultz, Eric B. and Michael J. Touglas, King Philip's War: The History and Legacy of America's Forgotten Conflict New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2000.
  • Zelner, Kyle F. A Rabble in Arms: Massachusetts Towns and Militiamen during King Philip's War (New York: New York University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-0814797341

External linksEdit